Visual Principles(Heinich, R; Molenda, M; Russell, JD; & Smaldino, SE. (2002). Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.)Role of Visuals in Instruction: - Provide a concrete referent for ideas - Serve a more easily remembered link to the original idea - Can motivate learners by attracting their attention, holding their attention, and generating emotional responses - Can simplify information that is difficult to understand - Serve as an organizing function by illustrating relationships among elements (i.e. flowchart or timeline) - Provide a redundant channel – they present information in a different modalityGoals of Visual Design: - Ensure legibility o Remove as many obstacles as possible that might impede transmission of your message. - Reduce the effort required to interpret the message o Convey message in a way that viewers expend little effort making sense out of what they are seeing and are free to use most their mental effort for understanding the message itself. - Increase viewer’s active engagement with the message o Make your design as appealing as possible – to get viewers’ attention and to entice them into thinking about your message - Focus attention on the most important part of the message o Direct the attention of your viewers to the most important parts of your messageProcess of Visual Design 1. Elements : Selecting and assembling the verbal/visual elements to incorporated into the display 2. Pattern: Choosing an underlying pattern for the elements of the display 3. Arrangement: Arranging the individual elements within the underlying pattern 4. Check decisions against the goals. 5. Revise as needed.
Elements: - In selecting or producing the pictorial and text elements, base your choices on achieving the visual design goals. - Includes: visual, verbal, elements that add appeal o Visual Elements – type depends on the learning task Realistic Analogic – implies similarity Organizational – include flowcharts, graphs, maps, etc. o Verbal Elements Letter Style – should be consistent and should harmonize with the visual elements Number of Lettering Styles – no more than two different type of styles and should harmonize with each other - limit number of variations (e.g. bold, italic, underline, size changes) to a maximum of four Ex. Two different type sizes + italics + underlining Three different type sizes + bold Capitals - use lowercase letters, adding capitals only where normally required - short headlines may appear in all capitals - phrases of more than 3 words and full sentences should follow the rule of lowercase lettering Color of Lettering - color of lettering should contrast with the background color Size of Lettering - displays (bulletin boards/posters) are meant to be viewed at a distance of 30 or 40 ft or more - Common Rule of Thumb: lowercase letters = ½ inch high for each 10 ft distance Spacing Spacing Between Letters - should appear even to the eye (optical spacing) Spacing Between Lines - vertical space between lines should be slightly less than the average height of the lowercase letter o Elements that Add Appeal Surprise Texture Interaction
Pattern (overall look) o Alignment – to establish visual relationships - elements are perceived to be aligned when the edges of those elements are aligned on the same imaginary horizontal or vertical line o Shape – put visual and verbal elements into a shape that is already familiar to the viewer Rule of Thirds: - elements arranged along any of the one- third dividing lines take on importance and liveliness *The most dominant and dynamic position is at any of the intersections of the horizontal and vertical one-third dividing lines, especially the upper left intersection
o Balance – achieved when weight of the elements in a display is equally distributed on each side of an axis, either horizontally or vertically or both Symmetrical = formal Asymmetrical = informal = catches the eye – rough equivalence of weight but different elements on one sideo Style – choice of lettering and type of pictures should be consistent with each other and with the preference of the audienceo Color Scheme – consider harmoniousness = complementary colors (refer to color wheel)o Color Appeal – consider the emotional response you are seeking – an active, dynamic, warm feeling or a more contemplative, thoughtful, cool feeling - consider the age and cultural background Cool Colors: blue, green, violet – tend to recede = used for backgrounds Warm Colors: red and orange – appear to approach the viewer = used for highlighting/cuing
Arrangement o Proximity – put related elements close together and move unrelated elements apart o Directionals – directs attention (e.g. arrow, bold key words, bullets, colors) o Figure-Ground Contrast – dark figures show up best on light grounds and light figures show up best on dark grounds o Consistency – be consistent in your arrangement of elements (placement, color, and text treatment) - enhanced when similar elements are placed in similar locations, same text treatments are used for headlines, and same color scheme are used throughout the series of displays