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What is
Integrated Pest
Management
(IPM) ?
Learning Objectives
Create an understanding of IPM
Importance of IPM to Producers
Importance of IPM to the environment
Imp...
Why Study IPM?
Why a new approach to pest
management is needed:
– 1920’s cotton pest management
– “Pesticide Treadmill” of...
IPM is:
A pest management philosophy that
utilizes all suitable pest management
techniques and methods to keep pest
popula...
“A pest management
philosophy….. “
– Recognizes there is no “cure-all” in pest control.
Dependence on any one pest managem...
IPM is a continuum, not an end.
Poor
Fair
Good
Better
Best
“Utilizes all suitable pest
management tactics…………..”
Pesticides
Cultural
Mechanical
Sanitary
Natural
Biological
Host Plan...
Should Pesticides be used in an
IPM Program?
Pesticides can to be used in an IPM program,
however only as a last resort an...
What is “Cultural Control”
Agronomic practices that are designed to:
– Optimize growing conditions for the crop.
Anything ...
What is Mechanical Control?
Uses machinery and/or other tools to
control pests
– Tillage
– Physical barriers
What is Sanitary Control?
Methods to avoid introducing a pest into a
field
– Cleaning field equipment
– Planting certified...
What is Natural Control?
– Enhancement of naturally occurring pest
management methods
Beneficial insects
Beneficial diseas...
What is Biological Control?
Manipulation of biological organism to
control pests
– Release of predators/parasites/disease ...
What is Host Plant Resistance?
Manipulating the crop to withstand or
tolerate pests
– Natural breeding method
– Geneticall...
“To Keep Pests Below the
Economic Injury Level”
Economic Injury Level:
– Cost of control = $ amount of damage caused by
th...
Economic Threshold
Pest Population at which a grower must
take action to prevent a pest populations
from reaching the econ...
Time
Pest
Density
Economic Injury Level
Economic Threshold
Pest Population
Economic Threshold Example:
European Corn Borer on Corn
Field Sampling Data needed:
– % plants infested
– Ave. number of l...
1st Generation
European Corn Borer
Economic Threshold Worksheet
(1) ___% of 100 plants infested x ___average # of borers/p...
1st Generation
European Corn Borer
Economic Threshold Worksheet
(1) 0.67 (% of 100 plants infested) X 2 (average # of bore...
Potato Leafhopper Threshold for
Alfalfa
Alfalfa Height Economic Threshold
(leafhoppers/sweep)
< 3 inches 0.2/sweep
6 inche...
Economic Threshold Concept
doesn’t work for all pests and
pest types
Insects
Weeds
Diseases
“Each Pest Control
Technique Must be
Environmentally Sound”
Risk vs. Benefits
And
“Compatible with With
Producers Objectives”
What IPM Is and Isn’t
Stresses a multi disciplinary approach to
pest management
– Entomology
– Plant Pathology
– Nematolog...
IPM is not static
New Pests
– Soybean aphids, bean leaf beetle,
New Races/strains of pests
– Western corn rootworm
Weed Sp...
Four Basic Principles of IPM
1) Thorough understanding of the crop,
pest, and the environment and their
interrelationships...
1a. Understanding Crop Growth
and Development
How do you grow a healthy
crop?
When is the crop most
susceptible to pest da...
1b. Understanding the Pest
Proper ID
Understanding of Pest Life cycle
– When is it present
– When is it most susceptible t...
Meadow Spittlebug
nymph
Potato Leafhopper nymph
Giant foxtail
Large crabgrass
1c. Understanding the Pest and
Their Life Cycle
When is the pest present
When is it most susceptible to
control-”Weak Link...
1d. Understanding the
Environment
How does it affect crop growth
–Stress
–Time within susceptible stage
How it affects pes...
Basic Principles of IPM
1) Thorough understanding of the crop,
pest, and the environment and their
interrelationships
2) R...
Basic Principles of IPM
1) Thorough understanding of the crop,
pest, and the environment and their
interrelationships
2) R...
Basic Principles of IPM
1) Thorough understanding of the crop,
pest, and the environment and their
interrelationships
2) R...
Potato leafhopper scouting
Equipment:
– 15 in diameter insect sweep net.
Timing:
– Start on regrowth of second crop alfalf...
Potato leafhopper scouting
Take 20 consecutive sweeps in each of 5
areas along the W-shaped pattern (100 total
sweeps)
Cou...
Potato Leafhopper
Economic Threshold
Alfalfa height Treat if PLH number
are = or > than listed
3 inches 0.2/sweep
6 inches...
Benefits of an IPM Program
Protects environment through
elimination of unnecessary pesticide
applications
Improves Profita...
Disadvantages of an IPM
Program
Requires a higher degree of
management
More labor intensive
Success can be weather depende...
Career opportunities in IPM
Crop Advisors
– Independent
– Industry
Ag. Industries
– Sales (chemical, seed)
– Research
– Te...
Education
2 or 4 year degree
Major Field of Study
– Agronomy
– Soil Science
Areas of interest
– Weed science
– Entomology
...
Possible coursework
Crop Management
Weed Management
Entomology
Plant Nutrition
Soil Conservation
Ecology
Plant Pathology
P...
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Ipm

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Integrated Pest Management

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Ipm

  1. 1. What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ?
  2. 2. Learning Objectives Create an understanding of IPM Importance of IPM to Producers Importance of IPM to the environment Importance of IPM to human health and safety What are IPM strategies Advantages and limitations to IPM
  3. 3. Why Study IPM? Why a new approach to pest management is needed: – 1920’s cotton pest management – “Pesticide Treadmill” of 1960’s – 1970’s Pesticide resistance Secondary pest outbreaks Environmental concerns – IPM concept “reborn” in 1970’s
  4. 4. IPM is: A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels. Each pest management technique must be environmentally sound and compatible with producer objectives.
  5. 5. “A pest management philosophy….. “ – Recognizes there is no “cure-all” in pest control. Dependence on any one pest management method will have undesirable effects. – Determine and correct the cause of the pest problem. Understanding Pest biology and ecology is essential. Manipulate the environment to the crop’s advantage and to the detriment of the pest. – Recognizes that eradication of a pest is seldom necessary or even desirable, and generally not possible. Some damage is unavoidable and acceptable
  6. 6. IPM is a continuum, not an end. Poor Fair Good Better Best
  7. 7. “Utilizes all suitable pest management tactics…………..” Pesticides Cultural Mechanical Sanitary Natural Biological Host Plant Resistance NOTE: Some tactics fall Into several categories.
  8. 8. Should Pesticides be used in an IPM Program? Pesticides can to be used in an IPM program, however only as a last resort and of course in a manner that is legal. Pesticides are to be used when there is no risk of environmental damage or when benefits outweigh the risks. Use pesticides only when other control practices aren’t available, economical or practical. Must monitor pest populations in the field. – Identify the pest – Compare pest population and the economic threshold – Life stage susceptible to pesticide? – Crop stage and preventable loss.
  9. 9. What is “Cultural Control” Agronomic practices that are designed to: – Optimize growing conditions for the crop. Anything that increases a crop’s competitive edge will result in increased tolerance to pests often resulting in reduced pesticide use. – Create unfavorable conditions for the pest
  10. 10. What is Mechanical Control? Uses machinery and/or other tools to control pests – Tillage – Physical barriers
  11. 11. What is Sanitary Control? Methods to avoid introducing a pest into a field – Cleaning field equipment – Planting certified seed – Quarantines
  12. 12. What is Natural Control? – Enhancement of naturally occurring pest management methods Beneficial insects Beneficial diseases
  13. 13. What is Biological Control? Manipulation of biological organism to control pests – Release of predators/parasites/disease of an insect or weed – Can be time consuming, expensive and difficult
  14. 14. What is Host Plant Resistance? Manipulating the crop to withstand or tolerate pests – Natural breeding method – Genetically modified plants – Not a permanent method of control – Examples: Glandular-haired Alfalfa, Bt Corn,
  15. 15. “To Keep Pests Below the Economic Injury Level” Economic Injury Level: – Cost of control = $ amount of damage caused by the pest Includes amount of pest damage Cost of each control practice – Are determined through extensive research – Economic Injury Level is the information that is necessary to develop an Economic Threshold, which is used by crop advisors
  16. 16. Economic Threshold Pest Population at which a grower must take action to prevent a pest populations from reaching the economic injury level – Economic threshold is slightly below the economic injury level – Pest populations must be increasing
  17. 17. Time Pest Density Economic Injury Level Economic Threshold Pest Population
  18. 18. Economic Threshold Example: European Corn Borer on Corn Field Sampling Data needed: – % plants infested – Ave. number of larvae/plant Crop Management Data Needed – Expected yield (bu/A) – Expected selling price of the crop Cost of pest control
  19. 19. 1st Generation European Corn Borer Economic Threshold Worksheet (1) ___% of 100 plants infested x ___average # of borers/plantA = ___average borers/plant. (2) ___average borers/plant x 5% yield loss per borer = ___% yield loss. (3) ___% yield loss x ___expected yield (bu/A) =___ bu/A loss (4) ___bu/A loss x ___$ expected selling price/bu =___ $ loss/A (5) $__ loss/A x___ % controlB = $ ___ preventable loss/A (6) $___ preventable loss/A - $ ___cost of control/A = $ gain (+) or loss (-) per acre if treatment is applied A Determined by checking whorls from 20 plants. B Assume 80% control for most products
  20. 20. 1st Generation European Corn Borer Economic Threshold Worksheet (1) 0.67 (% of 100 plants infested) X 2 (average # of borers/plant)A+ = 1.34 (average borers/plant). (2) 1.34 (average borers/plant) X 5 (% yield loss per borer) = 0.067 (% yield loss). (3) 0.67 (% yield loss) x 120 (expected yield in bu/A) = 8.04 (bu/A loss) (4) 8.04 bu/A loss x $2.25 expected selling price/bu = $18.09 $ loss/A (5) $18.09 (loss/A) x 80 (% controlB) = $ 14.47 (preventable loss/A) (6) $14.47 (preventable loss/A) - $ 15.00 (cost of control/A) = - $0.53 (gain (+) or loss (-) per acre if treatment is applied) A Determined by checking whorls from 20 plants. B Assume 80% control for most products
  21. 21. Potato Leafhopper Threshold for Alfalfa Alfalfa Height Economic Threshold (leafhoppers/sweep) < 3 inches 0.2/sweep 6 inches 0.5/sweep 8-11 inches 1.0/sweep > 12 inches 2.0/sweep
  22. 22. Economic Threshold Concept doesn’t work for all pests and pest types Insects Weeds Diseases
  23. 23. “Each Pest Control Technique Must be Environmentally Sound” Risk vs. Benefits
  24. 24. And “Compatible with With Producers Objectives”
  25. 25. What IPM Is and Isn’t Stresses a multi disciplinary approach to pest management – Entomology – Plant Pathology – Nematology – Weed Science – Crop Sciences (Horticulture/Agronomy) – Soil Science – Ecology
  26. 26. IPM is not static New Pests – Soybean aphids, bean leaf beetle, New Races/strains of pests – Western corn rootworm Weed Species shifts – Roundup ready technology – Tillage system Pesticide Resistance – Colorado Potato Beetle – Common lambsquarters
  27. 27. Four Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires advanced planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions
  28. 28. 1a. Understanding Crop Growth and Development How do you grow a healthy crop? When is the crop most susceptible to pest damage? When is the crop under stress?
  29. 29. 1b. Understanding the Pest Proper ID Understanding of Pest Life cycle – When is it present – When is it most susceptible to control- – ”Weak Link”
  30. 30. Meadow Spittlebug nymph Potato Leafhopper nymph
  31. 31. Giant foxtail Large crabgrass
  32. 32. 1c. Understanding the Pest and Their Life Cycle When is the pest present When is it most susceptible to control-”Weak Link” When is too late to control
  33. 33. 1d. Understanding the Environment How does it affect crop growth –Stress –Time within susceptible stage How it affects pest development –High mortality –High survival
  34. 34. Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires Advanced Planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions
  35. 35. Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires Advanced Planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions
  36. 36. Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires Advanced Planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions
  37. 37. Potato leafhopper scouting Equipment: – 15 in diameter insect sweep net. Timing: – Start on regrowth of second crop alfalfa Frequency: – Scout once each week. Scouting pattern: – walk a W-shaped pattern in the field
  38. 38. Potato leafhopper scouting Take 20 consecutive sweeps in each of 5 areas along the W-shaped pattern (100 total sweeps) Count the total number of Potato leafhopper nymphs and adults divide by 100 (total number of sweeps)
  39. 39. Potato Leafhopper Economic Threshold Alfalfa height Treat if PLH number are = or > than listed 3 inches 0.2/sweep 6 inches 0.5/sweep 8-11 inches 1.0/sweep > 12 inches 2.0/sweep
  40. 40. Benefits of an IPM Program Protects environment through elimination of unnecessary pesticide applications Improves Profitability Reduces risk of crop loss by a pest Peace of Mind
  41. 41. Disadvantages of an IPM Program Requires a higher degree of management More labor intensive Success can be weather dependent
  42. 42. Career opportunities in IPM Crop Advisors – Independent – Industry Ag. Industries – Sales (chemical, seed) – Research – Technical services Teaching – Cooperative Extension – High school – Technical college
  43. 43. Education 2 or 4 year degree Major Field of Study – Agronomy – Soil Science Areas of interest – Weed science – Entomology – Plant Pathology
  44. 44. Possible coursework Crop Management Weed Management Entomology Plant Nutrition Soil Conservation Ecology Plant Pathology Plant Physiology Business Management

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