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philo

  1. 1. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
  2. 2. Metaphysics and Epistemology<br />Reality: What is real?<br />Knowledge: What is truth? <br />The usual (circular) assumption: <br />reality is what we know as objective existence in the world; <br />knowledge is what we know about reality. <br />Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
  3. 3. Epistemological Questions<br />Do we really know objective reality? <br />How do we know objective reality? <br />“Objective reality” = what is independent of what we think/feel…<br />Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
  4. 4. Sources of Knowledge<br />Where does knowledge come from? (experience or reasoning?)<br />Empiricism: All knowledge comes from experience (a posteriori).<br />Rationalism: All reliable knowledge (scientific laws, etc.) comes from rational deliberation (innate ideas + reasoning). (a priori)<br />Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
  5. 5. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />LOCKE VS. LEIBNIZ ON INNATE IDEAS<br />The Empiricist:<br /> LOCKE: AGAINST INNATE IDEAS<br />The argument from universal consent for innate ideas is inconclusive<br />Children and “idiots” do not have innate ideas; we are born with a mind as a blank tablet (tabula rasa)<br />It is impossible to have ideas of which we are not conscious<br />The Rationalist:<br />LEIBNIZ’S REPLY TO LOCKE<br />Sense experience alone cannot validate general principles or laws<br />There is extensive evidence that we have innate cognitive structures<br />
  6. 6. Rene Descartes’ Rationalism (Chapter 5, pp. 215-227)<br />Experience is not reliable:<br />The wax argument (is it the same thing after it melts?)<br />The dream argument<br />Only reason is reliable:<br />“I think, therefore I am.”<br />Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
  7. 7. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />The Empiricist: LOCKE’S CAUSAL THEORY OF PERCEPTION: ELEMENTS OF THE KNOWING PROCESS<br />The entity or object in the world<br />Sensations (sense data, images, sensory impressions) emitted by the objects via “impulses” and transmitted to our five senses<br />Ideas, which Locke characterizes as “the immediate objects of perception, thought, or understanding”—in other words, the images or impressions produced in our minds by the impulses emitted by the objects<br />The human subject, knower, or conscious mind who is able to perceive the ideas in his or her mind and “reflect” on them, thus constructing knowledge<br />
  8. 8. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />OBJECTS HAVE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY QUALITIES (p.253)<br />Primary qualities “resemble” (or “reside in”) an object even when we are not perceiving the object<br />Solidity<br />Extension<br />Figure (shape)<br />Motion or rest<br />Number<br />Secondary qualities do not “resemble” (or “reside in”) an object, but are “powers” of objects to produce sensations in our minds<br />Colors<br />Sounds <br />Tastes<br />Odors<br />
  9. 9. Locke’s “Substance”<br />What holds these primary and secondary qualities together to make them the same entity? <br />Locke: “Substance” (something that lies beneath these observable qualities).<br />But do we perceive any “substance”?---empiricism finds its own difficulty.<br />Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
  10. 10. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Empiricist turning into Idealist: GEORGE BERKELEY: “TO BE IS TO BE PERCEIVED”<br />There is no such thing as material substance; all that exist are “minds” and “ideas”<br />There is no distinction between “primary” and “secondary” qualities<br />What we mistakenly believe to be “material objects” are really collections of ideas in the mind of God<br />
  11. 11. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />The Fate of Empiricism<br />With the success of Newtonian physics and Locke’s account of an empiricist metaphysics and epistemology<br />Empiricism seemed to clearly have the upper hand against rationalism<br />David Hume (1711-1776) comes along and shows that there is something deeply troubling about empiricism<br />It leads to a radical kind of skepticism<br />
  12. 12. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Hume’s Version of Empiricism<br />Contents of the mind can be divided into two categories<br />Impressions-- the actual experiences that we have<br />Tasting an apple, seeing a sunset, feeling pain, or angry or jealous, hungry or sad, etc<br />Ideas– Copies of impressions <br />My memory of the taste of the apple, my idea of anger, jealousy, hunger, red<br />
  13. 13. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Hume on Perception<br />Impressions and ideas are each a kind of perception for Hume<br />they are distinguished by their ‘force and vivacity’<br />Impressions are ‘our more lively perceptions’<br />Ideas (or thoughts) are dull and lifeless copies of the original impression<br />This means that both are merely mental phenomena<br />
  14. 14. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />The Empiricist Theory of Meaning<br />Words in language stand for ideas <br />Hume endorses Locke’s distinction between simple and complex ideas<br />Complex ideas are composed of simple ones<br />Simples ones either can be traced back to an impression from which they were copied<br />Or else they are meaningless nonsense<br />If an idea cannot be traced back to an impression it is meaningless and should not be used<br />
  15. 15. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Empiricist Epistemology<br />Human knowledge falls into two kinds for Hume<br />Relations of Ideas– all a priori knowledge<br />Matters of Fact– all empirical knowledge<br />To decide which is which you apply the following rule<br />If the negation of a true proposition in question is a contradiction then it is a Relation of Ideas<br />If not, a Matter of Fact (see examples next page->)<br />
  16. 16. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Relations of Ideas & Matters of Fact<br />Relations of Ideas<br />All bachelors are unmarried<br />All triangles have three sides<br />A2+B2=C2<br />(3 x 5)=(1/2 x 30)<br />For any sentence S, either S is true or S is false<br />S can’t be true and also not true at the same time<br />Matters of Fact<br />All bachelors are messy<br />All dogs have four legs<br />Apples are red<br />Rent in NYC is expensive<br />Subway fare is $2.00<br />Fire causes pain<br />Objects when dropped will fall<br />The future will resemble the past<br />
  17. 17. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Relations of Ideas<br />Relations of ideas consists of two parts<br />Ideas<br />And the relations between them<br />E.g. my ideas BACHELOR and UNMARRIED MALE are related in such a way as to make it impossible for there to be a married bachelor<br />This is true for all relations of ideas<br />Their truth is independent of experience in the sense that one does not need to go and check to see if they are true<br />Mathematics and logic are purely formal systems of inter-related definitions<br />Numbers do not need to exist to make it true that 2+2-4<br />
  18. 18. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Matters of Fact<br />Matters of Fact on the other hand have their truth determined by the way that the world happens to be (“contingent”)<br />
  19. 19. Hume’s Skepticism of External World<br />We can only experience our experience. <br />We do not know what is beyond our experience (“external world”).<br /> “Mind” “Experience” “External World”<br />Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
  20. 20. Hume’s Skepticism of Causality<br />Hume argues that the idea of cause and effect is a Matter of Fact because it fails to meet the two criteria of something that is a priori (relations of ideas)<br />To deny it is not a contradiction (“water extinguishes fire”)<br />We cannot, without experience, predict what the effect of any given cause will be<br />Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
  21. 21. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Hume on Cause & Effect<br />The idea of causation is the idea of a necessary connection between events<br />BUT: To say that the connection is necessary is to say that the same effect will always follow from the same cause<br />We do not get the idea of necessary connection from reason<br />And we do not get it from experience<br />We never see the necessary connection<br />
  22. 22. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Hume on Cause & Effect<br />We have no rational reason to expect any given cause and effect relation to hold in the future<br />All of our inductive knowledge is founded on our belief that the future will resemble the past<br />But this belief is completely irrational (we have no rational basis to believe it)<br />
  23. 23. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Cause and Effect<br />All of our ideas must come from one of these two sources (matters of fact; relations of ideas)<br />One of the most important ideas we have is the idea of causation<br />The idea of a necessary connection between events<br />Same cause = same effect EVERY TIME<br />All of science is based on this idea<br />All of our common sense knowledge about the world is based on this idea<br />
  24. 24. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />It’s just a Habit!<br />So where does the idea come from?<br />It comes from ‘a habit of expectation’<br />We see A happen<br />We see B happen right after<br />We see A happen<br />We see B happen right after<br />This is repeated<br />Soon when we see A happen we come to expect that B will happen right after<br />
  25. 25. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Spreading the Mind<br />It is the subjective feeling of expectation that we mistakenly ‘project’ out onto the events that we observe<br />For Hume, “we cannot know if there is anything more to the word than this”<br />This is an epistemological claim: we can’t know if there is a necessary connection between events<br />NOT a metaphysical claim: There is no necessary connection between events (we do not know)<br />
  26. 26. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Hume’s Challenge to Induction<br />Induction: The process of deriving general principles from particular facts or instances.<br />All inductive knowledge is based on the fallacy of assuming that the future will resemble the past<br />But just that something has happened for a long time is no guarantee that it will always happen<br />So, the sun may have risen everyday so far, but who can say with certainty that it will rise tomorrow?<br />Just like problem of black swans<br />
  27. 27. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Pavlov & Classical Conditioning<br />We have been trained by nature to expect certain events upon seeing certain other events<br />Just like Pavlov’s dog<br />You ring the bell and bring some food<br />The dog salivates<br />Repeat<br />Soon the dog salivates when hearing the bell whether or not food comes<br />The dog has come to expect ‘bell then food’<br />
  28. 28. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Classical Conditioning II<br />Now if the dog were to reason to itself as follows,<br />Every time the bell has rang food has appeared<br />This has happened everyday of my existence, every since I was a puppy<br />I can infer from this that the next time the bell rings, food will appear<br />We could easily see that the dog has made a mistake (like Bertrand Russell’s turkey on Thanksgiving day)<br />
  29. 29. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Classical Conditioning III<br />There is no necessary connection between bell ringing and food appearing in nature<br />How can we tell that this is not the way nature is in reality?<br />Nature is regular (so was the bell ringing/food bringing relationship)<br />Things so far have happened regularly and predictably <br />But we have no reason to believe that it must continue (from an empiricist point of view)<br />
  30. 30. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />READING CRITICALLY: ANALYZING HUME’S CASE FOR SKEPTICISM<br /> Would you agree with Hume’s critique of knowledge claims about the external world, cause and effect, and induction? Why or why not?<br />
  31. 31. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />KANT’S “COPERNICAN REVOLUTION”<br />“Hitherto it has been assumed that all our knowledge must conform to objects. But all attempts to extend our knowledge of objects by establishing something in regard to them by means of concepts have, on this assumption, ended in failure. We must, therefore, make trial whether we may have more success if we suppose that objects must conform to our knowledge.” –Critique of Pure Reason<br />
  32. 32. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
  33. 33. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
  34. 34. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
  35. 35. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Kant’s Dogmatic Slumber<br />Kant is disturbed from thinking that everything in science is fine by Hume’s argument<br />Empiricism cannot deliver necessary truths<br />‘experience can teach us that something is the case but it cannot teach us that it must be the case’<br />Yet science claims to discover necessary truths about nature (Scientific necessity)<br />Even worse, Hume claimed to have shown that human beings are essentially irrational<br />
  36. 36. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Transcendental Idealism<br />Kant agrees with Hume that we cannot learn that the causal relation is necessary and universal from experience<br />But Hume has not shown that we can’t have a priori knowledge <br />For Hume something was a priori if we could not deny it without contradiction <br />For Kant something is a priori if is knowable completely independently of experience<br />
  37. 37. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />The Structure of Experience<br />How could our experience be the way that it is?<br />How is it?<br />Objects are located in space and time<br />Can you imagine an object which was not at any place?<br />No !<br />This is something that we can know a priori<br />It is not dependent on experience<br />
  38. 38. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Conditions of all Possible Experience<br />It is the pre-condition for any experience at all<br />Just like space in the room is a precondition of having objects in the room<br />So too space is a necessary condition of any possible experience<br />Thus we can know with absolute certainty that whatever experiences we do have will all take place at some time and at some particular place<br />
  39. 39. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />The A Priori<br />So Kant concludes that there is pure a priori knowledge<br />‘pure’ because it does not depend on experience<br />But is rather the pre-conditions for any possible experience<br />It is necessary<br />It is not possible to have experience without space<br />And universal<br />All experiences will be in space<br />
  40. 40. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Analytic vs. Synthetic (p. 287)<br />An analytic truth is one that is true by virtue of the meaning of the words themselves<br />“All bachelors are unmarried males”<br />---They do not add anything new to our knowledge<br />Synthetic truths are true in virtue of the kind of experience we have<br />“All bachelors are messy”<br />---They do add to our knowledge <br />
  41. 41. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Kant’s 4 Distinctions<br />A Priori<br />A Posteriori<br />“All Bachelors are unmarried males”<br />???????<br />Analytic<br />“All triangles have three sides”<br />“Dogs bark”<br />“Apples taste good”<br />Cause & effect<br />Synthetic<br />!!!!!!<br />
  42. 42. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Synthetic A Priori Knowledge<br />So Kant’s answer to Hume is his theory of synthetic a priori knowledge<br />Take ‘fire causes pain’<br />It is synthetic, it adds to our experience<br />But it is also a priori, that is, necessary and universal<br />It is a priori in the sense that we can tell by looking at the structure of our experience that it must be a certain way<br />
  43. 43. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Phenomena vs. Noumena<br />The phenomenal world is the world as it appears to us.<br />It is the world that we see, touch, taste, etc.<br />The noumenal world is the way that the world is in-itself<br />The world as it is by itself<br />All we can know is the way our experience of the world will be<br />We can’t know the noumenal world<br />
  44. 44. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Phenomena v. Noumena II<br />Understanding<br />Sensibility<br />Wasup?<br />Hi<br />Noumena<br />
  45. 45. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Phenomena v. Noumena III<br />Wasup?<br />Wasup?<br />Hi<br />Hi<br />Me<br />You<br />
  46. 46. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Kant’s Philosophy of Mind<br />Our minds are the same (i.e., we share the same phenomenal world)<br />The mind has two components<br />Sensibility<br />Understanding<br />“Sensibility” takes in ‘raw’ unorganized noumena and organizes it into phenomena (our experience)<br />Each has their categories that they use in order to construct our experience<br />The sensibility has Space and Time <br />
  47. 47. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Kant’s Philosophy of Mind<br />The “understanding” has 12 categories<br />Unity, plurality, totality, reality, negation, limitation, substance/property, cause & effect, community, possibility/impossibility, existence/non-existence, and necessary/contingent<br />With these categories, and the two from the sensibility, our mind constructs our experience<br />We can know with absolute certainty that our experience will conform to the categories<br />
  48. 48. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Kant’s Philosophy of Mind <br />That is the only way that experience like ours is possible<br />The same cause must bring about the same effect <br />Because our mind constructs the world that way.<br />Yet this comes at a heavy cost<br />Science studies our experience of the world<br />It does not, cannot, study the noumenal world<br />
  49. 49. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />Kant’s Philosophy of Mind<br />Kant called this a Copernican Revolution in philosophy<br />Instead of the mind passively acting like a recorder of an outside reality<br />Kant sees the human mind as actively constructing reality<br />This is his mix of Rationalism and Empiricism<br />Empiricism– science is synthetic knowledge<br />Rationalism– but based on a priori categories<br />
  50. 50. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />KANT ON THE SYNTETIC A PRIORI AND THE PHENOMENAL AND NOUMENAL WORLDS<br />THE SYNTHETIC A PRIORI<br />THE PHENOMENAL AND NOUMENAL WORLDS<br />Necessary and universally true<br />a priori—can be discovered independently of experience<br />Synthetic in the sense that it provides us with genuine information regarding our experience in the world<br />phenomenal reality is the world as we constitute it and experience it<br />noumenal reality is the world beyond our perceptions, reality “in-itself”<br />
  51. 51. What is your epistemology?<br />Where does Scientific knowledge (e.g., “Normally water freezes below 0° C”) come from?<br /> From experience (empiricism like Locke)<br /> From reasoning (rationalism)<br /> We do not have such knowledge (Hume)<br />We construct such knowledge in our mind with data from experience (Kant) <br />???<br />Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />

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