Infection and Disease By: Carmen Ortiz
Nosocomial infections <ul><li>Infections acquired by patients and healthcare workers through exposure to each others patho...
Causes <ul><li>Bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination through microorganisms present in : ...
Spread <ul><li>Crossinfection – a healthcare worker or patient acquires a pathogen from another healthcare worker or patie...
Common infections and those most at risk <ul><li>The most common infections acquired by patients are urinary tract infecti...
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) <ul><li>Due to the appearance of HIV and HBV. </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA ...
Hodgkin’s Disease <ul><li>Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer of the lymphatic cells found in concentration in the lymph nodes. <...
Who is at risk  <ul><li>Both children and adults can get it. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a disease that is not preventable. </...
Signs and symptoms <ul><li>Lumps under the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Fever  </li></ul><ul><li>Drenching night sweats </li></u...
Diagnosis and staging is based on the results of the following procedures: <ul><li>Patient history and physical exam  </li...
Stages <ul><li>Stage 1- HL is located in only one lymph node area or a single organ. (survival rate 90%) </li></ul><ul><li...
Treatment  <ul><li>Chemotherapy – drugs are used to kill cancer but may harm normal blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Long te...
Sarcoidosis <ul><li>Sarcoidosis is a disease in which swelling occurs in the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, eyes, skin, or oth...
Sarcoidosis <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Excess sensitivity to environmental factors  </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics  </li...
Symptoms There may be no symptom but when there is it can affect any system or part of the body. <ul><li>Lung and chest sy...
Symptoms Continued <ul><li>Skin symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Skin rashes  </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Skin lesions </li></ul>...
Exams and tests <ul><li>Chest x-ray </li></ul><ul><li>CT scan </li></ul><ul><li>Lung Gallium Scan </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsy...
Treatment <ul><li>Death rate is less than 5%. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms get better gradually on their own without treatme...
Works Cited <ul><li>Encyclopedia of Medicine. 06 April 2001. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/is_0006/ai_260100...
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Presentation # 6

  1. 1. Infection and Disease By: Carmen Ortiz
  2. 2. Nosocomial infections <ul><li>Infections acquired by patients and healthcare workers through exposure to each others pathogens. </li></ul><ul><li>About 5-10% of patients admitted to hospitals in the United States develop a nosocomial infection. </li></ul><ul><li>About 25% of these infections can be prevented by healthcare workers taking proper precautions when caring for patients. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes <ul><li>Bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination through microorganisms present in : </li></ul><ul><li>1.) A patients body </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Environment </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Contaminated hospital equipment </li></ul><ul><li>4.) Healthcare worker </li></ul>
  4. 4. Spread <ul><li>Crossinfection – a healthcare worker or patient acquires a pathogen from another healthcare worker or patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinfection – a patient becomes infected again by the same pathogen that brought him or her to the hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-inoculation - occurs when a person becomes infected in a different part of the body by a pathogen from another part of his or her body. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Common infections and those most at risk <ul><li>The most common infections acquired by patients are urinary tract infections, pneumonia and surgical repair infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Those most at risk to acquire these infections are children, pregnant women, the elderly and those persons with compromised immune systems. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) <ul><li>Due to the appearance of HIV and HBV. </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA issued mandatory guidelines to ensure that all employees at risk of exposure to pathogens follow standard precautions to protect themselves and the patients against infections. </li></ul><ul><li>For information on the standard precautions visit the OSHA website at http://www.osha.gov/. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hodgkin’s Disease <ul><li>Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer of the lymphatic cells found in concentration in the lymph nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer can arise anywhere in the body because the lymphatic system is a circulatory system. </li></ul><ul><li>The lymph nodes in the Lymphatic System store and produce white blood cells (A and B lymphocytes) which fight off infections. </li></ul><ul><li>The cells that cause cancer are called Reed-Sternberg cells. An abnormal type B lymphocyte that is larger than regular lymphocytes. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Who is at risk <ul><li>Both children and adults can get it. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a disease that is not preventable. </li></ul><ul><li>Not much is known of what causes this disease but the following are a few risk factors scientist have found. </li></ul><ul><li>Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) </li></ul><ul><li>The two common age groups are early adulthood ages 15-40 and late adulthood after age 55. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender- mostly in males </li></ul><ul><li>Family history </li></ul><ul><li>Higher socioeconomic background </li></ul>
  9. 9. Signs and symptoms <ul><li>Lumps under the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Drenching night sweats </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Itching </li></ul><ul><li>Tiredness </li></ul><ul><li>Poor appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessarily these symptoms mean a person has Hodgkin's disease. On the other hand, a person may feel perfectly fine and still have this disease. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Diagnosis and staging is based on the results of the following procedures: <ul><li>Patient history and physical exam </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsies </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging tests (chest x-ray, CT scans, and a PET scan) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood tests </li></ul><ul><li>Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stages <ul><li>Stage 1- HL is located in only one lymph node area or a single organ. (survival rate 90%) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2- HL is located in two nearby lymph node areas. (survival rate 90%) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3- HL is located in both the upper and lower lymph node regions of the diaphragm. (survival rate 85%) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4- HL is wide spread in the lymph nodes and other body parts (survival rate 65%) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Treatment <ul><li>Chemotherapy – drugs are used to kill cancer but may harm normal blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Long term side effects: Can affect a person’s heart, lungs, growth, and ability to have children. A second type of cancer can develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation Therapy – high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Long term side effects: Can cause heart disease, damage thyroid gland and in children failure of their bones to grow as they should. As well as a second type of cancer can develop. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sarcoidosis <ul><li>Sarcoidosis is a disease in which swelling occurs in the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, eyes, skin, or other tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Clumps of abnormal tissue (granulomas) form in certain organs of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>It can affect almost any organ of the body, but it usually affects the lungs. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sarcoidosis <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Excess sensitivity to environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme immune response to infection </li></ul><ul><li>Those affected </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><li>Ages 20 - 40 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Symptoms There may be no symptom but when there is it can affect any system or part of the body. <ul><li>Lung and chest symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Dry cough </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Discomfort behind breast bone </li></ul><ul><li>4.) Abnormal breath sounds </li></ul><ul><li>General discomfort or uneasiness symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Malaise </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Fever </li></ul><ul><li>4.) Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>5.) Joint aches and pain </li></ul>
  16. 16. Symptoms Continued <ul><li>Skin symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Skin rashes </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Skin lesions </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Hair loss </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous and vision changes </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Eyes burning, itching and discharge </li></ul><ul><li>4.) Decreased tearing </li></ul><ul><li>Other Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Enlarged spleen </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Enlarged liver </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Nose bleed </li></ul><ul><li>4.) Enlarged lymph glands </li></ul>
  17. 17. Exams and tests <ul><li>Chest x-ray </li></ul><ul><li>CT scan </li></ul><ul><li>Lung Gallium Scan </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsy </li></ul><ul><li>Lab tests </li></ul>
  18. 18. Treatment <ul><li>Death rate is less than 5%. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms get better gradually on their own without treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Severely affected people may have one or two years of treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive medicines. </li></ul><ul><li>Some may require life long therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>These treatments only temporarily improve symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no long term treatment proven to prevent saroidosis from getting worse. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Works Cited <ul><li>Encyclopedia of Medicine. 06 April 2001. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/is_0006/ai_2601000684/ . </li></ul><ul><li>American Cancer Society. 06 August 2009. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_2_1X_What_is_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav= cri . </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine Plus. 21 may 2009. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000076.htm . </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Terminology “A living Language”. </li></ul>

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