Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Plant disease

6,479 views

Published on

Plant Disease

Published in: Education
  • Login to see the comments

Plant disease

  1. 1. PLANT DISEASE AND ITS IMPORTANCE Next
  2. 2. PLANT DISEASE AND ITS IMPORTANCE Plant disease, an impairment of the normal state of a plant that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. PreviousEnd Next
  3. 3. Plant disease and its importancePlant diseases are known from times preceding the earliest writings. Plant disease outbreaks with similar far-reaching effects in more recent times include Late blight of potato in Ireland (1845–60) Powdery and downy mildew of grape - France (1851 and 1878) coffee rust - Ceylon (starting in the 1870s); Sigatoka leaf spot and panama disease of banana - central America (1900–65) Black stem rust of wheat - (1916, 1935, 1953–54) PreviousEnd Next
  4. 4. Plant disease and its importance Loss of crops from plant diseases may result in hunger and starvation, especially in less developed countries where access to disease-control methods is limited and annual losses of 30 to 50 percent are common for major crops. In some years, losses are much greater, producing catastrophic results for those who depend on the crop for food. Major disease outbreaks among food crops have led to famines and mass migrations throughout history. PreviousEnd Next
  5. 5. Plant disease and its importance The devastating outbreak of late blight of potato (Phytophthora infestans) that began in Europe in 1845 and brought about the Irish famine caused starvation, death, and mass migration of the Irish population. Diseases—a normal part of nature: Plant diseases are a normal part of nature and one of many ecological factors that help keep the hundreds of thousands of living plants and animals in balance with one another . PreviousEnd Next
  6. 6. Plant disease and its importance Plant cells contain special signaling pathways that enhance their defenses against insects, animals, and pathogens. One such example involves a plant hormone called jasmonate (jasmonic acid). In the absence of harmful stimuli, jasmonate binds to special proteins, called JAZ proteins, to regulate plant growth, Pollen production, and other. it also increase the defense mechanism of plants. PreviousEnd Next
  7. 7. Plant disease and its importance Disease development and transmission Pathogenesis and saprogenesis Pathogenesis is the stage of disease in which the pathogen is in intimate association with living host tissue. Three fairly distinct stages are involved: Inoculation: transfer of the pathogen to the infection court, or area in which invasion of the plant occurs (the infection court may be the unbroken plant surface, a variety of wounds, or natural openings. PreviousEnd Next
  8. 8. Plant disease and its importance Incubation: the period of time between the arrival of the pathogen in the infection court and the appearance of symptoms Infection: the appearance of disease symptoms accompanied by the establishment and spread of the pathogen. PreviousEnd Next
  9. 9. Plant disease and its importance Temperature: Each pathogen has an optimum temperature for growth. In addition, different growth stages of the fungus, such as the production of spores, their germination, and the growth of the mycelium, may have slightly different optimum temperatures. Relative humidity : Relative humidity is very critical in fungal spore germination and the development of storage rots. Environmental factors affecting disease development PreviousEnd Next
  10. 10. High humidity favours development of the great majority of leaf and fruit diseases caused by fungi and bacteria. Moisture is generally needed for fungal spore germination, the multiplication and penetration of bacteria, and the initiation of infection. Soil moisture: High or low soil moisture may be a limiting factor in the development of certain root rot diseases. High soil-moisture levels favour development of destructive water mold fungi, such as species of Aphanomyces, Pythium, and Phytophthora. PreviousEnd Next
  11. 11. Plant disease and its importance Soil pH Soil pH, a measure of acidity or alkalinity, markedly influences a few diseases, such as common scab of potato and club root of crucifers (Plasmodiophora brassicae). Growth of the potato scab organism is suppressed at a pH of 5.2 or slightly below (pH 7 is neutral; numbers below 7 indicate acidity, and those above 7 indicate alkalinity). PreviousEnd Next
  12. 12. Plant disease and its importance Scab is not normally a problem when the natural soil pH is about 5.2. Soil type Certain pathogens are favoured by loam soils and others by clay soils. Phymatotrichum root rot attacks cotton and some 2,000 other plants PreviousEnd Next
  13. 13. Plant disease and its importance Phymatotrichum fungus is serious only in black alkaline soils—pH 7.3 or above—that are low in organic matter. Soil fertility: Greenhouse and field experiments have shown that raising or lowering the levels of certain nutrient elements required by plants frequently influences the development of some infectious diseases. PreviousEnd Next
  14. 14. Disease symptoms Plant disease symptoms description and causes examples Water-soaking A water-soaked, translucent condition of tissues caused by water moving from host cells into intercellular spaces late blight lesions on potato and tomato leaves; bacterial soft rot of fleshy vegetables Wilting Temporary or permanent drooping of leaves, shoots, or entire plants from lack of water bacterial wilt of cucumber; Fusarium wilt of tomato Abnormal coloration Yellowing, reddening, bronzing, or purpling in localized areas of leaves where chlorophyll has been destroyed; may be due to a variety of causes cabbage and aster yellows; halo blight of beans; potassium or phosphorus deficiency PreviousEnd Next
  15. 15. Plant disease and its importance Necrotic Localized or general death of cells or disintegration of tissues Leaf spot Blast Sudden blighting or death of young buds, flowers, or young fruit; failure to produce fruit or seeds Botrytis blight of peony buds; oat blast Blight Sudden or total discoloration and killing of large numbers of blossoms, leaves, shoots, or limbs or the entire plant; usually young tissues are attacked; the disease name is often coupled with the name of the host and the part attacked—blossom blight, twig blight, tip blight Leaf blight Plant disease symptoms description and causes examples PreviousEnd Next
  16. 16. Plant disease and its importance Canker A definite, dead, often sunken or swollen and cracked area on a stem, limb, trunk, tuber, or root surrounded by living tissues Nectria canker of hardwoods Damping-off Decay of seed in soil, rapid death of germinating seedlings before emergence, or emerged seedlings suddenly wilting, toppling over, and dying from rot at or near the soil line Nursery Dieback Progressive browning and death of shoots, branches, and roots starting at the tips Diebacks in rose Firing Drying and dying of leaves Plant disease symptoms description and causes examples PreviousEnd Next
  17. 17. Plant disease and its importance Fleck A small, white to translucent spot or lesion visible through a leaf ozone injury Mummification Final stage in certain fruit rots, in which the dried, shriveled, and wrinkled fruit is called a "mummy" Downy mildew in grapes Net necrosis An irregular crisscrossing of dark brown to black lines giving a netted appearance in potato tubers of plants with virus leaf roll Pitting Small dead areas within fleshy or woody tissue that appears healthy externally; definite sunken grooves or pits are formed virus stem-pitting in apple Plant disease symptoms description and causes examples PreviousEnd Next
  18. 18. Rot Decomposition and putrefaction of cells, later of tissues and organs; the rot may be dry, firm, watery, or mushy and is characterized by such names as hard rot, soft rot, dry rot, black rot, and white rot bacterial soft rot; berry rot; bud rot; bulb rot Scald Blanching of young fruit, foliage, and shoot tissue; generally superficial sunscald; apple and pear scald Scorch Sudden death and "burning" of large, indefinite areas in leaves and fruit toxicity from pesticides and air pollutants; drought; wind; lack or excess of some nutrient Spot A definite, localized, round to regular lesion, often with a border of a different colour, characterized as to location (leaf spot, fruit spot) and colour (brown spot, black spot); if numerous or if spots enlarge and merge, a large irregular blotch or blight may develop gray leaf spot of tomato; black spot of rose; tar spot of maple Plant disease symptoms description and causes examples PreviousEnd Next
  19. 19. Principles of disease control Exclusion and avoidance The principle of exclusion and avoidance is to keep the pathogen away from the growing host plant. This practice commonly excludes pathogens by disinfection of plants, seeds, or other parts, using chemicals or heat. Inspection and certification of seed and other planting stock help ensure freedom from disease. PreviousEnd Next
  20. 20. Plant disease and its importance Eradication Eradication is concerned with elimination of the disease agent after it has become established in the area of the growing host or has penetrated the host. Such measures include crop rotation, destruction of the diseased plants, elimination of alternate host plants, pruning, disinfection, and heat treatments. PreviousEnd Next
  21. 21. Plant disease and its importance Protection The principle of protection involves placing a barrier between the pathogen and the susceptible part of the host to shield the host from the pathogen. This can be accomplished by regulation of the environment, cultural and handling practices, control of insect carriers, and application of chemical pesticides. PreviousEnd Next
  22. 22. Plant disease and its importance Regulation of the environment Selection of outdoor growing areas where weather is unfavourable for disease is a method of controlling disease by regulating the environment. PreviousEnd Next
  23. 23. Plant disease and its importance Cultural practices Selection of the best time and depth of seeding and planting is an effective cultural practice that reduces disease impact. adjustment of soil moisture is another cultural practice of widerspread usefulness. Adjustment of soil pH also leads to control of some diseases. PreviousEnd Next
  24. 24. Plant disease and its importance Regulation of fertility level and nutrient balance: Potash and nitrogen, and the balance between the two, may affect the incidence of certain bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases of corn, cotton, tobacco, and sugar beet. Adjusting the soil pH, adding chelated or soluble salts to the soil, or spraying the foliage with these or similar salts is a corrective measure. PreviousEnd Next
  25. 25. Plant disease and its importance Control of insect vectors There are many examples in which losses by bacteria, viruses, and mycoplasma-like disease agents can be reduced by controlling aphids, leafhoppers, thrips, beetles, and other carriers of these agents. PreviousEnd Next
  26. 26. Plant disease and its importance Biological control: Biological control of plant diseases involves the use of micro organisms other than humans to reduce or prevent infection by a pathogen. These organisms are called antagonists; they may occur naturally within the host’s environment, or they may be purposefully applied to those parts of the potential host plant where they can act directly or indirectly on the pathogen. PreviousEnd Next
  27. 27. To sum up The crop loss due to diseases is estimated to be approximately 30-50%. Cultivated plants are often more susceptible to diseases than are their wild relatives. Important environmental factors that may affect development of plant diseases are temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture, soil pH, soil type, and soil fertility. Each pathogen has an optimum temperature for growth . High soil-moisture levels favour development of destructive water mold fungi, such as species of Aphanomyces, Pythium, and Phytophthora. High humidity favours development of the great majority of leaf and fruit diseases caused by fungi and bacteria. Soil pH, a measure of acidity or alkalinity, markedly influences a few diseases, such as common scab of potato and clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) of crucifers. Raising or lowering the levels of certain nutrients also influences the development of some infectious diseases. Most control measures are directed against inoculums of the pathogen and involve the principles of exclusion and avoidance, eradication, protection, host resistance and selection, and therapy. PreviousEnd

×