Running Head: PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVES COMPARED AND CONTRASTED<br />Psychology Perspectives Compared and Contrasted<br />Ca...
Psychology Perspectives   Unit 1 Ip
Psychology Perspectives   Unit 1 Ip
Psychology Perspectives   Unit 1 Ip
Psychology Perspectives   Unit 1 Ip
Psychology Perspectives   Unit 1 Ip
Psychology Perspectives   Unit 1 Ip
Psychology Perspectives   Unit 1 Ip
Psychology Perspectives   Unit 1 Ip
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Psychology Perspectives Unit 1 Ip

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Everything gathered in this article will present to the reader the similarities and differences between three different Psychology Perspectives or specific theories of early Psychology to allow the reader to make better choices. One theory used will be Structuralism. Another theory used in this article will be the Functionalism. And lastly the Evolutionary theory will be used. All readers will be able to see at least three to four differences between each of the three theories listed and review facts and see how one of these theories is superior to the others or that all three are comparable or equal. The thesis for this essay is “No matter how careful evolution, structuralism, and functionalism are examined, there is no evidence that these will not change in the future”

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Psychology Perspectives Unit 1 Ip

  1. 1. Running Head: PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVES COMPARED AND CONTRASTED<br />Psychology Perspectives Compared and Contrasted<br />Carla J. McCoy<br />Unit 1 Individual Project – Foundations of Behavior<br />American InterContinental University<br />January 8th, 2009<br />Abstract<br />Everything gathered in this article will present to the reader the similarities and differences between three different Psychology Perspectives or specific theories of early Psychology to allow the reader to make better choices. One theory used will be Structuralism. Another theory used in this article will be the Functionalism. And lastly the Evolutionary theory will be used. All readers will be able to see at least three to four differences between each of the three theories listed and review facts and see how one of these theories is superior to the others or that all three are comparable or equal. The thesis for this essay is “No matter how careful evolution, structuralism, and functionalism are examined, there is no evidence that these will not change in the future”<br />Introduction<br />Structuralism, Functionalism, and Evolutionary theories each have Similarities and Differences among them. Both Structuralism and Functionalism reflect the fact that consciousness is the subject matter, but both differ in how each should be studied. Evolutionary theory has potential to integrate conceptual approaches to study behavioral development for human adaption in both humans and animals which Structuralism and Functionalism stem from. Structuralism has many mental processes that are broken down into basic components. Functionalism forms a reaction to Structuralism which focuses on the purpose of both consciousness and behavior and emphasizes individual differences. Several Similarities and Differences will be presented in this Essay which will give each reader the opportunity to make better choices. <br />1st Differences in Structuralism, Functionalism, and Evolutionary<br />Influenced by Darwin’s evolutionary theory, William James, John Dewey, James Rowland Angell, and Harvey A. Carr, all led a movement to determine what Consciousness was and put it into its basic elements such as the study of sensations, feelings and images. After one of Wilhelm Wundt’s students, E.B. Titchener advocated Structuralism in the United States. However, competition from an opposing school of thought called Functionalism set out to determine what Consciousness was used for, rather than merely its structure. Each one was Similar in studying Consciousness, its purpose, function, and mental processes, but in different ways. One similarity is that both took interest in the mental process and both had a desire for psychology to become scientific. The actions of both led to a rapid spread of Psychology in the United States which gave Stanley Hall a reason to establish the first Psychology Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in 1883. Dozens of laboratories were created by 1900 and the American Psychology Association was founded. Both Structuralisms and Functionalists made significant contributions that give any Psychologist today the opportunity to study both structure and function. (Epsychlopedia, 2009) “In Wundt’s view, the mind had the power to organize mental elements voluntarily” (Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S.E., 2008, p.122).<br />2nd Differences in Structuralism and Functionalism<br />Functionalism differs from Structuralism in the way it studies theories. For Instance, Functionalism studies society in a way that it depends on all parts of society to make up the whole or unified result. On the other hand Functionalism influenced behaviorism and applied psychology, as well as influenced the educational system. One example and fact is that John Dewey believed that children should always learn at the level they are developmentally prepared. (Wagner Van, K., 2009) Structuralism studies the Individual in order to understand Society. Structuralism is important in being the first major school of thought in Psychology and also influenced experimental psychology. In order to do this structuralism relied on a method called introspection. Introspection, however, had a principle flaw and was one basic reason that structuralism completely died in psychology upon Wundt’s death (Psychology World, 2006). One big difference between Structuralism and Functionalism is the way they are processed. Notice that while Structuralism was the first school of thought in psychology, Functionalism emerged afterwards and no one can argue that Structuralism contributed greatly to the field of Psychology. (Lim, R., 2007)<br />Evolution<br />Evolution is a fact and theory that always results in the new development of species. Although when scientists speak of an Evolutionary Proposition that the earth is round rather than flat, they do not mean it as mere speculation but rather a theory in the same sense that humans are made of atoms rather than dust. Most everyone whom is religious or call themselves a Christian will deny Evolution due to their own religious beliefs. Darwin’s religious faith was challenged when the death of his 10 year old daughter Annie died in 1851 which led him to believe that his God created the order of the universe including the rules of nature that result in biological evolution which can be read in his book On the Origin of Species. (O’Neil, D., 1998-2009) Evolutionary function of thinking and behaving as well as Testing for the purposes of Eugenics is influenced by the theory of evolution. Some solid core principles of Darwin’s theory of evolution were Continuity between animals and humans, Living things changing over a period of time, Spontaneous variability is inheritited, and Natural selection and the misunderstood concept of “survival of the fittest” will change by trial and error which was an idea that was borrowed from Thomas Malthus. (Mitchell, Mark, L., Dr. 2009)<br />Conclusion<br />The main points to summarize in this article would be the thesis statement. No matter how careful evolution, structuralism, and functionalism are examined, there is no evidence that these will not change in the future. Change is inevitable and constant, it moves rapidly faster than anyone can keep up with which is also fact for evolution. Whether the reader is reviewing Functionalism or Structuralism, Consciousness can be broken down into Physical Sensations, Feelings, and Images. Although behavior patterns have evolved in order to solve adaptive problems, Natural selection also favors behaviors enhancing reproductive success. A chart has been created to show readers of this Essay the similarities and differences of Structuralism, Functionalism, and Evolutionary. <br />Citations<br />Epsychlopedia, (2009) History of Psychology, retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/C005870/history/index.php?id=historyP1<br />Calkins, M. W. (1906) A reconciliation between structural and functional psychology. Psychological Review, 13, 61-81. James, W. (1904) The Chicago school. Psychological Bulletin. 1, 1-5. Fancher, R. E. (1996) Pioneers of Psychology. New York: Norton.<br />Wagner Van, K., (2009) Psychology Guide retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/structuralism.htm<br />Oxford Companion to the Mind. (2006). William James and Functionalism. Retrieved October 7,2006 athttp://www.psych.utah.edu/gordon/Classes/Psy4905Docs/PsychHistory/Cards/James.html<br />Psychology World. (2006). Structuralism. Retrieved October 7, 2006 athttp://web.umr.edu/~psyworld/structuralism.htm#1<br />Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S.E. (2008). A History of Modern Psychology (9th ed.). California: Thomas Wadsworth.<br />Lim, R., (2007). Psychology Basics LifeScript at http://www.lifescript.com/Soul/Self/Growth/Psychology_Basics.aspx<br />O’Neil, D., (1998-2009) Evidence of Evolution at: http://anthro.palomar.edu/evolve/evolve_3.htm<br />Mitchell, M., L., Dr. (2009) Functionalism and Evolution at: http://spsp.clarion.edu/history/WFunctionalism1A.html<br />.<br />References<br />Electronic Reference: http://www.freeonlineresearchpapers.com/structuralism-vs-functionalism<br />Electronic Reference: http://library.thinkquest.org/C005870/history/index.php?id=historyP1<br />Electronic Reference: http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/structuralism.htm<br />Electronic Reference: http://www.psych.utah.edu/gordon/Classes/Psy4905Docs/PsychHistory/Cards/James.html<br />Electronic Reference: http://web.umr.edu/~psyworld/structuralism.htm#1<br />Electronic Reference: http://www.lifescript.com/Soul/Self/Growth/Psychology_Basics.aspx<br />Electronic Reference: http://anthro.palomar.edu/evolve/evolve_3.htm<br />Electronic Reference: http://spsp.clarion.edu/history/WFunctionalism1A.html<br />

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