The rationale, role and working methods of open access journals<br />10/12/2010<br />Caroline Sutton, Publisher<br />Co-Ac...
Co-Action Publishing<br /><ul><li>Founded in 2007 as a Swedish limited liability company
Currently publish 5 journals and 2 books
In process of launching/taking over 7 journals
Offer consulting and support services through Open Access Solutions
Founding member and current President of Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, OASPA</li></ul>10/12/2010<br />
www.OpenAccessSolutions.com<br />10/12/2010<br />
www.oaspa.org<br />10/12/2010<br />
Some statistics<br />10/12/2010<br /><ul><li>Today there are over 4300 journals listed in the  Directory of Open Access Jo...
A recent study conducted by Public Knowledge Project found that a majority of the 1000 journals who replied to a survey (o...
In 2008 Scopus listed over 90 000 OA articles, amounting to 6% of the Scopus content.
Much of the new (title) growth within the publishing industry is taking place within Open Access journals</li></li></ul><l...
The Rationale: Why open access?<br />10/12/2010<br />
Suggested benefits<br />10/12/2010<br /> Visibility<br /> High Impact<br /> <br /> Easy Archiving<br /> <br /> Democracy/R...
10/12/2010<br />”serials crisis”<br />Reproduced under CC Attribution Share Alike 2.5 license;  Image by Nino Barbieri, Ja...
10/12/2010<br />Price per Page Increases over 7 year period:<br />T&F 	75,0 %<br />Blackwell            	 36,3 %<br />Spri...
Reports<br />10/12/2010<br />
10/12/2010<br />*Reproduced from Wikemedia under the conditions of the GNU General Public License Exquisite-network.png<br...
10/12/2010<br />*Reproduced from Wikemedia under the conditions of the GNU General Public License Exquisite-network.png<br...
10/12/2010<br />”There is  a need to change the metaphor behind our understanding of what knowledge is.”  <br />.....John ...
Knowledge as ”paper”<br />Knowledge as ”product” and ”property”<br />Created by scientists<br />Owned by publishers<br />A...
10/12/2010<br />Subscriptions<br />Licensing fees<br />
10/12/2010<br />Copyright (does not allow the re-use of text freely)<br />
Knowledge = NETWORK<br />Knowledge = infrastructure<br />”A better reflection of the reality of knowledge” <br />-- John W...
”A social network diagram”, Screenshot taken by Darwin Peacock, accessed through Wikimedia; distributed under a CCL 3.0.<b...
10/12/2010<br />
10/12/2010<br />”Your OA publisher helps you connect and share with the researchers in your life.”<br />And the ones you d...
10/12/2010<br />www.ihop-net.org<br />
10/12/2010<br />www.knewco.org<br />
WORKING METHODS: Open Access in Practice<br />10/12/2010<br />
OPEN ACCESS = Free Access + Re-use<br />10/12/2010<br />Libre Open Access<br />
Creative Commons Licenses<br />Most common:<br /><ul><li>Attribution 3.0
(CCBY or CCAL)
Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0
(CCBY-NC)</li></ul>10/12/2010<br />
Copyright Notice<br />Authors contributing to Global Health Action agree to publish their articles under the Creative Comm...
10/12/2010<br />
10/12/2010<br />Paying for Open Access<br /><ul><li> Article Processing Charge/Publication Fee
 Submission fees
 Grants
 In-kind support
 Patronage
 Advertising revenue
 Membership dues
 Secondary publications
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Presentation the rationale, role and working methods of oa

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Key note address given for meeting of the International Society of Addiction Journal Editors (ISAJE), 25-26 September 2009, Trieste, Italy.

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Presentation the rationale, role and working methods of oa

  1. 1. The rationale, role and working methods of open access journals<br />10/12/2010<br />Caroline Sutton, Publisher<br />Co-Action Publishing<br />ISAJE Meeting , Trieste; 25-26 September 2009<br />
  2. 2. Co-Action Publishing<br /><ul><li>Founded in 2007 as a Swedish limited liability company
  3. 3. Currently publish 5 journals and 2 books
  4. 4. In process of launching/taking over 7 journals
  5. 5. Offer consulting and support services through Open Access Solutions
  6. 6. Founding member and current President of Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, OASPA</li></ul>10/12/2010<br />
  7. 7. www.OpenAccessSolutions.com<br />10/12/2010<br />
  8. 8. www.oaspa.org<br />10/12/2010<br />
  9. 9. Some statistics<br />10/12/2010<br /><ul><li>Today there are over 4300 journals listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals. (www.doaj.org)
  10. 10. A recent study conducted by Public Knowledge Project found that a majority of the 1000 journals who replied to a survey (out of 4000) were not in the DOAJ.
  11. 11. In 2008 Scopus listed over 90 000 OA articles, amounting to 6% of the Scopus content.
  12. 12. Much of the new (title) growth within the publishing industry is taking place within Open Access journals</li></li></ul><li>Open Access Publishers<br />Open Access Publishing Houses<br />Mixed model publishers<br />University Presses<br />Scholar Publishers<br />Societies<br />10/12/2010<br />
  13. 13. The Rationale: Why open access?<br />10/12/2010<br />
  14. 14. Suggested benefits<br />10/12/2010<br /> Visibility<br /> High Impact<br /> <br /> Easy Archiving<br /> <br /> Democracy/Reduce the digital divide<br /> <br /> Re-use of one’s work<br />
  15. 15. 10/12/2010<br />”serials crisis”<br />Reproduced under CC Attribution Share Alike 2.5 license; Image by Nino Barbieri, Jan 2004, Wikimedia Commons<br />
  16. 16. 10/12/2010<br />Price per Page Increases over 7 year period:<br />T&F 75,0 %<br />Blackwell 36,3 %<br />Springer 26,5 %<br />Elsevier 16,5 %<br />Wiley 8,4 %<br />Sage 104,4 %*<br />Average price per page for medicine in GBP<br />Ref: ”Trends in Scholarly Journal Pricing 2000-2006” Sonya White and Claire Creaser, March 2007. Commissioned by Oxford University Press<br />* On SSH, medical publishing from 2007<br />
  17. 17. Reports<br />10/12/2010<br />
  18. 18. 10/12/2010<br />*Reproduced from Wikemedia under the conditions of the GNU General Public License Exquisite-network.png<br />Web.2 <br />WIKIWORLD<br />Google Planet<br />
  19. 19. 10/12/2010<br />*Reproduced from Wikemedia under the conditions of the GNU General Public License Exquisite-network.png<br />THE ROLE: <br />ENABLING E-SCIENCE<br />
  20. 20. 10/12/2010<br />”There is a need to change the metaphor behind our understanding of what knowledge is.” <br />.....John Wilbanks, Director Science Commons<br />
  21. 21. Knowledge as ”paper”<br />Knowledge as ”product” and ”property”<br />Created by scientists<br />Owned by publishers<br />Archived by libraries<br />-- John Wilbanks, Science Commons, presentation at IATUL, June 2007<br />10/12/2010<br />
  22. 22. 10/12/2010<br />Subscriptions<br />Licensing fees<br />
  23. 23. 10/12/2010<br />Copyright (does not allow the re-use of text freely)<br />
  24. 24. Knowledge = NETWORK<br />Knowledge = infrastructure<br />”A better reflection of the reality of knowledge” <br />-- John Wilbanks, Science Commons, presentation at IATUL, June 2007<br />10/12/2010<br />
  25. 25. ”A social network diagram”, Screenshot taken by Darwin Peacock, accessed through Wikimedia; distributed under a CCL 3.0.<br />10/12/2010<br />
  26. 26. 10/12/2010<br />
  27. 27. 10/12/2010<br />”Your OA publisher helps you connect and share with the researchers in your life.”<br />And the ones you don’t even know about!<br />
  28. 28. 10/12/2010<br />www.ihop-net.org<br />
  29. 29. 10/12/2010<br />www.knewco.org<br />
  30. 30. WORKING METHODS: Open Access in Practice<br />10/12/2010<br />
  31. 31. OPEN ACCESS = Free Access + Re-use<br />10/12/2010<br />Libre Open Access<br />
  32. 32. Creative Commons Licenses<br />Most common:<br /><ul><li>Attribution 3.0
  33. 33. (CCBY or CCAL)
  34. 34. Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0
  35. 35. (CCBY-NC)</li></ul>10/12/2010<br />
  36. 36. Copyright Notice<br />Authors contributing to Global Health Action agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear.<br />Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to Co-Action Publishing. However, authors are required to transfer copyrights associated with commercial use to the Publisher. Revenues from commercial sales are used to keep down the publication fees. Moreover, a major portion of the profits generated from commercial sales is placed in a fund to cover publication fees for researchers from developing nations and, in some cases, for young researchers.<br />10/12/2010<br />
  37. 37. 10/12/2010<br />
  38. 38. 10/12/2010<br />Paying for Open Access<br /><ul><li> Article Processing Charge/Publication Fee
  39. 39. Submission fees
  40. 40. Grants
  41. 41. In-kind support
  42. 42. Patronage
  43. 43. Advertising revenue
  44. 44. Membership dues
  45. 45. Secondary publications
  46. 46. Future consortia deals?</li></ul>No one model at present<br />
  47. 47. 10/12/2010<br />Impact :<br />What does this mean with Open Access?<br />
  48. 48. 10/12/2010<br />We judge the worth of a paper on the basis of the impact factor of the journal in which it was published.<br />Recommended reading:<br />Adler, R., Ewing, J. Taylor, P. Citation statistics. A report from the International Mathematical Union. http://www.mathunion.org/publications/report/citationstatistics/<br />Browman, H. I., Stergiou, K.I.Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, Theme Section. The Use and misuse of bibliometric indices in evaluating scholarly performance., Vol. 8, no. 8 <br />http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/esep/v8/n1/<br />* Slide borrowed from Mark Patterson, PLoS<br />
  49. 49. 10/12/2010<br /><ul><li>Many OA journals are new
  50. 50. Many still do not have an impact factor
  51. 51. Other OA journals have achieved very high impact factors
  52. 52. Research has investigated whether there is an ”OA advantage” with mixed results</li></li></ul><li>10/12/2010<br />Measuring Impact<br />
  53. 53. 10/12/2010<br />Measuring Impact<br />
  54. 54. 10/12/2010<br />If the impact factor is how we have defined impact because of the tools available to us, how CAN we measure impact today? What tools are available?<br />
  55. 55. 10/12/2010<br />Measuring Impact<br />Article-level metrics<br /><ul><li>Usage data
  56. 56. Page views
  57. 57. Citations from Scopus
  58. 58. Citations from CrossRef
  59. 59. Social networking links
  60. 60. Press coverage
  61. 61. Comments
  62. 62. User ratings</li></ul>Not an alternative metric : ”Our idea is to throw up a bunch of metrics and see what people use.” (Binfield in The Scientist)<br />
  63. 63. Example<br />Food & Nutrition Research <br />OA from Jan 2008<br />10/12/2010<br />
  64. 64. Case – Swedish Nutrition Foundation<br /><ul><li> Swedish Nutrition Foundation (SNF) owned Swedish Journal of Food & Nutrition, which was published in partnership with one of the large traditional publishing houses.
  65. 65. Manuscripts submissions were modest.
  66. 66. Few subscriptions outside the society subscriptions.
  67. 67. Journal was regarded as a member benefit.
  68. 68. The society felt that it was time to either try something radical or drop the journal altogether.
  69. 69. They chose to drop the journal as it was and re-launch a new OA journal with a new and more international title.</li></ul>10/12/2010<br />
  70. 70. Universe of a Subscription Journal<br />Access only for those who have a subscription – for Food & Nutrition Research, approx. 700-800<br />10/12/2010<br />
  71. 71. Universe of the OA Journal<br />Researchers from related fields<br />Healthcare Workers – esp Physicians & Nutritionists<br />Nutrition advocates<br />Related professions<br />General citizens interested in their own nutrition<br />Industries with links<br />Gov’t agencies &<br />policy-makers<br />Pharmaceutical Co <br />(e.g. Novartis Medical Nutrition) <br />Print and online magazines<br />10/12/2010<br />
  72. 72. Usage Increased<br />During first six months:<br /><ul><li>Over 42 000 full text article requests
  73. 73. Over 32 000 full pages viewed by over 6 000 different visitors to the website</li></ul>Visitors were from 120 different countries while subscriptions had been from 14 countries<br />Over first year:<br /><ul><li>Over 118 000 full page views by over 35 000 unique visitors
  74. 74. 113 662 downloaded articles</li></ul>Visitors were from 176 countries, with the US accounting for 20% of traffic.<br />10/12/2010<br />
  75. 75. Are Some Journals Better Suited to OA than Others?<br />Ideally any journal is a candidate for OA. But there are some opportunities and challenges associated with some scenarios.<br /><ul><li>Good manuscript flow, few subscriptions – Very good candidate for OA.
  76. 76. Few subscriptions, poor ms flow – OA can give the journal a lift if OA is marketed as an advantage of publishing with the journal. May need to choose an economic model that subsidizes publication costs for at least an interum period.
  77. 77. Multi-disciplinary journals – Good OA candidates. These have traditionally been very difficult to build subscription bases for and are better suited to OA.
  78. 78. Currently many OA journals are in STM fields (due to pressures from funding agencies and the launch of the commercial publishers that focus only on STM), but there is no reason why SS and HUM can’t be OA. University presses seem to be focusing on these. STM journals seem to have an advantage due to wider array of funding sources.</li></ul>10/12/2010<br />
  79. 79. 10/12/2010<br />www.oaspa.org<br />
  80. 80. 10/12/2010<br />THANK YOU!<br />
  81. 81. 10/12/2010<br />Caroline.Sutton@co-action.net<br />www.Co-Action.net<br />

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