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Cell Cycle Notes

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Notes about Chromosomes and the cell cycle

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Cell Cycle Notes

  1. 1. Learning Objective: I can describe how cells divide and the different phases of the cell cycle.
  2. 2. What is the process cells undergo before they become specialized?
  3. 3.  Until the late 1600s, scientists used to think new cells came from Spontaneous Generation (nonliving things giving rise to living things)
  4. 4.  Francesco Redi discovered that maggots came from flies, not from decaying meat
  5. 5.  Microorganisms were discovered- which reopened debate about where living things come from
  6. 6.  Louis Pasteur proved that microorganisms came from other microorganisms
  7. 7.  All life comes from other life  Thanks Pasteur.
  8. 8.  Chromosomes- rod-shaped structures composed of DNA and proteins  DNA- the genetic code for organisms  Chromatin- a loosely coiled DNA strand  Chromatid- a single strand of coiled DNA (replicated, condensed chromosome)  Centromere- holds the two chromatids together
  9. 9. What are chromosomes? A. rod-shaped structures composed of DNA and proteins B. the genetic code for organisms C. a loosely coiled DNA strand D. a single strand of coiled DNA
  10. 10. What are chromosomes? A. rod-shaped structures composed of DNA and proteins B. the genetic code for organisms C. a loosely coiled DNA strand D. a single strand of coiled DNA
  11. 11. A. rod-shaped structures composed of DNA and proteins B. the genetic code for organisms C. Structure that holds the two chromatids together D. a loosely coiled DNA strand
  12. 12. A. rod-shaped structures composed of DNA and proteins B. the genetic code for organisms C. Structure that holds the two chromatids together D. a loosely coiled DNA strand
  13. 13. A. A structure that holds two chromatids together? B. a single strand of coiled DNA (replicated, condensed chromosome) C. a loosely coiled DNA strand D. the genetic code for organisms
  14. 14. A. A structure that holds two chromatids together B. a single strand of coiled DNA (replicated, condensed chromosome) C. a loosely coiled DNA strand D. the genetic code for organisms
  15. 15. A. A structure that holds the two chromatids together B. a single strand of coiled DNA (replicated, condensed chromosome) C. a loosely coiled DNA strand D. rod-shaped structures composed of DNA and proteins
  16. 16. A. A structure that holds the two chromatids together B. a single strand of coiled DNA (replicated, condensed chromosome) C. a loosely coiled DNA strand D. rod-shaped structures composed of DNA and proteins
  17. 17. A. DNA B. A Chromosome C. A Centromere D. A Chromatin
  18. 18. A. DNA B. A Chromosome C. A Centromere D. A Chromatin
  19. 19. A. DNA B. A centromere C. A chromatid D. A chromosome
  20. 20. A. DNA B. A centromere C. A chromatid D. A chromosome
  21. 21. A. A chromosome B. A centromere C. A chromatid D. DNA
  22. 22. A. A chromosome B. A centromere C. A chromatid D. DNA
  23. 23. Let’s move on to the cell cycle
  24. 24.  Interphase  G1 Phase  S Phase (Synthesis)  G2 Phase  Mitosis  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase  Cytokinesis G1 Phase S Phase G2 Phase Mitosis Pro Meta Ana Telo Cytokinesis Draw this!
  25. 25. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZeW8HaCUtOQ
  26. 26.  Stem cells divide to become specialized cells
  27. 27.  Most cells!  Specialized cells like neurons, cardiac cells, and muscle cells have already divided and won’t ever divide again
  28. 28. 1. Interphase- starts right after cell division; longest phase of a cell’s “life” a. G1 Phase- Cell grows b. S Phase- DNA is copied into sister chromatins c. G2 Phase- Cell grows and prepares for cell division (mitosis) G1 Phase S Phase G2 Phase
  29. 29.  The division of the nucleus (PMAT)  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase
  30. 30. 1. Nucleoli disintegrates 2. Chromatin condenses into chromatids and chromosomes 3. Centrioles migrate to ends of the cell 4. Spindle fibers form from centrioles Centrioles Spindle fibers Nucleoli (disappearing) Chromosomes Draw these!
  31. 31.  Chromosomes move to the center of cell Centrioles and spindle fibers
  32. 32.  Chromatids separate into individual chromosomes  Migrations towards poles (sides of cell) begins
  33. 33.  Nuclear membrane reforms  Chromatin lengthen
  34. 34.  The division of the cell into daughter cells  Plasma membrane pinches together in animal cells  Cell plate appears in plant cells
  35. 35.  Cleavage furrow forms  Membrane splits in two
  36. 36.  Cell plate forms  Membrane splits  Cell plate becomes cell wall
  37. 37.  Stem cells divide to become specialized cells
  38. 38.  Most cells!  Specialized cells like neurons, cardiac cells, and muscle cells have already divided and won’t ever divide again
  39. 39.  The Goal: Create more identical cells  In humans, a cell with 46 chromosomes will divide into two daughter cells, both with 46 chromosomes G1 Phase S Phase G2 Phase Mitosis Pro Meta Ana Telo Cytokinesis

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