ART IN THE 18TH CENTURY:BAROQUE ROCOCO AND NEWCLASSICISM Carmen Salido Pérez 4A ESO
INDEX BAROQUE ROCOCO (slides 3-4) ROCOCO IN SPAIN (slides5-9) NEW CLASSICISM (slides 10-16) SOURCES (slides 17)
BAROQUE Baroque was an art style appeared in Rome, developed since about 1600 to 1750 and spread to most of Europe. It is a period opposed to Renaissance and it is characterized by distrust, pessimism and disappointment.Ecstasy of Saint Teresa Santiago’s Cathedral The meninas
ROCOCOA new art style called Rococo was bornin Paris beginning of the 18th centuryand it is developed during Louis XVand Louis XVI’s reigns. Rococo was anindividualist, anti-formalist andcorteous art. It was characterized bythe used of bright, soft and clearcolours and predominance of formsinspired on nature, mythology, thebeauty of the naked bodies, oriental artand especially gallant and lovethemes. Pilgrimage on the Isle of Cythera It quickly spread to other Europeancountries, especially in Germany andAustria, and continued developing untilthe arrival of New Classicism. Cupid fashioning his bow from Hercules club Castle Solitude
ROCOCO IN SPAIN Rococo architecture In Spain, Rococo art appeared during the reign of Philip V (1700-1746). The influence of this style was limited because of the few contacts Spain maintained with the European Rococo and especially with France and Germany. The most important architects were José de Churriguera (Altarpiece of San Esteban in Salamanca Cathedral), Pedro de Ribera (Old Hospice in Madrid) and Hipólito Rovira (Palace of the Marquis of Dos Aguas in Valencia). Palace of the Marquis of DosAltarpiece of San Esteban Old Hospice Aguas
An example of rococo architecture is the Palace of the Marquis of DosAguas. The front was designed by Hipólito Rovira, it composed by twoparts separated by the Marquis’s shield. At the bottom the allegory ofthe Turia and Júcar rivers can be seen. At the top there is a niche with asculpture of Virgin and Child.
Rococo paintingThere are few Spanish Rococo painters. Luis Meléndez and Luis Paretare the most important spanish painters.François Boucher was born in Paris of Septempber of 1703, he was aFrench painter and his paintings treated gallant themes, typical of theera. He was famous for his idyllic and voluptuous paintings ofmythological themes, allegories about shepherds and several portraitsof Madame Pompadour. Portrait of Madame de Pompadour Portrait of François Boucher
One of his most famous paintings is the Portrait of Marie-LouiseO’Murphy, whose model is identified as Mademoiselle LouiseO’Murphy, fourteen, one of King Louis XV’s mistresses. Portrait of Marie-Louise OMurphy
Rococo sculptureWith respect to Rococo sculpture, in Spain sculptures werecharacterized by a bigger sweetness and intimacy in the interpretationof themes and a bigger appreciation for the scenical and the most trivialdetails.The most important sculptor was Francisco Salzillo(processional floats for the Holy week).Portrait of Francisco Salzillo
NEW CLASSICISMNew Classicism developed in the last third of the 18th century, theideas of Enlightenment, the discovery of the ruins of Pompeii and theFrench Revolution had an important influence in the revival ofclassicism. It drew inspiration from the "classical" art and culture ofAncient Greece or Ancient Rome. This style tried to createbeauty, perfection and proportions. Brandenburger Tor, by Carl Gotthard Langhans Venus Victrix, by Antonio CanovaThe Oath of the Horatii, byJacques-Louis David
Architecture In Spain the most important New Classicism buildings were built in Madrid. The main building is the Prados museum designed by Juan de Villanueva, other important buildings were the Puerta de Alcalá, by Francesco Sabatini, and Pamplona cathedral designed by Ventura Rodríguez. Alcalá GatePrado museum Pamplona cathedral
The Church of Sainte Madeleine, located in Paris is a perfect illustrationof the New Classicism architectural style. It has fifty-two Corinthiancolumns around the building. In the pediment there is a sculpture of theLast Judgement. The doors have bronze reliefs which represent the TenCommandments.
PaintingJacques Louis David was a French painter who had a lot of influence inNew Classicism painting. Cupid and Psyche is one of his mostrepresentative paintings.Portrait of JacquesLouis David. Cupid and Psyche
In Spain Antoine Raphael Mengs worked as court painter for Charles III.He was a spanish New Classicism painter and his works developedalmost all in Spain. The portrait of Maria Amalia of Sajonia, queen consort of Spain and fellow citizen of Antoine Raphael Mengs, this painting represented the Spanish New Classicism.Portrait of antoineRaphael Mengs The portrait of Maria Amalia of Sajonia
SculptureNew Classicist sculpture was as a reaction against the frivolity ofRococo ornamentation. This style was inspired in Greco-Romanantiquity, adopting the principles of order, clarity, austerity and balance.In Spain José Álvarez Cubero was the main sculptor, but he spentmuch of his career in Paris and Rome. Ganymede is his most importantsculpture.Portrait of JoséÁlvarez Cubero Ganymede
The most important sculptor is Antonio Canova, he was an Italiansculptor and painter. Psyche revived by the kiss of Love was commissioned by John Campbell in 1787. The scene represented the moment when Eros revived to Psyche with a kiss, after she had taken a magic potion that made her fall in a eternal dreamSelf-portrait of AntonioCanova
SOURCES Webs:http://www.arteespana.com/arterococo.htmhttp://es.wikipedia.orgo Books:Cristina Blanco Carraasco and Paqui PérezFons, (2011) Social Sciences, History 4thESO, Campo de Criptana.