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  1. 1. Drugs8th grade Health
  2. 2. What are drugs? Drugs are substances that are used to treat or prevent diseases. They are also used to relieve pains, to help control mental or physical ailments, and even to help diagnose illnesses.
  3. 3. Drug Vocab Tolerance  Body becomes accustomed to drug and causes the user to experience a need for more and more drug to achieve the desired effect or high. Psychological Dependence  A condition that occurs overtime and causes user to believe that drug is needed in order to feel good or function normally.
  4. 4. Drug Vocab Physiological dependence  A user develops a chemical need for a drug. Symptoms of withdrawal occure when the effects of the drug wear off.  Symptoms can include nervousness, insomnia, headaches, vomiting, chills, and cramps. Addiction  A physiological or psychological dependence on a drug.
  5. 5. Classification of Drugs Prescription Marijuana and THC Inhalants Steroids Psychoactive “Club Drugs” Stimulants Depressants
  6. 6. Marijuana and THC Marijuana is produced from the dried leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant. The active ingredient is THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)  A fat-soluble drug  Produces psychoactive effects of Marijuana  Fat-soluble means that the drug will be distributed to those areas of the body with high fat content.
  7. 7. Marijuana and THC  THC stays in the body for several weeks  Why?  Fat soluble areas of the body are:  Brain  Lungs  Reproductive System A person who uses marijuana may be under its effects several days later, even though the "high” has worn off.
  8. 8. Marijuana and THC How it’s used  Smoked, Ingested or Taken as a Pill  When smoked much more THC enters the bloodstream  It’s used to achieve a state of calmness or euphoria.  Almost all users report a change in how they perceive time.  Larger doses may produce anxiety and feelings of paranoia.  Short term effects  Increase heart rate, reddening of eyes, talkativeness and giddiness  Some users may become quiet or reflective
  9. 9. Marijuana and THC Medical uses of THC  when made synthetically;  Lessen nausea associated with Chemotherapy  Help people with AIDS regain appetite  Used to treat glaucoma  Glaucoma is the build up of pressure on the eyeball.
  10. 10. Marijuana and THC Effects on the Brain  Increases level of dopamine  Dopamine produces a pleasurable feeling.  THC works by binding to specific receptors in the brain called "cannabinoid receptors," which are located throughout the following brain structures:  Cerebellum  Hippocampus  Cerebral Cortex  Limbic System
  11. 11. Marijuana and THC Effects on the Brain  Cerebellum  By binding with the cannabinoid receptors  THC interferes with the normal function of the cerebellum, which controls balance, posture, and coordination.  Hippocampus  THC activates cannibinoid receptors in the hippocampus.  effects memory  by decreasing nerve cell activity in this area. Short-term memory is the first to be affected.
  12. 12. Marijuana and THC Effects on the Brain  Cerebral Cortex  THC affects areas in the cerebral cortex that are responsible for sensory perception.  Sense of taste, sight, smell, hearing, and touch may be altered.  Limbic System  THC produces changes in the limbic system ( governs) our emotions.  These changes, which are most evident during withdrawal from THC, are similar to those observed after long-term use of cocaine, heroin, and alcohol.
  13. 13. Inhalants Are substances whose fumes are sniffed or inhaled to give effect.  Types of inhalants  Prescribed Inhalants  Used to treat allergies, asthma, and other medical conditions.  Solvents, Aerosols, Glues, Paints, Gasolines  These if used can cause brain damage.
  14. 14. Inhalants Effects on the body  Depress the central nervous system  Immediate effects  Glassy stare, Slurred Speech, Impaired Judgment, Nausea, Coughing, nosebleeds, fatigue, and lack of coordination.  Can lead to permanent loss of Brain Damage  Long Term effects  Liver and Kidney damage, Blindness, Brain damage, Paralysis, Cardiac Arrest and Death.
  15. 15. Inhalants All inhalants are extremely dangerous Many labeled as poisons Can be harmful even if you are not trying to abuse them Can be accidentally inhaled when doing household chores. When using inhalants work in well-ventilated room and wear a mask when project requires long exposure to fumes.
  16. 16. Steroids Can be prescribed for medical purposes Anabolic- androgenic steroids  Synthetic substance similar to male sex hormones.  Anabolic refers to muscle building  Androgenic refers to increased male characteristics.
  17. 17. Steroids Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids  Synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring male anabolic hormone (testosterone).  Anabolic means “to build”  Androgenic means “masculinizing”
  18. 18. Steroids Testosterone is the primary male hormone responsible for the development of masculine traits  Androgenic effect triggers the maturing of the male reproductive system.  Anabolic effect helps body retain protein which aids in development of muscles ANABOLIC PROPERTY LURES ATHLETES!
  19. 19. Steroids How it’s used  Can be taken orally or injected.  Injected steroids are broken down into additional categories  Long-Lasting  Short-Lasting  Water-soluble injections
  20. 20. Steroids Who takes steroids?  Athletes, Men are stereotypically associated with steroids  Anyone who uses desires to look, perform or feel better regardless of danger
  21. 21. Steroids Health Hazards  Transmitting or contracting HIV and Hepatitis B through needles.  Side effects can occur long after you stop using  Megadosing – using more than one type of steroid at a time  Effects can be irreversible body damage.
  22. 22. Steroids Physical Side effects  Male  Feminization effect  Decrease in normal sexual function  Reduced sperm count  Impotence  Development of Breasts  Shrinking of Testicles  Difficulty or pain while urinating
  23. 23. Steroids  Women  Experience Masculinization effect  Facial Hair Growth  Deepened Voice  Breast Reduction  Menstrual Cycle Change
  24. 24. Steroids  Both Genders  Acne  Bloated Appearance  Rapid Weight Gain  Clotting Disorders  Liver Damage  Premature Heart Attacks and Strokes  Elevated Cholesterol levels  Weakened Tendons
  25. 25. Steroids Special Dangers to adolescents  Steroids close growth centers in a kid’s bones  Once growth plates are closed they cannot reopen  So adolescents may end up shorter than they should have been
  26. 26. Steroids Addictive  Long-time steroid users may experience addiction through:  Cravings  Difficulty in stopping  Withdrawal Symptoms STEROIDS DO NOT HELP IMPROVE SKILL, AGILITY OR CARDIOVASCULAR CAPACITY!
  27. 27. Psychoactive Drugs Chemicals that affect the function of the central nervous system and alter brain activity.  Four main groups  Hallucinogens  Opiates  Stimulants  Depressants
  28. 28. Psychoactive Drugs Some have medicinal value When misused and abused an individual’s health is seriously affected.  Effects on TEEN’’s developing brain and body especially damaging
  29. 29. Psychoactive Drugs Consequences of psychoactive drugs  Poor judgement and behaviors  Unintentional injuries  Violence  STDs  Unintended pregnancy  Suicide
  30. 30. Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinogens  category of drugs that affect the brain in such a way that a person’s perceptions -- meaning their sights, sounds, feelings, and how they judge time -- become very different and unreal.  Can cause changes with emotions, memory and judgement.
  31. 31. Psychoactive Drugs LSD (Hallucinogen)  Also known as acid, doses, trips, tabs, hits, sunshine, window pane, sugar cubes, microdot  is a very powerful drug made with a chemical found in a fungus -- that grows on grains.
  32. 32. Psychoactive Drugs LSD (Hallucinogen)  It was originally developed as a treatment for mental patients, but doctors soon learned that it was too unpredictable to be useful. In the 1960’s, many people took LSD because they believed the drug “expanded the mind.” LSD is usually found as pieces of thin paper sprayed with the drug, which are eaten, or in liquid or gelatin form.
  33. 33. Psychoactive Drugs - LSDSide Effects  Changes in personality and mood  Mood swings  Hallucinations  Delusions  Intense fear  Confused senses, like “seeing sounds” and “hearing colors”  Dilated pupils  Increased body temperature  Sweating  Loss of appetite  Sleeplessness  Dry mouth  Tremors
  34. 34. Psychoactive Drugs LSD (Hallucinogen)  Health Risks  Increased heart rate and blood pressure  Long lasting mental problems, like schizophrenia or depression
  35. 35. Psychoactive Drugs LSD (Hallucinogen)  Problems with using  Scary hallucinations can make people panic, which can lead them into dangerous situations.  LSD “flashbacks” are very common, with the drug’s effects returning without warning from a few days to a year later.  Users develop tolerance, meaning that they eventually need more and more of the drug to get the same effect.
  36. 36. Psychoactive Drugs Opiates (Hallucinogen)  which means that it comes from a flower called the opium poppy.  Opiates are used in hospitals as painkillers for patients in serious pain from injury, surgery, or illness; morphine is another opiate that you might see used for medical purposes.
  37. 37. Psychoactive Drugs Heroin (Opiate)  is a brown or white powder that is sometimes snorted or smoked. Most of the time, users turn it into a liquid and inject the drug into their veins with a needle.
  38. 38. Psychoactive Drugs Heroin (Opiates)  Side effects  Euphoria, a “rush” of well-being  Reduced pain  Dry mouth  Droopy eyelids and smaller pupils  Flushed skin  Heavy arms and legs  Slow thinking and movement  Slow and slurred speech  Periods of sleepiness, sometimes called “the nod”  Vomiting  Constipation  Considered to be the MOST ADDICTIVE DRUG
  39. 39. Psychoactive Drugs Heroin (Opiates)  Health Risks  Collapsed veins  Heart infections  Pneumonia  Death from overdose
  40. 40. Psychoactive Drugs Heroin (opiate)  Problems with Using  Heroin is one of the most physically addictive drugs in the world, and breaking the addiction can be very difficult.  Users develop tolerance, meaning that they eventually need more and more of the drug to get the same effect.  Because heroin can be expensive, users often turn to crime to get drug money.  Sharing needles can lead to infectious diseases, including hepatitis and AIDS.
  41. 41. Psychoactive Drugs Heroin (Opiate)  Problems with using  Quitting the drug or “kicking the habit” can lead to bad withdrawal symptoms, including pain, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, cold flashes, and an incredible craving to return to the drug.  Quitting suddenly, called “going cold turkey,” can lead to death in long-term addicts in bad health.