assertions or assumptions about the nature of being and
What the real world is.
The order of things (Foucault)
(Chandler & Munday 2011)
The study of the origin, nature, method and limits of
knowledge. (Griffin 2012)
How we come to know what we know?
Positivist paradigm/ positivism
Family of philosophies characterized by an extremely
positive evaluation of science and scientific methods
(Frey et al, 2000)
Applies methods used in physical sciences to study
Family of philosophies that focus on the socially
constructed nature of reality. (Frey et al, 2000)
Concerned with the development of methods that
capture the socially constructed nature of reality.
Assumption Question Positivist Naturalist
Ontological The nature of
Epistemological Relationship bet.
Axiological The role of values
in the research
Methodological What’s the
Rhetorical Language of
1. A body of practices, procedures, and rules used by
those who work in a discipline or engage in an
2. The study or theoretical analysis of such working
3. The branch of logic that deals with the general
principles of the formation of knowledge. (Proz.com
1. A means or manner of procedure, especially a regular
and systematic way of accomplishing something: a
simple method for making a pie crust; mediation as a
method of solving disputes.
2. The procedures and techniques characteristic of a
particular discipline or field of knowledge: This field
course gives an overview of archaeological method.
The acquisition of data that take the form of symbols
other than meaningful numbers.
In-depth and detailed information.
Gives preference to participants lived experience.
Quality rather than quantity.
Smaller population samples
Methods include– focus groups, interviews, ethnography
, textual analysis
Data collection takes the form of meaningful numbers
Enumeration – a process of reducing abstract concepts
Larger population samples
Quantity rather than quality.
Methods include- experiments, surveys and content
The mixing of data or methods so that diverse
viewpoints or standpoints cast light upon a topic. (Olsen
Facilitates cross analysis of data.
Reduces limitation of using one method.
Increases reliability and flexibility.
Combination may include Surveys and Focus Groups etc.
Guidelines for Methodology
Reintroduce the big question
Justification for research question (significance)
Conceptual Design – Model
Methodological Context – ontological, epistemological
What was done in detail
Who you collected data from
Why the fliers (Important characteristics)
Instruments – questionnaire and research questions
(Adapted from Dr. Tia Cooper)
1. The questions that you are attempting to answer and
any problems that you may face in finding the
2. General definition or overview of the approach you
3. A thorough description of how you will collect the
data and the analytical procedures you will use to
draw conclusions based on this information
Include an introductory paragraph that describes
the problem you will address using your
Subsequent paragraphs should explain the method
that you will use to collect data to address the
Include justification for why these methods are
You should explain why you did not use more common
Explain why you purposely included/excluded certain
groups from research
Provide a brief explanation that discusses the
inclusion/exclusion of groups and implications for your
Discuss how certain variables may impact the outcome of
your research (diff. lifestyles, etc)