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  1. 1. Carib Studies Module 1 NotesThis is a relatively brief compilation ofCaribbean Studies notes for CAPE fromno less than 5 separate sources. I wasfeeling quite awesome today.
  3. 3. Expected Learning Outcomes1. Locate and define the Caribbean usingcertain criteria2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages ofusing different criteria:geographical, historical, geological andpolitical in helping to define the Caribbean3. Address Culture and Society as issues relatedto the definition and location of a region4. Identify territories in the Caribbean
  4. 4. Location of the Caribbean• Greater Antilles: Cuba, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic),Jamaica, Puerto Rico• Lesser Antilles:• Windward islands: Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Guadeloupe,Dominica, Martinique• Leeward islands: Antigua and Barbuda, St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat,Anguilla, Virgin islands• Netherland Antilles: Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao (ABC"islands); SaintMarten,• Saba, St. Eustatius• Mainland Territories: Guyana, Belize, Suriname, Cayenne (FrenchGuyana)• Others: Barbados, Trinidad & Tobago, Cayman Islands, BahamaIslands, Turks and Caicos Islands
  5. 5. Geographical Definition• Geographically the Caribbean is defined as the landarea which has its coastline washed by the CaribbeanSea• This would mean that the Greater and Lesser Antilles,the Cayman Islands and the islands of the NetherlandAntilles all belong to the Caribbean. By this definitionTurks and Caicos Islands and the Bahamas wouldhowever be excluded from the Caribbean. It would alsoinclude Belize, Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rico;Panama, Nicaragua and Honduras and exclude themainland territories of Suriname, Guyana and FrenchGuiana
  6. 6. Historical Definition• This is the area colonized by European powers(Spanish, British, French and Dutch) and which has beendeeply affected by the brand of European Colonialism. TheSpanish through the Encomienda system and other meansexterminated the original inhabitants. The Britishintroduced the plantation system and with it, theenslavement of Africans and the indentureship of theChinese and East Indians. The Dutch and French not onlycolonized but were involved in an ongoing trade within theregion. It has become common way to identify theCaribbean based on the experience of specific Europeancolonialism.• Within this historic; context has arisen a multiracial societywith marked social stratification and racial hybridization.
  7. 7. Geological Definition• The Caribbean is seen as that area of the region defined by theCaribbean Plate and which therefore experiences the sametectonic, seismic and volcanic features and processes. The lands ofthe Caribbean are said to be formed from earth movements calledPlate Tectonics.• The smaller Caribbean plate moved under the North Americanplate to be re-melted in the earths mantle causing volcanicactivities and consequently the formation of the Greater and LesserAntilles. The islands in this Caribbean chain are believed to be thetops of submerged mountains linked to the Andean mountainrange in Central America. There is a rich variety of landscapefeatures in the Caribbean as a result of the structure of the islandsand mainland’s.• All the mainland territories of the region have high mountainranges, large rivers and vast areas of lowland.
  8. 8. Geographical Definition• With the exception of Cuba, all the continental islands of the Greater Antilles aremountainous. Cuba has wide elevated plains (plateaus) over 1000m in altitude. Inthe Greater Antilles there are also many low-lying alluvial plains and steeplimestone hills with caves. The rivers on these plains are not very large and manydisappear underground.• The smaller volcanic islands of the Eastern Caribbean are also rugged andmountainous. Volcanic eruptions have occurred on some of these islands in thepast (Mt Pelee). Recently there have been eruptions in St Vincent and Montserrat.These eruptions have caused much damage to surrounding settlements. Volcanicislands have a good water supply and deep fertile soils. The ruggedmountains, narrow valleys and swift flowing streams make beautiful scenery.• The Limestone islands are built up from the skeletal remains of coral polyps in thewarm Caribbean Sea. These islands are flat with no large rivers and very few lakes.Soils on limestone rock lack depth and are mostly infertile. Some of the limestoneislands like Barbados are raised high above sea level. Many small ones, as thosefound in the Bahamas, are just at sea level. There is no great variety of scenery inlimestone islands.
  9. 9. Political Caribbean• Three kinds of governmental systems exist: independentstates, associated states and colonial dependencies.Several of the former colonial powers still possessterritories in the Caribbean or have very close relationswith them.• Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guyana are so called"departementes doutre-mer” and thus are part of Francessovereign territory and part of the E.U.• Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Montserratand Turks and Caicos are still British crown colonies• Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Saint Marten and StEustatius are dependencies of the Kingdom of theNetherlands. Puerto Rico is an associated state of the USA.
  10. 10. Political Caribbean• In terms of political arrangements, Cuba has acommunist system, Puerto Rico is annexed to theUSA, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago arerepublics.• The rest of the British W.I still hold to the Britishtraditional form of government, based on theWestminster-Whitehall model.• By and large the Caribbean has a rich postcolonial democratic tradition with a fewexceptions of Cuba, Dominican Republic and Haiti
  12. 12. Understanding Society and Culture• Expected Learning Outcomes– Evaluating typical definitions of society and culture– Explaining how the knowledge of the Social Deepensthe understanding of society– Analysing the relationship and overlaps betweensociety and culture– Appreciate the roles of the individual in thedevelopment of society and culture– Discuss the Various Caribbean portrayals of Societyand Culture
  13. 13. The Social• The social is described by Jeniffer Mohammed asthe ‘totality of explanations describing howpeople interact and make meanings from theirexperiences’• It has no existence of itself but is merely aconstruct through which we represent all theways we make meanings in our lives• Through the social we can explain the concepts ofsociety and culture more accurately
  14. 14. The Social• The totality of explanations describing howpeople interact and makes meanings of theirexperiences include– The variety of explanations people have for thesame thing– The tendency to prefer order and precision and tofeel safer when definitions are used.Understanding the social allows us to grasp the factthat the there is no one meaning for the concepts ofsociety and culture.
  15. 15. Concepts of ‘Society’ and ‘Culture’• Concepts of society and culture have oftenbeen cast as definitions with a precisemeanings, which is for the most part false– Society: a collection of people living in the samearea over time– Culture: the ways of life of a peopleThese definitions only become acceptable when oneunderstands that they are not comprehensivebecause the leave out much of what they attempt todescribe.
  16. 16. Society• A Society is the largest unit or group to whichan individual belongs. To the layman society isusually understood to mean a collection ofpersons, living in the same geographical areawith which one feels a sense of belonging.• To the sociologist however society is mainlydefined through its group structureframework.
  17. 17. Society• Each society has a social structure - that is anetwork of interrelationships amongindividuals and groups.• Sociologists study these various relationshipsin order to determine their effects on theoverall function of the society.
  18. 18. Elements of a society• Many elements determine the general socialconditions of a society. These elements can beclassified into five major areas:1. population characteristics2. social behaviour3. social institutions4. cultural influences5. social change
  19. 19. Population Characteristics• Population characteristics determine the general socialpatterns of a group of people living within a certaingeographical area.• There are two chief kinds of populationstudies, demography and human ecology.• Demography is the systematic study of thesize, composition and distribution of humanpopulations.• Demographers compile and analyze variousstudies, including peoples age, birth and deathrates, marriage rates, ethnic background and migrationpatterns.
  20. 20. Population Characteristics (Cont’d)• Human ecology on the other hand dealsmainly with the structure of urbanenvironments and their patterns of settlementand growth.• Studies in human ecology explain why andhow cities and other communities grow andchange.
  21. 21. Social Behaviour• Social Behaviour is studied extensively in the fieldof sociology. Social psychologists usually workwith small groups and observe attitude change,conformity, leadership morale and other forms ofbehaviour. They also study social interactionwhich is the way members of a group respond toone another and to other groups. In addition,sociologists examine the results of conflictsbetween groups such as crime, social movementand war.
  22. 22. Social Behaviour (Cont’d)• In most societies the standards of behaviour arepassed on from one generation to the next.Sociologists and psychologists observe howpeople adjust their behaviour to conform tothese standards (a process called socialization).• Sociologists also study social roles (the functionor expected behaviour of an individual within agroup) and status (a persons importance orrank).
  23. 23. Social Institutions• Social Institutions are organized relationshipsamong people which tend to perform specificactions within the society. These institutionsinclude businessorganizations, churches, government, securityforces, hospitals, family and schools. Eachinstitution, has a direct effect on the society inwhich it exists. For example, the attitudes and thegoals of an entire society are influenced by thetransmission of learning and knowledge ineducational institutions.
  24. 24. Culture• Culture in the eyes of a sociologist can bedefined as “the accumulated store ofsymbols, ideas, and material productsassociated with a social system, whether it bean entire society or a family”.(Johnson, 1995, p.68).
  25. 25. Culture (Cont’d)• The term culture has been defined in many wayswhether broadly or narrowly.• It can be thought of in the realm of activities such asMusic, Art or Literature, in the sense of a culturedperson has a knack for the fine arts.• Or in a broad sense culture inclusive of all areas of lifeand therefore every human society has a culture.Culture includes a societysarts, beliefs, customs, institutions, inventions, language, technology, norms and values. Culture producessimilar behaviour and thought among most people in aparticular society.
  26. 26. Characteristics of Culture• There are several important characteristics ofculture. The main ones are:1. a culture satisfies human needs in aparticular way2. a culture is acquired through learning3. a culture is based on the use of symbols4. a culture consists of individual traits andgroups of traits called patterns
  27. 27. Characteristics (Cont’d)• 1) Meeting Human Need• All cultures serve to meet basic needs shared byhuman beings. For example, every culture has methodsof obtaining food and shelter. Every culture also hasfamily relationships, economic and governmentalsystems, religious practices and forms of artisticexpression.• Each culture shapes the way its members satisfyhuman needs. Human beings have to eat but theirculture teaches them what, when and how to eat forexample many British people eat smoked fish forbreakfast but many Americans prefer cold cereals.
  28. 28. Characteristics (Cont’d)• 2) Acquired through learning• Culture is acquired through learning not through biologicalinheritance i.e. no person is born with a culture. Childrentake on the culture in which they are raised throughenculturation.• Children learn much of their culture through imitation andexperience. They also acquire culture through observation,paying attention to what goes on around them and seeingexamples of what their society considers right and wrong.Children may also absorb certain aspects of cultureunconsciously. For example, Arabic people tend to standcloser together when speaking to one another than mostEuropeans do. No one instructs them to do so, but theylearn the behaviour as part of their culture.
  29. 29. • Individual members of a particular culture alsoshare many beliefs, values, expectations andways of thinking. In fact, most culturallearning results from verbal communication.Culture is passed from generation togeneration chiefly through language.
  30. 30. Characteristics (Cont’d)• 3) Based on the use of symbols• Cultural learning is based on the ability to usesymbols. A symbol is something that stands forsomething else. The most important types ofsymbols are the words of a language. There is noobvious or necessary connection between asymbol and what it stands for. The English word“dog” is a symbol for a specific animal that barks.But other cultures have a different word thatstands for the same animal, “mbwa”(Swahili), “perro” (Spanish) “dawg” (Jamaican).
  31. 31. Characteristics (Cont’d)• 3) Consists of individual traits and groups oftraits called patterns.• Cultures are made up of individual elementscalled cultural traits. A group of related traitsor elements is a cultural pattern. Culturaltraits may be divided into material culture ornonmaterial culture.
  32. 32. Material and Non-Material Culture• Material culture consists of all the tangible things thatare made by the members of a society. It includes suchobjects as (architectural styles)buildings, jewelry, machines, cuisine, forms oftechnology, economic organization, paintings andartistic creations.• Nonmaterial culture refers to a societysnorms, beliefs, superstitions and values that guide theirbehaviour. A handshake, a marriage ceremony and asystem of justice are examples of nonmaterial culture.Cultural patterns may include numerous traits (bothmaterial and non material).
  33. 33. Culture as Subculture• Social scientists sometimes use the termsubculture to describe variations within aculture. Social groups often develop somecultural patterns of their own that set themapart from the larger society of which they area part. Subcultures may develop inbusinesses, ethnic groups, occupationalgroups, regional groups, religious groups andother groups within a larger culture e.g.Maroons in Jamaica.
  34. 34. Pluralism and Ethnocentrism• Pluralism: A society where two or more racialor ethnic groups live together but where thereis limited mixing of cultures or intermarriage.Each culture has maintained its own socialinstitutions ex. Religion, family• Ethnocentrism: an idea and policy derivedfrom a first world country and imposed on athird world country with the belief ofsuperiority
  35. 35. SOCIETY AND CULTURE – WHERE DOTHEY OVERLAP?• We have seen that society and culture haveseparate meanings. However, in commoneveryday use the terms are often used assynonyms because they are linked very closely.• While the syllabus requires you to know thedifferences in meaning between the two terms, itexpects that when they are written like that, youwill treat them as linked closely together.
  36. 36. SOCIETY AND CULTURE – WHERE DOTHEY OVERLAP?• There is only one area of overlap between theterms ‘society’ and ‘culture’.• Re-read the sections, you may find out what itis…
  37. 37. SOCIETY AND CULTURE – WHERE DOTHEY OVERLAP?• Okay no trolling…• We know society to have structure. The largest units orgroups within society were called social institutions.Yet these were intangibles: ideas, beliefs, and values.From these, tangible organizations were created. So,too, we should be aware that the material products ofa society are derived from the dominant underlyingvalues and beliefs of that society. Thus, the overlapbetween the two terms occurs at the level of theimportance of values. A society and its culture arerooted in the same values.
  38. 38. SOCIETY AND CULTURE – WHERE DOTHEY OVERLAP?• Our values represent ‘how strongly we feel aboutcertain qualities and how we rank the importance ofthese qualities’.• In most societies, values are cultural values, meaningthat they are collectively held by people in that society.For instance, there are dominant ideas in a societyabout what should count as physical beauty. Themembers of that society come to value theseattributes, that is, they rank them highly(and, consequently devalue others). Having thesevalues will, thus, influence how we behave, whom weadmire and what qualities we look for in a mate.
  39. 39. • This section dealt with society and culture, howthey differ and where they overlap. It may behelpful to think of society as a group of peopleoccupying a certain defined geographic spacecontinuously who feel a sense of belongingnessbecause they have developed a common culture.Culture here refers to underlying values andbeliefs. It can also be described as “… the way oflife of a people”. In the Caribbean Studiessyllabus, the term „society and culture‟ ispreferred to show how closely the concepts arerelated.
  40. 40. The roles of the individual in thedevelopment of society and culture• Society and culture are groupphenomena, both produced by groups ofpeople. Both concepts can be understood bestby studying the behaviours of people in thosegroups. Underlying those behaviours may be aset of intangibles - ideas, beliefs, or values.
  41. 41. The roles of the individual in thedevelopment of society and culture• We will focus on how invisible qualities suchas values can give rise to equally invisiblenorms which in turn are realized through thebehaviours of people in groups
  42. 42. Norms, Values and Behaviours• Norms spring from the values that arecherished in society and culture. Valuesrepresent a ranking of certain qualities whichwe feel strongly about. Thus, if society regardshighly the use of internationally acceptedEnglish as spoken language, then it willdevalue other forms of language.
  43. 43. Norms, Values and Behaviours• The norm which will then arise in thatsociety, with regard to language, will be theexpectation that persons will preferinternationally accepted English. To support thisexpectation, rewards and punishments(sanctions) are deemed necessary. Rewards willinclude acceptance, praise, and possibly paths toadvancement. Persons who habitually usedialects or patois will then find themselvesdisadvantaged, excluded, and open to criticismand ridicule. Punishmentsare, therefore, associated with actions which goagainst norms.
  44. 44. Norms, Values and Behaviours• Many of us choose behaviours from a range ofoptions that conform to what society or oursocial groups will allow us to do. Whileconforming behaviours help to maintain orderand cohesion in society and helps to avoidsanctions, they also sometimes help toperpetuate undesirable or inequitablepractices.
  45. 45. Characteristic Caribbean Behaviours• making fun of others,• camaraderie,• celebrations,• insularity,• religion,• preference for white, western culture,• kinship bonds/family ties• informality
  46. 46. How do values originate• They spring from the common experiencesshared by a group. Caribbean people share acommon history and geography and thesefactors are undoubtedly important in fosteringsome of the values that have come to shapesociety and culture in the Caribbean.• Our norms (rules for living) are shaped by ourvalues
  47. 47. How has geography shaped the valuesimportant in the Caribbean?• Its archipelagic nature – islands strung out in a chain as the Greater andLesser Antilles. This has helped to foster some degree of insularity and asense of separateness.• Mainland territories – the inclusion of Guyana, Suriname, Cayenne andBelize, in the Caribbean Region, adds even greater variety amongCaribbean peoples.• Problems of definition – the label, „Caribbean‟, is also applied to somecountries without a Caribbean coastline; such asGuyana, Suriname, Cayenne, and the Bahamas.• Mountainous terrain – the inhospitable interior (for example, theWindwards) has encouraged an outward-looking culture, developingstrong ties with people of the coasts in nearby islands through inter-marriage and commerce, helping to foster kinship across nationalboundaries.• Human activity – agriculture, settlement patterns, fishing - springs out of acommon physical environment with similar natural resources.
  48. 48. How has history shaped the valuesimportant in the Caribbean?• We have had a relatively short recorded history in the Caribbean so it is fairly easyto isolate some of the main events and processes that have shaped our values. Forexample,• - slavery, an experience of both the indigenous inhabitants and Africans who wereforcibly brought to the Caribbean. One value that is thought to have come out ofthis experience is an emphasis on resistance, for example, much of Caribbeanmusic, in different ways, reflects themes that deal with liberation.• - colonialism, an extended period of European rule, experienced throughout theCaribbean. A value that is attributed to colonial rule is a preference for foreignproducts, ways of governing, technology, clothes and lifestyles, as these aregenerally believed to be superior to their local counterparts.• - indentureship, the importation of East Indians and Chinese in large numbersmainly into Guyana, Trinidad and Suriname, as labourers. Many of the descendantsof these labourers continue to value their oriental origins, customs, language andreligions.• You should note that several values can stem from any one of the above factors.Other historical factors you could have mentioned are –
  49. 49. Cont’d• independence,• chronic economic depression,• the development of plural societies,• globalization.
  50. 50. HOW DO PEOPLE LEARN VALUES?• Socialization is the process through which welearn the values, norms and behaviours that areacceptable in our society and culture. We „learn‟through various means – sometimes things are„caught‟, sometimes taught –formally, informally, by imitation, or reflection.Socialization begins in the home, where throughprimary socialization we learnlanguage, relationships and concepts, and aboutourselves in relation to others. When we beginschooling, secondary socialization starts andgoes on all our lives. We are being socializedevery day.
  51. 51. Active Socialization• Variations in attitudes, dispositions, and convictions produce arange of behaviours, and come about because individuals do notpassively adopt values and norms, and the circumstances of theirsocialization are varied. Socialization is an active process where anindividual brings his or her own dispositions and attitudes to bearon decision making – sometimes deliberately, sometimesunconsciously.• Learning a set of values through socialization - from home, themedia, school, peer group, and the church, does not necessarilymean that these values will remain intact throughout ones life.Persons can re-socialize themselves and learn other values. This isan example of active socialization.
  52. 52. Hierarchy of Values• Another variation apparent in society and culture is thedifferent ways in which individuals rank values. Patriotism,for example, may be very highly valued, but for someindividuals or groups other values may be ranked higher.For example:• Uppermost in other peoples hierarchy of values will be thedevelopment of an overall national consciousness wherepatriotism becomes more important than small groupaffiliation.• Others value the personal highly.• Directly opposite to such a value position, will be a Gandhi,a Mandela, or a Martin Luther King, where what is good formankind takes precedence
  53. 53. Latent and Manifest Acts• According to the sociologist there is a myriadof possible effects to each action in the societyand culture• Latent functions refer to the unintended,hidden or unexpected consequences of an act.• Manifest functions, on the other hand, referto the anticipated, open or stated goals of anact.
  54. 54. Status and Roles• All members of society occupy a number of socialpositions known as statuses. In society an individualmay have several statuses -occupational, family, gender. Statuses are culturallydefined despite the fact that they may be based onbiological factors such as sex.• Each status in society is accompanied by a number ofnorms that defines how an individual occupying aparticular status is expected to act. This group of normsis known as role. Social roles regulate and organizebehaviour. In particular they provide means foraccomplishing certain tasks.
  55. 55. Cultural Renewal, Retention andErasure as a part of values• @Cultural Erasure• The erasure of cultural practices is often a gradualprocess and usually stems from an on-goingconflict between traditional ways ofaccomplishing tasks in the society and newermethods. The latter may be more efficient andcost-effective and may save time and energy. Theadoption of appliances such asrefrigerators, washingmachines, dishwashers, and microwaves, hascontributed to the loss of cultural practices.
  56. 56. Cultural Renewal, Retention andErasure as a part of values• Cultural retention results from a deliberatedesire to keep traditions alive so that somegroups would be able to preserve their senseof identity. Small groups especially, withinlarger communities, tend to feel alienated.You may be able to think of distinct socialgroups in your country where retention ofcultural practices is emphasized because it isthought that the very existence of the groupdepends on these practices.
  57. 57. Cultural Renewal, Retention andErasure as a part of values• Cultural renewal refers to efforts to salvage parts ofour past by fashioning new practices based on theold. Such efforts stem from a feeling that there ismuch value in what we have neglected. Also, inincorporating new values and norms into our societyand culture we find that traditional practices are re-cast and appear in different forms. In many Caribbeancountries traditional food preparations which are timeconsuming and labour intensive are now speeded upand made easier to produce for the tourist marketand working persons using modern techniques suchas refrigeration and food processing.
  59. 59. Investigating features of CaribbeanSociety and Culture• Expected Learning Outcomes– Explain terms such as culturaldiversity, hybridization, social stratification andsocial mobility– Examine diversity and commonality in theCaribbean– Analyse the phenomenon of cultural change– Discuss the issue of identity and cultural diversity
  60. 60. Cultural Diversity• Culture is diverse, meaning, people interprettheir culture however they want and act fromtheir social location i.e. their context.• Therefore even if the society seems racially orethnically homogenous the culture isn’tnecessarily uniform, i.e. we don’t experienceculture the same way (remember the social?)
  61. 61. Cultural Diversity• People will differ because of ethnic categoriessuch as religion, traditions and customs andeven if these are all the same we don’t allexperience them the same way.• We all have different beliefs and value systemswhich influence our perceptions and not onlythat each of us has a unique way of expressingthem
  62. 62. Commonalities and differences• Culture therefore is a diverse phenomenondespite our habit of limiting it in a static way.• When we then speak of diversity in theCaribbean region we mean we acknowledgethat there are similarities and commonalitiesamongst Caribbean cultures
  63. 63. Historical Context of CaribbeanDiversity• All main Caribbean cultural groups were forciblyuprooted or coerced into leaving their homelands.• The indigenous populations were then later decimatedby European Conflict.• Groups were imported for the purpose of manuallabour and all interacted within the context ofEuropean dominance.• Historians are studiers of time give chronologicalnarratives of significant time periods and comparethem with like events, to understand better what isgeneral or common. To learn more about culturalretention, renewal and erasure.
  64. 64. Sociological Context of CaribbeanDiversity• The groups who came to the Caribbean varied in termsof cultural orientations and posed problems to thesociety due to differences in religion, language andcustoms which lead to distinct Caribbean cultures.• Colonization then lead to the cultural control andtransformation of these relationships due to theplantation system and assimilatory laws.• Sociology therefore focuses on the relationships amongsocial groups through social stratification, status withsocial groups and in current eras the means ofacquiring social mobility.
  65. 65. Anthropological Context of CaribbeanDiversity• Anthropologists study how people at a particular timeand space come to learn what they stand for orrepresent.• For example the perceptions of an individual based onthe transplanting process the societies of theCaribbean differed i.e. Indians were brought as labourto set up completion; Africans, etc. had other optionsand as such were relegated to the bottom of the socialhierarchy due to their different customs• Occupation of the same space meant specialaccommodations had to be made.
  66. 66. Cont’d• These included:• Places where different groups were brought aslabour ex. Guyana. Pluralism existed as aresult.• Hybridization of races for example betweenthe Europeans and the First Peoples• Maroonage – running away in attempt tobuild a different society and culture
  67. 67. The ‘us’ and ‘them’ syndrome• This refers to the group of social constructionswhich we as Caribbean people have inheritedto keep people of different ethnic groupsapart.• This is a main feature of Caribbean society &culture and has developed not because theCaribbean is diverse but because we havebeen socialized to behave in this ‘us vs. them’way.
  68. 68. Cultural Pluralism• This is the term associated with the culturaldiversity as a result of European colonization,when different groups were brought hereeither forcibly or under contract.• In a plural society there age two or moreethnic groups who share the same space butdo not mix to a significant extent ex. Minglingat School or workplace.
  69. 69. The ‘us’ and ‘them’ syndrome• In the Caribbean, societies that seem similarsuch as Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad andTobago are polarized as a result of relationsbetween those of Indian and African descentand there have been incidents of violence inthe past. T&T teeters on the brink of this fromtime to time.
  70. 70. Positive and Negative effects ofCultural Diversity• Positive Impacts of diversity Negative effects ofdiversity• add richness to regions society √ creates insularity/narrowmindedness• exposure to multiculturalism √ ethnocentrism arises• recognition and appreciation of other √ impedescommunication – different peoples lifestyles languagesand dialects• basis for growth into tourism product√ animosity .• creates strong patriotism• learn to do things differently √ dominant culture displaces culturaltraits• gives awareness of cultural heritage of smaller nations
  71. 71. Hybridization• This refers to the processes of cultural andethnic mixing to produce new or ‘creole’forms.• For example prior to Columbus’ arrival theKalinagos and Tainos adopted each others’languages and customs.
  72. 72. Racial and Ethnic Hybridization• Amerindian, African and to a lesser extent Indianwomen were forced to cohabit and have children forEuropean oppressors• This went on for centuries resulting in a mixed orcoloured race of people. Sexual relations resulting inchildren of mixed race is called miscegenation.• Children of such unions with predominantly whitefeatures according to the prevalent racial ideologiesasserted that these lighter skinned children weresomehow better than their maternal ancestors andwere treated more leniently
  73. 73. Racial and Ethnic hybridization• A pigmentocracy evolved where people offairer complexions wielded more prestige andpower in the society than others.• Thus skin colour, facial features and even hairtexture are important in the discourse ofculture and identity in the Caribbean, a socialconstruct based on biological characteristics
  74. 74. Racial and Ethnic hybridization• From the very beginning indigenous populations and lateron the enslaved and indentured have been consideredsubhuman.• Racial and ethnic hybridization then underscored andemphasized the prevailing ideologies in the society, equating skin colour with social constructions of inferiorityand superiority• A continuum of colour and shade therefore came tocharacterize Caribbean people with each colour and shadewith a different connotation. Those almost white ones hadhigher prospects. This respect for colour has extended intoall walks of life even to the acquirement of Europeanphysical features or even alliances with white or lighterskinned persons as means of social betterment
  75. 75. Racial and Ethnic hybridization• Persons of mixed race have such a diversity offeatures it is often difficult for them to identify asense of cultural belonging. Some countries mayhave a larger ‘coloured’ population i.e. Trinidad orSt. Lucia or with two larger populations whichmake the coloured populace i.e. Jamaica orAntigua.• The combos are innumerable and are found at allsocio-economic aspects of the society howeverthere is an alignment of these people more withaffluent groups in society
  76. 76. Racial and Ethnic hybridization• Various terms have been coined to define these groups:• Europeans encountered the Amerindians in the 15thcentury and during the violent impact the race of mestizoswere born. Hispanic scholars use this term o label all mixedrace Caribbean people i.e. Afro-mestizo, European-Indianmestizo• In the British Caribbean scholars the race produced throughthe interactions between the enslaved Africans and theEuropeans as mulattoes. Due to use of lightness as amarker on the social hierarchy finer distinctions emergedsuch as the sambo (mulatto x African), quadroon (mulatto xEuropean).
  77. 77. Racial and Ethnic hybridization• Other unions took place between maroon Africans andAmerindians, forming the Afro-Amerindian mestizotype for example the Misquito Indians of Belize andNicaragua. The Belize Garifuna which relocated to StVincent were descendants of Black Carib rebels andlocal Africans and Amerindians.• Their Arawakian language persists as well as thereligious and kinship networks. This hybridized cultureis a remarkable example of cultural retention.• The Caribbean is a rich showcase of racial and ethnicdiversity from hybridization and as such can be definedas a polyglot society.
  78. 78. Cultural Hybridization• Cultural hybridization is defined as the development ofnew cultural forms out of existing ones through aperiod of contact and interaction.• Creolization is used instead if this process took placewithin the context if European colonization. Thus in theCaribbean the two are interchangeable• The greatest effect of this is cultural diversity, manifestthrough the hybrid forms created when two or moreethnic groups meet and interact. These hybrids can beany mixture of the original forms.
  79. 79. The processes of Cultural Hybridization• To understand this process we must have afundamental understanding of the termscultural erasure, cultural retention andcultural renewal.
  80. 80. Cultural Erasure• This refers to practices which have died out or are currentlydying.• There is a debate as to whether culture can truly dies.• Due to the definitions of culture as material and non-material previously a culture can survive through theartefacts it has left behind.• Non material culture is harder to define as the language ofthe Taino can still survive through place names or localdialects to a small extent.• The hybridity also due to the intermingling betweenEuropeans and the Amerindian populations duringconquest could mean that Taino practices may exist todaythrough some Caribbean practices.
  81. 81. Cultural Retention• This refers to practices which have survived evenwhen most other forms and symbols of a cultureare no longer existent.• Traditional Carib basketry designs and technologystill continue in Dominica and elsewhere thoughthese populations continuously change and adaptto modernity.• A cultural retention usually refers to a specificaspect of culture for example religion or language
  82. 82. Cultural Renewal• This occurs when a group goes through aconscious rejuvenation process and returns tosome elements of its culture which it believeshave been ignored or suppressed.• It normally via a change in consciousness broughton by radical historical change.• For example the advent of Garveyism & theHarlem Renaissance in the early 20th centurycatalysed a development of black consciousnessin the Caribbean and the US.
  83. 83. Examples of Cultural Hybridization• Religion• World Religions which met in the Caribbean underwent alarge amount of hybridization or syncretism into creolizedformats. These could be small differences or radical onesfrom the original.• Christian and African religions have undergone a largerprocess of syncretism than other ones since Conquest andlater Missionary activity• Africans tried to fill in the vacuum left in their cultural lifedue to removal from their homelands and as such created alarge amount of syncretic religions which oftenincorporated elements of the dominant religion inclusive ofthe belief in the creator and cosmology.
  84. 84. Religion• Myal is an early creolized religion developedin Jamaica where Christian elements wereblended with African World views.• US Baptists fleeing the American revolutionsettled in Jamaica bringing their views to Myalbelievers who often incorporated activelyChristian doctrine into the Myal world view• Revivalism, Pukumania and Kumina were allderived from Myal
  85. 85. Religion• The Shouter Baptists also developed similarly to Myal where USBaptists who settled in Trinidad & Tobago and St Vincent in the 19thCentury had their beliefs syncretized into the existing African beliefsof Rada, Shango and Obeah; migration between the countries alsoserved to strengthen the faith though persecuted by Britain.• African Elements such as drumming and dancing to music isimportant to worship with an emotional ceremony.• Rastafari believe that all members of the black race belong to oneof the twelve tribes of Israel and that one incarnation of Jah isChrist.• Santeria in Cuba survives with a host of Roman Catholic saintsrenamed in Yoruba. In these afro-centric religions a greateremphasis is placed on spiritual possession and occult practices.
  86. 86. Religion• Syncretism is a complex process whether African orChristian beliefs are dominant. The beliefs are betterdescribed as integrated as practitioners have meldedboth European and African elements which are veryhard to deconstruct and explain.• The beliefs aren’t merely just retentions but arehybrids formed under subjugation and resilience to foran identity.• Not surprisingly major Christian denominations such asCatholicism and Anglicanism are currently beingcreolized. Clapping, dancing and drumming are amainstay in worship today
  87. 87. Language• Caribbean languages are extremely hybridized mainly of thedominant European language as well as words sprinkled fromother languages and expressed through oral culture• African languages from the enslaved were not usually writtenlanguages and were mixed to form creole languages whichdiffered immensely from the European master tongue.• These are referred to as creole or patois. Each country hastheir own type which has emerged due to immensehybridization.• Each language has a specific structure and lexicon whichtremendously differs from the standard, either created oradopted from other languages
  88. 88. Language• Each type whether English, French or Dutch creole isconsidered a fully developed language as it meets theneeds of those in the society. It is usually the mothertongue of all residents in a specific Caribbean country.• Creole, especially in the Anglophone Caribbean isexpressed as a continuum, where one end is theextreme of creole (basilect) and the other StandardEnglish. In between includes language used for alldifferent situations. Mesolect tends to be used by mostcreole speakers and it is easier to shift between creoleand the standard language.
  89. 89. Language• Since the words used in English creole for example in Jamaicancreole or Trinidadian creole are similar to the standard the socialconstruction that these languages are corrupt has developed.• This has arisen due to ideologies of European culture as superiorand Hybridized cultural forms as inferior.• French creoles are found in the patois of Dominica, St Lucia andall the French Territories and Haiti.• It Haiti creole is called kweyol. The French lexicon creoles in theAnglo-Caribbean are not widely spoken but are extremely similarto the Franco-Caribbean.• Haitian creole is different due to the Haitian revolution’s removalof French influence in 1804 the language structure differsimmensely from others and is often debated as Ewe languagewith French vocab
  90. 90. Cultural Change• The termsenculturation, acculturation, assimilation, transculturation and interculturation areaccurately used to describe cultural change.
  91. 91. Enculturation• This is a process of socialization where a personbecomes part of another’s culture.• This can occur through assimilation oracculturation.• This has been tried by European Colonists. Onehas to note however of the view that one’sculture can be erased while being enculturated.• Once the practice still lives in one’s memory andcan be practiced by others it isnt erased.• Enculturation alerts us to the possibility ofcultural erasure.
  92. 92. Acculturation• Acculturation was used as the means for the colonies to developan appreciation of British culture during colonization.• For example the adoption of English as an official language,English curriculum even institutions of laws and governance.• The belief was that subjects would be socialized into a deepappreciation of British culture, following its customs andpractices; without the expectation of becoming British butencultured to produce a hybrid culture with English values• Acculturation meant the erasure of some aspects of African andAmerindian culture however a unique culture was formed wherethere was reverence to British values and an embrace of Afro-centric and other cultural forms (religion/language)• Retentions also existed through African herbal medicine andcooking i.e. Garifuna and the Maroons.
  93. 93. Assimilation• This occurs when a dominant group makes a bid toenculturate another by attempting to supplant all aspectsof its culture and make it over into the image of thedominant group.• For example the French assimilation policy where theFrench intended to convert her colonized people intoFrench people, culturally speaking ignoring indigenouscustoms and values.• The colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe areacknowledged as part of France however both ambivalentlyidentify with their Caribbean Identity and their Frenchcitizenship showing that despite pressures Caribbeanpeople have only been enculturated to a certain extent ashybridized Franco-Caribbean culture exists.
  94. 94. Transculturation• This describes the process whereby a culture changesdrastically, actually overcoming itself and translatinginto something new.• For instance Cuba before and after the revolutionwhere cultures of pre-revolutionary Cuba has beentransformed into a more rigid socialist perspectiveafter 1962. However despite social change andcollectivist economy many cultural beliefs remained• Another is the experience of ‘seasoning’ to slavery ofnewly arrived Africans by creole Africans. Despite manyattempts at cultural erasure some elements of identityremained.
  95. 95. Interculturation• This refers to the mixing of cultures that goeson between groups who share a space. Thegroups do not necessarily give up their ownculture but participates in various ways ineach others lives.• For example the meeting of Africans and othergroups in a Culturally plural society such asTrinidad & Tobago at schools or at theworkplace.
  96. 96. Social Stratification• This is another characteristic through which Caribbeansociety can be identified.• It refers to the ranking of social groups according toone or more criteria deemed important in society.• The ranking usually indicates the money, power orprestige of a specified group.• Different positions on the hierarchy are called socialstrata and status is a rank or position in the hierarchy.• This system indicates that groups in society areunequal and this condition persist across generations.
  97. 97. Social Stratification• Ranking society may differ for example in closedsystems of social stratification like the Caribbeansociety during slavery the criteria determiningones status was race and colour.• Therefore the system was closed to mobility asrace was the determining factor.• Similarly for caste systems which are also closedone can only interact within one’s caste.• Closed system like these are based on ascribed orhereditary status.
  98. 98. Social inequality• Stratified ranking systems of social groups are forms ofinstitutional inequality meaning people have proportionalaccess to privileges based on their position in the hierarchy.• Thus even a poor person with qualifications may lose a jobto a wealthy not as qualified applicant.• In the Caribbean where colour is held in high regard it oftenhappens that lighter coloured individuals obtain better jobsand better marriage prospects and opportunities thanthose ranked lower on these traits• This is an example of social stratification maintainsinequality where groups with more money obstruct othergroups from moving upwards in society and are calledgatekeepers.
  99. 99. Social Stratification Under Slavery• Plantation society in the Caribbean in the 17th, 18th and 19thcenturies was a closed system of stratification based onascribed criteria of race and colour.• Race and colour were tied to ones occupation in thesociety. Black people to a could only be slaves or freepeople of colour. White people were never of low socialstatus though white indentured labours strained on theborders.• One could not escape this system unless one hadbargaining power. Persons of mixed descent were fortunatein this regard and got lighter work as a result (that was apun LOL). Many were also freed by their white fathers andeven educated, so had better prospects. Coloureds were anefficient buffer group in the society.
  100. 100. Social Stratification Under Slavery• However under closer inspection the three levels werealso rigidly subdivided.• Among whites those born in Europe were usually ofhigher standing but were often absentee so the creolewhites were at the top of the hierarchy. Poorer whites(overseers etc.) were somewhat removed but stillranked above the free coloureds via race.• Among free coloureds there were divisions basedfurther on hue, degree of education, a protection froma white person while among the enslaved distinctiononly existed based on labour type i.e. house & field.
  101. 101. Social class and Social stratification• In the Caribbean today social class is mainly used todistinguish among the different social strata based on socialand economic resources.• The Caribbean is defined using the ‘class structure’,stratification under upper, middle and lower social classes.• Social class in modern society is perceived as based onachieved criteria referring to one’s performance in beingable to earn what the society values (wealth, power,prestige). There is however unequal opportunity in gettingrewards.• It is important to note though the Caribbean is stratifiedaccording to social class, that situation has evolvedgradually from plantation society.
  102. 102. Social Mobility• This is the movement of individuals from onesocial class to another, either up or down thehierarchy.• In closed systems like in Plantation societysocial mobility was impossible or very limited.Now in the Caribbean it is possible now due towhat one has achieved. A society where onecan advance socially based on achievements iscalled a meritocracy.
  103. 103. Social Mobility• The main ways of advancement are:1. Marrying up2. Acquiring the necessary educational credentials.3. Owning a successful business and investingwisely• In many cases mobility is intergenerationalmeaning that a family can move up the socio-economic bracket due to the foresight of one ofthe elders in the family
  105. 105. Expected Learning Outcomes1. Describe the main historical events processes inCaribbean history2. Relate historical events and processes inCaribbean society and culture3. Critically analyse traditional accounts ofCaribbean history4. Apply historical knowledge in describingdiversity and complexity in Caribbean societyand culture5. Appreciate how a knowledge of history deepensan understanding of Caribbean social life.
  106. 106. Migrations• This is the movement of people from place toplace meaning the movement of society andculture as well as their meeting and mixingwith other societies and countries.• The Caribbean has experienced significantmigrations, each impacting social life. Themain focus of this is immigration into theregion
  107. 107. Earliest Caribbean migrations• The idea that Caribbean history is new is anethnocentric one where emphasis is given toColumbus since his voyage in 1492• The more accurate representation dates fromover 10,000 years before the common era.
  108. 108. Challenges to these ethnocentricassumptions• The fact that the earliest remains of habitation are found in both Trinidadand Cuba suggests that migrations into the Caribbean were not just fromsouth to north but also people who came into the region from CentralAmerica and Florida• These earliest peoples of the Archaic and pre-Ceramic period spread outand lived in the Greater and Lesser Antilles over 5000 years before othergroups migrated into the region• From about 2400 years BCE different cultural groups distinguished bydistinctive pottery styles and lifestyles began to migrate from S. Americainto the Lesser Antilles. They didn’t settle chronologically from north tosouth but skipped some altogether. These people were acculturated intothe Saladoid, Barrancoid and Ostionoid cultures showing hybridizationhas been happening for millenia.• These people enjoyed remarkable access to mobility through for examplethe Carib Canoe. Trade was also significant as they were in constantcommunication.• Also DNA evidence has proved that the Taino genes are present to linkthem with current Caribbean gene pools
  109. 109. Challenges to these ethnocentricassumptions• Amerindians are not a uniform group as hybridization hasdeveloped differently in various parts in the Caribbean as thesehybrid groups coexisted with Archaic people for example theCiboneys.• European labels for the Indigenous were proved to be wrong forexample as people of the Greater Antilles were called theArawaks (the language) rather than their true name the Taino.• The Taino were acknowledged to have a peaceful nature by theSpanish and the Caribs a very belligerent and even Cannibalisticone which has confirmed to not be completely accurate. TheTaino were initially peaceful but readily attempted to defendthemselves against extermination. Likewise the Caribs were byno means Cannibals this was only an assumption made bySpaniards like Las Casas. It can be assumed the true warmongerswere the Spanish.
  110. 110. European Migration• Columbus may not have been the first European to visit the NewWorld but he was the first one to bring tangible evidence of itsexistence.• With his return to Europe with gold a new spirit of conquest wasstirred up to seek fortunes… conquistadors to plunder and prieststo convert ‘heathens’• A society was therefore organized to facilitate the export ofprecious metals to Spain.• The Caribbean was the springboard for all this activity which waslaunched mainly aimed at C. and S. America. As gold was discoveredon Hispanola it was decided the local Taino populations weresuitable for labour. Through greed for power, wealth Spanishsettlers enslaved, exploited them, and killed many…eventuallyleading to their genocide.
  111. 111. European Migration• The migrants who continued to come fromSpain after the initial rush came tosettle, become ranch owners and establishventures on the new colonies• Eventually the vast area of their new territorybecame too large to solely monopolize andother countries such as England, France, theNetherlands and Portugal started to contestthe Spanish claims.
  112. 112. European Migration• People often treated Europe as a unit however there were largedifferences among the territories in the New World.• For over 100 years after Spanish claims no other country was ableto settle permanently in the Caribbean.• Britain and France in the 16th and 17th century came to pillage andsteal Spanish galleons carrying Gold to Spain and lay siege to theirterritories through buccaneers, privateers and pirates.• According to the Treaty of Tordisillas Spain was not awarded Africaand such they had to rely on Portugal for a supply of slaves grantedby an asiento (licence) as times changed the asiento went to theDutch, British and French. This incited rivalry as the majorcommodity wasn’t gold but human cargo.• Smuggling was another means countries used to encroach on theSpanish. The British and to larger extent the Dutch hindered tradeas they smuggled goods and slaves.• Once the British and French permanently settled in St Kitts in 1624it set the stage for migrants to settle on the other island of theLesser Antilles which were virtually ignored by the Spanish
  113. 113. European Migration• Many of the 17th century French and British colonies wereproprietorships meaning that the monarch would greatnobles, favoured persons or even companies the sole right to settleand develop territory with the expectation of getting taxes from thecolonists• The Dutch settled on Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao and Suriname, StMaarten, Saba and St Eustatius. They were less interested inagriculture but more so in salt mining on the Guiana coastline andtrading in slaves and other goods.• Unlike the Spanish, other settlers did not enslave local populationsbut instead initially obtained European indentured labour fortobacco before sugar became widespread.• Denmark settled St Thomas in 1672 later St Croix and St John whileSweden obtained St Barth’s from France and later resold them in1878.
  114. 114. Forced migration of Africans• It is speculated by some especially Ivan van Sertima that the African may havecome to the Caribbean before Columbus. However it is known that Africanstravelled alongside Spaniards as free men. Slavery existed in Spain for centuriesinclusive of all creeds and races. Slavery also existed in Africa before the Atlanticslave trade.• It was a truly capitalist system which involved tremendous brutality betweenmaster and slave – which changed slave relations forever.• In Europe and Africa people were enslaved for various reasons inclusive ofreligious persecution, captives of war, payments of loans, dowries etc., or couldinvolved kidnapping and trading.• There was little difference in ethnicity between master and slave and no society’seconomy depended fully on slavery – even those who captured and distributed.• What made the triangular trade unique was forced migration of millions into alifetime of captivity and servitude for centuries, whose foundation was basedsolely on race emerging with a full blown racist ideology overtime.• Enslaved Africans were imported into the Caribbean in small numbers since 1503but by 1520 the Crown gave permission to import more as a supplement to thedwindling Taino population. The Portuguese had the asiento for African trade assaid before, which eventually went to the Dutch, French then British.
  115. 115. Slave Trade• European merchants, banks, etc. invested capital for ventures andgovernments had an active role in the commercial aspects of theTrade founding by charter Joint Stock Companies ex. The RoyalAfrican Company, the Company of Senegal and the Dutch WestIndia Company which were given a monopoly to trade slaves forgoods for specific periods. The were responsible for defending slaveforts in Africa and could capture rival powers’ merchandise.• West Africa was integral, as such each power built different fortsalong the coast ex. Elmina. These were used to store goods fromEurope for trading purposes and to house African future slaves.These forts were also responsible for negotiating with chiefs andemissaries acting on behalf of their states.• Estimates put the amount of Africans kidnapped at 15 million.Portuguese were active mainly the Gold Coast and eventually toAngola. The Dutch in the Slave, Ivory and Gold Coasts with smallersettlements. France in Benin and Senegal. Wherever a countrysettled it had its own relations within the existing system tosafeguard their respective interests.
  116. 116. Slave Trade• Initially the Europeans slave raided to get Africans. Laterthey had to go deeper inland and form alliances withAfrican groups willing to capture and sell fellow Africans.They inevitably became involved into domestic matters ofKingdoms providing guns and ammunition to their allies.• Once slave ships left the African Coast they began theMiddle Passage across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and N.America. The conditions on the slaver were so bad thatmany died from suffocation due to lack of space percaptive. The more a slaver could carry the higher the profitand if there was a cap on fatalities per trip more slaveswere simple carried to cancel it out.• When Africans were sold they were sold in exchange ofsugar, rum and molasses and headed back to ports inEurope such as London, Amsterdam and Bordeaux. Thiswas the final leg of the complex triangular trade.
  117. 117. Effects of the Slave Trade• The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was the singlemost important process which impacted theCaribbean. It changed pre-existing Caribbeansocieties into slave societies and had a myriadof other effects:
  118. 118. Effects of the Slave Trade1. The slave trade was directly tied to the need for labour thereforelarge plantation economies tended to have large Africanpopulations ex. English, French and Dutch2. The Spanish however slowly introduced slaves to plantations inCuba, Puerto Rico and Santo Domingo so less Africans initiallyresided. However in the late 19th century Africans were beingimported after British, Dutch and French slavery & its trade wereabolished.3. The trades in Britain ended in 1804, The Netherlands in 1814 andFrance in 1818. Slavery itself was abolished in 1834 for theBritish, in France in 1848 and in Holland in 1863. Cuba abolishedfinally in 1886.4. Though slavery ended in 1886 in Latin America Black populationsare no majority and only comprise 12% in most countries. InPuerto Rico however most are mixed race or mullato.
  119. 119. Effects of the Slave Trade4. This forced migration formed adiaspora, immigrants with a commonhomeland to which they share an emotionalattachment.5. We must not forget that the Caribbean’sAfrican diaspora had distinct ethnicdifferences. The French traded a lot ofDahomey, the Cubans Bantu and the eaternCaribbean many Ibo and Koromanti.
  120. 120. Migration of Indentured Labourers• After slavery was abolished in 1834 many of thesmaller territories such as Antigua became freeovernight while others went through a compulsoryperiod of Apprenticeship until 1838. The new issue ofprices of labour became major and influencedindentureship.• Indentureship was an old concept reintroduced tosolve labour problems in the Caribbean whereindentured servants agreed to enter into a contract towork in the Caribbean for a period of 5-7 or 10 yearsfor minimum wages, their passage would be paid forwith the option to return to their country of originonce the period of time was over or receiving a grantof land in the new territory.
  121. 121. Migration of Indentured Labourers• India proved to be the most satisfactory laboursource and in 1845 both Trinidad andJamaica, following British Guiana beganimporting indentured labour.• While immigrants came essentially to allCaribbean countries in small numbers in Trinidadand British Guiana were sustained & large whereby 1917 239,000 had gone to BritishGuiana, 144,000 to Trinidad and 36,000 toJamaica.
  122. 122. Migration of Indentured Labourers• The migrants came from mainly NorthernIndia, Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and other parts ofIndia and were willing to work for the smallwages offered.• Africans did not trust people who were willingto work for such small wages which hinderedefforts at wage bargaining.
  123. 123. Effects of Immigration• IMPACT OF IMMIGRATION INTO THE REGION• Opened the Caribbean to Europe, Africa and Asia• Introduction of new technologies- processing of sugar cane• New systems of government• New architectural style using different building materials: Spanishwall, Georgian• New languages: Spanish, English, Dutch, French• New crops/dishes: sugar cane, bananas, citrus, rice, mangos, currydishes, pak choi, tamarind, mango, Chinese dishes, buns, etc• New religious beliefs: Christianity, Hinduism, Muslim• Adequate and reliable (although inefficient) use of labour forcewhich maintain monoculture production
  124. 124. • New system of production - (slavery & indentureship)• Created a multi-racial society with diverse culture• Caused a loss of identity for migrants and threatened familystructure• Stimulated growth "of social services especially medical care• • Contributed to growth of peasant farming, huckstering, shopkeeping• • New skills introduced into the region : metal, leather, irrigation• • Movement from plantations by ex-slaves: free villages; growthof peasant farms• Movement westwards / SW to Central America: Cuba (sugar,domestic, dress making, Costa Rica, Nicaragua (banana), Panama(railway >canal banana), Venezuela (oilfields)• Movement northwards to USA (WWII- war time jobs)• Eastwards to England, France (WWII- war time jobs; reconstructionafter WWII ii transport, construction, postal, service nursing)• Northwards to North America - economic as well as political ( Cuba,Haiti, Dominican Republic
  125. 125. Diversity of Indentureship• Despite the pluralism of Caribbean society, the influx ofimmigrants from Guyana, Trinidad and Suriname havecreated significant groups and sub-groups withunresolved tensions.• After 1848 France brought Indian Immigrants fromPondicherry, a French colony in India, to work in Canefields and have examples of Tamil or Madrasi culturefound in Guadeloupe today.• The Dutch brought labour from the island of Java totheir colonies to their country of Dutch Guiana. Theyalso imported Indians from British India.• Suriname, Guyana & Trinidad Indian populations arelarger than other ethnic groups today.• Chinese in comparison to India, immigrants assimilatedinto the region marrying African women and becomingChristian
  126. 126. Development of Systems of Production• This refers to the ways an economy isorganised to produce commodities to sustainsociety.
  127. 127. Encomienda• Spanish monarchs decided that native populationshould be divided up amongst Spaniards, who had theright to exact from them some form of tribute –produce, gold or personal service. In return, theSpaniards would guarantee religious instruction in theRoman Catholic Faith.• In reality however the Amerindians were treated asslaves and many died due to hunger, overwork, harshpunishments and European disease.• Many committed suicide and infanticide as theirprecious metals, freedom and even food were taken toincrease Spain’s power and prestige in Europe
  128. 128. Slavery• This was introduced throughout the Americasand was primarily concerned with a system ofproduction bound up with the cultivation ofsugar and the economic organization of theplantation.
  129. 129. Slavery as a total institution• Slavery was a total institution meaning that itdetermines all aspects of the lives of African people, aswell as the social and economic arrangements of theplantation and by extension the society and formed thebasis of plantation society• Slavery shaped the lives of Africans primarily by theattempts it made to dehumanize the African.• Africans were regarded as ‘chattel’ or property ownedby the Europeans who had paid for them.• This attempt at dehumanization was done bysuppressing the social and cultural ties which helpedthem to form an identity and sense of belonging.
  130. 130. Slavery as a total institutionFor example:• Choosing Africans from different racial groups for the plantationto minimize communication and bonds of kinship betweenthem based on fear of Africans being together.• Giving them European names and forbidding them frompracticing their religions and customs so any semblance offamily life as well as solidarity and identity was discouraged.• Meeting out harsh physical punishment including torture anddeath as to submit them to will of the Europeans.• Playing out different groups of Africans against each other toprevent a common identity and to promote European valuesand ways of life.• Rigidly stratifying the society based on pigment, relegatingblacks to the bottom and whites at the top; dehumanizing asracial characteristics were the ones identifying them as property
  131. 131. The Plantation System• A system of production Europeans used in theircolonial empires where they brought different ethnicgroups to live and work on plantations far from theirhomelands.• Groups were encouraged to distrust each other andwere encouraged to look on the Europeans as superior.• Labour was coloured and when coupled with slavery asa total institution the plantation became asophisticated economic mechanism which dominatedthe culture and society of the Caribbean integrating itinto European economy.
  132. 132. The Plantation System• Relied on the Atlantic trade for its labour supplyand provided the raw materials for the third legof the triangular trade – sugar, rum, and molassesfor the port cities of England, France and Holland.• Provided the basis for the growing manufacturingand industrial strength of Europe (plantationswere formed through invested European capital)• Was so valuable that in 1651 Britain institutedthe Navigation Laws whereby only English shipscould trade with English colonies – preventingother nations from getting a share of trade arsingfrom Her Caribbean plantations. France followedin 1664 with similar laws
  133. 133. The Plantation System• European imported systems of production to theCaribbean that began to take the shape ofCapitalist enterprises with an emphasis onamassing huge profits repatriated to themetropolitan country. The basis of such wealthdepended on the enslavement of people who forthe profit motive were regarded as subhuman.• Values stressing exploitation of the people andenvironment and people for economic gain andan ideology of European superiority becameparts of the system of production
  134. 134. Plantation SocietyChief characteristics:• Monocropping • Export oriented• Foreign owned • Bureaucratically organized• reliance on metropolitan countries • Vertical integration• Patterned relationship of people to • Classified people into different theland and determined how the land statuses together with formal peoplelive on definition of thewith one between them relationship another• Gave rise to peasantry we • It was both a social and anexperience in the region today. economic systemThe advantages of the plantation system:• regular and efficient production, • planning for depreciation• uniformly high quality products, • scientific research and
  135. 135. Indentureship• Indentureship has been described as a ‘new slaveryalthough the Indian and Chinese immigrants werentdefined as chattel and could practice their own customsand religions.• They were paid extremely low wages and were always indebt to the company store where they were coerced to buygoods with substandard living and sanitation facilities.• They were not allowed to move around freely and if caughtsome distance from the plantation they could beflogged, charged with vagrancy and jailed. If theyattempted to run away they were hunted down chargedwith breach of contract and returned to work. They werecharged with exorbitant fines & many died frommalnutrition and suffered from malaria, yaws anddysentery.
  136. 136. Indentureship• As a system of production, indentureship was very muchrelated to African plantation society.• The socio-economic influences of the plantation pervadedthe society though some Africans moved away.• They now occupied the lowest social stratum and were alsodiscouraged from interacting with the Africans to continuedisunity among labourers.• However, times had changed. Towards the end of the 19thcentury Caribbean plantations were no longer as importantto Europe had global empires and the sugar was undercompetition from other larger sugar producers such asBrazil and Cuba. Eventually the nationalist Indianmovement brought pressure on the British to discontinueimmigration due to dissatisfaction of the treatment ofIndians so the British ended Indian indentureship in 1917 (asimilar situation happened in China were it ended in 1885)
  137. 137. Resistance• Caribbean people have always sought ways andmeans of resisting the harsh conditions underwhich they existed.• They resisted in two ways• 1) active resistance 2) passive resistance• Active resistance included;riots, rebellions, revolutions, development ofpeasant groups.• Passive resistance involved pretense (deaf, lackof understanding of oppressors language, fakeillnesses, malingering , satirize /mimic Europeanlifestyle, suicide, infanticide,)
  138. 138. Amerindian Resistance• The threat of the Spanish to the to Tainos aroused inthem a spirit of warfare. Although the Spanish hadsuperior weapons of warfare they still put upresistance.• The Tainos resisted oppression by running away and bycommitting individual and group suicide andinfanticide,• They refused to work and starved out the Spanish byburning their food stores.• The effort of the Spaniards to Christianize theAmerindians was met with much resistance. TheSpaniards sought to save the souls of the abusedIndians but were forced to unite even from the firstyear of invasion and present some form of militaryopposition to European Invasion.
  139. 139. The African Resistance• African were kept in subjugation for nearlythree centuries. This was mainly done throughthe threat of physical violence andbrainwashing.• African resistance was persistent, powerfuland successful. It was either active or passive.• Africans resisted passively throughsuicide, sabotage (damaging tools andproperty)vendetta, malingering, apathy, escapemarronage, revolt, rebellion and revolution
  140. 140. The African Resistance• Resistance occurred despite the efforts of the planters to ‘break thespirit’ of the strong and intimidate the weak. Planters applied thesystem of divide and rule as well as confusion where they mixed theslaves of different languages to avoid communication.• Maroonage was one of the most successful forms of slaveresistance. It was a system which started with the freed blacks whofled the plantations to the mountains during Spanish colonization.• It was prominent in mountainous larger territories such as Jamaica(Blue Mountains & Cockpit Country) and Cuba (HammerheadMountains)• It proved successful because the Europeans found it difficult to dealwith the guerilla warfare use by the Maroons to protect theirfreedom.• Maroons would also raid plantations and encourage other slaves torunaway• Slaves not only resisted slavery, sometimes their response tooppression took on organized forms such as rebellions, which weremore organized and larger. E.g., the Tacky Rebellion in 1760, andthe Sam Sharpe Rebellion in 1831.
  141. 141. Revolution and Rebellion• The largest and most successful slave revolution wasthe Haitian Revolution of the 1790s.• The Haitian revolution is argued to have , ignited theflame of liberation for all slaves throughout theCaribbean and the New World.• The success of the Haitian revolution inspired otherslaves to fight for their freedom.• It inspired other revolts of the 1830s e.g. Barbados1816, British Guiana 1823, Jamaica 1831.• These slave revolts contributed to the abolitionmovement in England and finally the abolition ofslavery in 1838
  142. 142. Peasantry• After Emancipation many ex-slaves left their plantationto escape forced and unpaid labour. Once they werefreed, many moved away for the plantations into deeprural areas.• Ex-slaves developed new forms of labour. The skilledslaves moved into towns.• The acquisition of land was a means of independencefor the slaves. Many sought to buy land which wasblocked by the planters and the government .• The planters used different tactics to block thepeasants form owing land. They would charge highrents for land and evict them. They also refused to sellthem land and block their means of acquiring credit todo so.• However the peasants found means of acquiring land.They pooled their resources together and boughtland, the received help from the missionaries andmany resorted to squatting.
  143. 143. Effects of Peasantry• The peasants helped to diversify the economy in the post-emancipation period and the decline of sugar.• The peasants turned to developing cash crops for export.They grew crops such as Cocoa, bananas, coffee, gingercotton, arrowroot and coconuts on their smallholdings.They also grew food crops and reared animals• This new found independence made the peasants self-sufficient and resilient in the face of economic hardships.• The peasants received little support form the colonialgovernment.• The peasantry could have been more successful had theyreceived more help form the government.
  144. 144. Effects of Peasantry• The planters were determined to do everythingkeep the slaves dependent on the plantations.• Ex-slaves found refuge in the ‘free villages ‘ whichwere set up by the missionaries.• The free villages helped the development of thepeasantry. This peasantry transformed theCaribbean from a predominantly mono-croppingof sugar cane to small farming of mixed cropswhich created economic independence for theex-slaves.
  145. 145. Significance of Resistance• This desire of the slaves to be independent fromthe hegemony of the Plantocracy developed aspirit of cooperation and caring among ruralcommunities. This close bond has evolved as partof the rural culture of the Caribbean.• The experience of slavery has been profound inshaping the modern Caribbean. It has changedthe systems of land tenure, agricultural practicesand population: size, race, ethnicity and structure
  146. 146. Significance of Resistance• The descendants of slaves continue to experienceerasure of their traditional culture, languagedress and religion etc. They have remainedlargely poor.• The history of the Caribbean is filled with struggleagainst colonialism, oppression and socialinjustice. E.g. in the politics of Jamaica, Haiti,Trinidad and Guyana may have its roots in theexperience of slavery and a the practice ofplanters to prevent unity and prevent anotherHaitian Revolution. It also manifested again withthe practice of creating disunity amongst theblacks and the Indians.
  147. 147. Movements towards Independence• By the dawn of the 20th Century Caribbeanpeople were beginning to understand whatfreedom meant were beginning to challengethe very basis of colonialism, particularly inthe aftermath of two World Wars.• This happened in two major ways throughEconomic Enfranchisement & PoliticalEnfranchisement
  148. 148. Economic Enfranchisement• The Condition whereby a country or nation achieves theright to determine how it will develop its systems ofproduction.• Despite the European control of the Caribbean economyhere was resistance from people who wanted to developtheir own means of making a living.• Plantation economies were typically based on largequantities of cheap unskilled labour based on monoculture.Almost all of the harvest was to be manufactured inEurope.• Food produce was haphazard and it was normally left tothe ex-slaves to grow their own vegetables and fruits fordomestic sale
  149. 149. Economic Enfranchisement• The downturn of sugar revenue in the 19th centuryindicated that plantation economies would decline.• Small and peasant farmers as result began to producenew crops as a result to diversify the markets forexport.• Cocoa, bananas, coffee, ginger, cotton, coconuts andarrowroot were grown by peasant farmers onsmallholdings. Animals were also reared.• This strategy of economic diversification attempted tomake small farmers more independent of the planterand the small wages offered on the plantation andintroduced them to self organization for the exportmarket and develop new trade sophistication for thewider world
  150. 150. Economic Enfranchisement• They received little economic support from colonial whowould prefer a subservient peasantry.• They were often the source of discriminatory practicesfrom the planters often refusing to sell them land andoften sabotaged them in the process. However they alsobanded together to buy out plantations for impoverishedplanters. Baptist missionaries sometimes helped in thesepurchases forming in cases free villages. Others with littlealternatives just squatted on crown lands for exampleTrinidad and Guyana• It must be remembered that effort to establish aneconomic basis for independence was done in colonialrule; it would have been more successful if the plantersweren’t so obstructionist.
  151. 151. Political Enfranchisement• This refers to the right of a people or nation todetermine their own affairs. The Caribbeancolonies were under the control of Europeanpowers.• However after emancipation it was onlyinevitable that Caribbean people woulddevelop the ability to challenge this rule.
  152. 152. Political Enfranchisement• The many migrations of Caribbean people inclusive the PanamaCanal, South America and the Dutch Antilles the modern sugarplantations of Cuba, Puerto Rico and Santo Domingo and othermigrations into Europe due to the World Wars helped to develop aconsciousness of political and economic conditions in thesecountries and exposed workers and soldiers to new and differentideas.• These individuals were unwilling to resume to lowly status in thesocial hierarchy due to exposure to different political ideologies.• Moreover due to Marcus Garvey black nationalist sentiment beganto spread enabling resistance.• In the 1930’s economic conditions had deteriorated to such levelsthat the region was wracked by labour riots, strikes and socialunrest.• This period saw the rise of labour leaders who eventually rose aspolitical leaders, including Uriah ‘Buzz’ Butler, Adrian Cola Rienzi &Captain A. A. Cipriani of T&T, Alexander Bustamante and NormanManley of Jamaica, Grantley Adams of Barbados and NathanielCrichlow of Guyana all of whom developed Trade Unionmovements in the Caribbean.
  153. 153. Political Enfranchisement• While creole whites were involved initially it quicklydeveloped into a working class struggle dedicated toimprove the social conditions of the poor.• The trade labour unions naturally became the birthplacesof Caribbean party politics• To Union leaders it was clear the interests of labour had tobe represented in the government so that laws can bepassed to protect their activities as well as workers rights.• Eventually Trade leaders began to comprise the legislatureinstead of the planter classes forming a lobby for selfgovernment and eventually independence.• Once Indian and African Caribbean individuals got electedto office the writing was on the wall for Colonialism in theregion.
  155. 155. Expected Learning Outcomes1. Evaluate various perspectives on the relationship betweenCaribbean peoples and their environment2. Show how human activity determines whether andenvironmental hazard becomes a natural disaster3. Discuss soil erosion, drought and the destruction of coralreefs as examples of environmental degradation4. Describe the nature, occurrence, and the social andeconomic consequences of hurricanes, earthquakes andvolcanic eruptions5. Explain the theory of plate tectonics with reference to theCaribbean6. Suggest mitigation strategies to control or reduce theadverse effects of environmental disasters on Caribbeansociety and culture
  156. 156. Geographical Perspectives onEnvironment, Society and Culture• Traditional physical geography has for a long timeasserted the dominant role the landscape plays ininfluencing society and culture. While human andsocial geography stresses the importance humans haveto shape the landscape through breakthroughs.• Recently however the new postmodern perspectiveasserts that ‘people’ is not a simple term to just define• Aboriginal people often have a perspective ofgeography which is different from let’s say a urban one.• The postmodern outlook also emphasises that theenvironment is not a fixed entity meaning that itchanges overtime through its relationship betweenhumans and the space around it
  157. 157. Caribbean Perspectives onEnvironment• The colonial experience has left us with the perspective thathumans should control and dominate the environment.• Pre-Columbian perspectives differed immensely as it was the beliefthat the environment was sacred, devoted to worship and shouldbe left virtually untouched.• With the Europeans came a new perspective – as conquerors withnew technological advances they became better at controllingnature to produce tools, medicine and food hence the idea of theenvironment as something to control became entrenched throughcolonization.• Through capitalism plantations, mines and ranches became anorganized backdrop for the activities of the wealthy and a source ofraw materials.• Therefore environmental perspectives solely depend on howdirectly related people are to the importance of the Earth to theirexistence whether economically or spiritually
  158. 158. Environmental Hazards• Natural events are termed EnvironmentalHazards when they have the potential todestroy human life and property.• Natural Events are when such environmentaloccurrences occur away from humanhabitation.• Only when people and their property isharmed we label them as environmentaldisasters
  159. 159. Environmental Degradation• This is defined as the general way ofdescribing loss of some degree of quality inthe land, air or waters around us. For instanceinfertile soil or polluted rivers.• Pollution is a more specific term referring tothe ways in which human beings have causedthe contamination of the environment throughadding pollutants that harm human, plant andanimal life.
  160. 160. Natural processes of EnvironmentalChange• The environment constantly changesespecially through natural events.• These changes are cyclical for example thetheory of plate tectonics states thatcontinents have been moving for millions ofyears causing volcanic activity andearthquakes.• Hurricanes also continue to wreak havoc onthe landscape
  161. 161. Environmental Disasters: Soil Erosion• Soil is formed by the breakdown of rocks overhundreds of years.• The rocks decompose into their inorganicmaterials which combine withvegetation, water, air and humus to form soil.• Soil Erosion is defined as the removal of soil bywind, water or moving ice.• It is a natural process but human activity hasserved to accelerate this process.• It is a creeping hazard meaning that itsoccurrence is often not dramatic and may goundetected as soil is hardly likely to be reused orrecovered.
  162. 162. Social and Cultural Practices whichAccelerate soil erosion: Deforestation• Since plant roots and vegetation hold soil together andleaves and branches often slow rainfall when plants areremoved soil is often left bare and is easily washed orblown away.• This can happen through:• Slash and Burn: practice to remove undergrowth which increasesfertility because of the ash but leaves the land bare leading toerosion• Overgrazing: occurs when animal numbers exceed the land’s‘carrying capacity’; increasing the likelihood that they will removevegetation leaving soil bare.• Bulldozing: clearing lands like hillsides for development projectsleaves land unprotected with construction is in progress• The making of charcoal: common practice in places where fuel isexpensive wee large expanses of wooded landed is burnt toconvert to charcoal.
  163. 163. Social and Cultural Practices whichAccelerate soil erosion: Farming• Shifting cultivation: where plots are clearedand cultivated for a few years and left fallowwhile another one is cleared for use. Since thisis continuous land loses it fertility and itsability to withstand erosion• Ploughing up and down hillsides as well as inneat rows helps to create channels which flowfrom the top of a hill downwards or provides apath for the wind to blow away soil.
  164. 164. Effects of Soil Erosion1. Removal of topsoil leaves immature subsoils whichcannot sustain previous crop production so landproductivity decreases2. Land may become useless; overgrown will secondaryvegetation i.e. bush or carved into gullies or ravines3. Soil erosion near rivers from hillsides may increasesediment build-up on riverbeds reducing rivercapacity.4. When coupled with hurricanes, earthquakes or anyother natural disaster eroded hillsides are more proneto create landslides or mudslides
  165. 165. Soil Conservation• This is meant to prevent erosion and restoreeroded land to pre-erosion conditions1. Afforestation: Vegetation or topsoil is brought toan eroded area to produce a dense network ofroots to bind the soil together, prevent water andwind erosion and create new organic matter tomake new soils.2. Landscaping: An entire area may have to be re-sculpted into an undulated land beforeafforestation
  166. 166. Soil Conservation3. Agricultural Practices:• Contour Ploughing: Tilling land across hillsides rather than downbreaks potential natural channels of water downslope• Planting shelter belts: Lines of trees are planted at intervals alongflat land expanses to break the force of wind• Intercropping/strip cropping: Neat rows between crops are avoidedwhen different crops are planted together at different angles• Agroforestry: Crops such as Coffee, Cocoa, fruit trees and bananasare growing in the forest co-existing with existing vegetation.• Crop rotation: Each crop depletes different nutrients in the soil sodifferent crops are planted in succession rather than continuously sonutrients will regenerate naturally• Terraces: Building small walls or ridges around sloping land toprevent rainfall from freely running downwards reducing theprobability of soil erosion.• Stubble mulching: Leaving stubble residues after harvesting on thefield as long as possible helps to reduce evaporation while coveringthe soil
  167. 167. Soil erosion and poverty• While soil erosion is natural accelerated soil erosion inCaribbean countries today is a tremendous social and culturalphenomenon• In countries that are very poor i.e. Haiti people are mostlydriven by their need to survive and fulfil basic needs and haveno realization of the long term effects associated with that.• Deforestation from making charcoal and cutting forests tomake farm land reduces soil fertility over time.• Reduction of yields, resultant flooding etc. are seen as theplight of the poor so soil erosion becomes a problem madeworse by poverty because since the poor don’t have enoughpower soil conservation doesn’t get profiled.• Some solutions may include• Population Control• Productive employment• Meeting basic social welfare needs,• Better income distribution
  168. 168. Drought• Drought is a temporary feature of climatewhere an unusually long period of rainfall isbelow ‘normal’ levels in that region causingsevere depletion of the water available to allliving beings• Drought is a natural phenomenon and mayoccur due to changes in relief, size andlocation as well as global changes in whetherpatterns.
  169. 169. Size, Relief and Location• Small territories such as Antigua don’t generate muchconvection rainfall; accompanied by a flat landscape reduces thelikelihood of relief rainfall so are at immense risks of drought• Large countries such as Guyana very near the equator havefrequent rainfall throughout the year but due to the largess theirmay be regional variations• In the Greater and Lesser Antilles rainfall is influenced by thenorth-east trades. Where winds rise over mountains there ismuch relief rainfall.• The physical environment conserves and stores water that canbe available in dry seasons i.e. Groundwater store. This seeps tomaintain rivers at a base level and when this is affected droughtis extremely pronounced. Like erosion drought is a creepinghazard as the store may prevent detection for a while
  170. 170. Global changes in weather patterns• Caribbean droughts are also linked to weatherpatterns. For example the El Nino effect andSouthern Oscillation collectively called ENSOwhich fluctuates sea surface temperatures inthe atmosphere every 2-7 years.• Together these are responsible for theprolonged droughts in Africa, South andCentral America and the Caribbean for severalyears
  171. 171. Drought and Human Activity• Drought can be influenced by Human Activities such asdeforestation which contributes to silting of rivers anddrying river courses.• Pollution of rivers also can encourage algae bloomswhich can choke streams making them stagnant• Groundwater store can become depleted throughhuman activity such as artificial water channeling.• Using water during the dry season for lawn irrigationand urban demands such as washing cars can add tothe strain of water supply• It is also argued that the large human populations isalso putting demand on water supply
  172. 172. Effects of Drought• As soil moisture decreases vegetation wiltsand eventually dies, encouraging soil erosion• Low soil moisture prevents or delaysgermination of crops leading to low yields• Reduced Groundwater stores take a long timeto be restored; river may dry permanently• Competition for water inevitably leads toconflict, with rationing of water among socio-economic groups
  173. 173. Destruction of Coral Reefs• Coral Reefs are large strips of wave resistantcoral rocks built up by Carbonate organisms(coral polyps) lying close to the surface of thesea, cemented together to form a physicalstructure.• In the Caribbean there are three types:1. Barrier2. Fringing3. Atoll
  174. 174. Destruction of Coral Reefs• Barrier reefs are found parallel to the coast andare usually separated by a shallow but wide areacalled a lagoon ex. In Belize• Fringing reefs are low platforms of coral 0.5-2.5km wide lying close to the shore of an island ofcontinental shelf, separated by narrow lagoonswith the outer edge descending sharply into thesea. Ex Buckoo reef in Tobago• Atoll reefs tend to form a horseshoe usuallylinked to a sunken volcano cone
  175. 175. Growth of Coral Reefs• Criteria:– Between 30⁰N and 30⁰S of the equator– Salty and Shallow water around 20⁰C– Waters must be clear of sediment– Sunlight must penetrate freely– Nutrients and oxygen must be available for thesymbiotic algae which feed off the coral polyps’waste as it also provides food to the coral
  176. 176. Coral reefs effects on culture & society• Biodiversity• Tourism• Fisheries• Coastal Protection– Coral often acts as a storm barrier during times ofturbulent wave activity