Plumbing

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Plumbing

  1. 1. FANER SURIO
  2. 2. 22 | PLUMBING FANER | SURIO
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  7. 7. 22 | PLUMBING Piping generally refers to Piping Engineering. It is an application of Mechanical and Chemical engineering principles, which deals with Design, Analysis, Installation, Testing, Commissioning and Maintenance of Piping System. Industrially, all piping activities are performed with the compliance and guidelines of International and Industrial Codes & Standards as well as the laws and regulations of respective local authority. FANER | SURIO
  8. 8. 22 | PLUMBING Piping Components Pipe Pipe is hollow cylinder used to conduct or transfer fluids (liquids and gases) from one place to other place. The main difference between pipe and tube is the critical dimension used to describe the pipe size or the tube size. For pipe, internal diameter (ID) roughly corresponds to the nominal pipe size for standard wall thickness. For tube, the outer diameter (OD) closely corresponds to the tube size. In current European standards pipes and tubes are nowadays described as outside diameter by wall thickness. The three standard types of pipe ends used in the piping industries are; Plain Ends (PE), Threaded Ends (TE) and Beveled Ends (BE). In the past, many types of material have been used in conveying water from one point to another. Masonry and wood were probably the first materials used. Plastics are the newest, and are now being used quite extensively. FANER | SURIO
  9. 9. 22 | PLUMBING Piping Components Pipe Fittings Pipe fittings are attachments placed on pipe end, which provide flexibility in piping system. These are commonly used for changing the direction of flow, distribution, increase or decrease the flow capacity and interconnection. Commonly used pipe fittings are elbow, bend, return, tee, cross, reducer, end cap, plug, nipple, union, coupling, boss, owlet etc. FANER | SURIO
  10. 10. 22 | PLUMBING Piping Components Flanges Pipe flange is a disc, collar or ring that attaches to pipe. Flanged joints are made by bolting together two flanges with a gasket between them to provide a seal. It can also be defined as a ring that is usually provided with holes for bolts, and screwed or welded over the end of a tube or pipe to permit other objects to be attached to it. It also provides easy access for maintenance, cleaning, inspection or modification. The major different types of flanges used in piping systems are slip-on pipe flanges, weld neck pipe flanges, blind pipe flanges, lap joint pipe flanges, threaded pipe flanges, socketweld pipe flanges. Spectacle blinds, spacer and spades are also using along with flanged piping systems. FANER | SURIO
  11. 11. 22 | PLUMBING Piping Components Valves Valves are mechanical devices that control the flow and pressure within a piping system. These are the essential components of any piping system. Commonly used Valves are: gate, globe, plug, ball, butterfly, check, diaphragm, pinch, pressure relief, and control Valves. FANER | SURIO
  12. 12. 22 | PLUMBING Piping Components Bolting In piping industry, for flange connections Stud Bolts and Machine Bolts are used. The Stud Bolt is a threaded rod with two heavy hexagon nuts, while the Machine Bolt has a head with one nut. Selection of bolting material depends on the matching flange material, service conditions, mechanical properties and high temperature characteristics. FANER | SURIO
  13. 13. 22 | PLUMBING Plumbing equipment includes devices often hidden behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public. It includes: WATER METER A typical residential water meter FANER | SURIO Water meters are used to measure the volume of water used by residential and commercial building that are supplied with water by a public water supply system. Water meters can also be used at the water source, well, or throughout a water system to determine flow through a particular portion of the system. In most of the world water meters measure flow in cubic meters (m3) or liters but in the USA and some other countries water meters are calibrated in cubic feet (ft.3), or US gallons on a mechanical or electronic register. Some electronic meter registers can display rate-of-flow in addition to total usage.
  14. 14. 22 | PLUMBING Plumbing equipment includes devices often hidden behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public. It includes: PUMP A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power, come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps. FANER | SURIO
  15. 15. 22 | PLUMBING Plumbing equipment includes devices often hidden behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public. It includes: EXPANSION TANK An expansion tank or expansion vessel is a small tank used to protect closed water heating systems and domestic hot water systems from excessive pressure. The tank is partially filled with air, whose compressibility cushions shock caused by water hammer and absorbs excess water pressure caused by thermal expansion. FANER | SURIO
  16. 16. 22 | PLUMBING Plumbing equipment includes devices often hidden behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public. It includes: BACKFLOW ARRESTOR water metersA backflow prevention assembly is used to protect potable water supplies from contamination or pollution due to backflow. In water supply systems, water is normally maintained at a significant pressure to enable water to flow from the tap, shower etc. When pressure fails or is reduced, as may happen if a water main bursts, pipes freeze or there is unexpectedly high demand on the water system, then such reduced pressure in the pipe may allow contaminated water from the ground, from storage or from other sources to be drawn up into the system. FANER | SURIO
  17. 17. 22 | PLUMBING Plumbing equipment includes devices often hidden behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public. It includes: WATER FILTER removes impurities from water by means of a fine physical barrier, a chemical process or a biological process. Filters cleanse water to different extents for purposes like irrigation, drinking water, aquariums, and swimming pools. FANER | SURIO
  18. 18. 22 | PLUMBING Plumbing equipment includes devices often hidden behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public. It includes: WATER SOFTENER The water softener is just a special type of "filter" that removes the calcium and magnesium in hard water by using plastic beads and cleans itself periodically by a process called “regeneration.” Water softeners have three main components: A mineral tank, brine tank and control valve. Smaller capacity models combine the mineral tank and brine tanks into one cabinet, but the two tanks are still separated within the cabinet. Larger flow capacity systems have separate stand alone mineral and brine tanks. Mineral Tank: FANER | SURIO The mineral tank is where the action is. It is where the water filtration takes place and the hard water is softened (calcium and magnesium are removed). Brine Tank: The brine tank is where a highly concentrated solution of salt or potassium is stored. Control Valve: The control valve is the device that controls the flow of water into and out of the mineral and brine tanks during regeneration.
  19. 19. 22 | PLUMBING Plumbing equipment includes devices often hidden behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public. It includes: WATER HEATER consist of a cylindrical vessel or container that keeps water continuously hot and ready to use. Typical sizes for household use range from 75 to 400 liters (20 to 100 US gallons). These may use electricity, natural gas, propane, heating oil, solar, or other energy sources. FANER | SURIO
  20. 20. 22 | PLUMBING Plumbing equipment includes devices often hidden behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public. It includes: HEAT EXCHANGERS a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. FANER | SURIO
  21. 21. 22 | PLUMBING Plumbing equipment includes devices often hidden behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public. It includes: GAUGES a device used to make measurements FANER | SURIO
  22. 22. 22 | PLUMBING Plumbing equipment includes devices often hidden behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public. It includes: CONTROL SYSTEM a device, or set of devices, that manages, commands, directs or regulates the behavior of other device(s) or system(s). FANER | SURIO
  23. 23. 22 | PLUMBING A plumbing fixture is an exchangeable device which can be connected to an existing plumbing system to deliver and drain away water but which is also configured to enable a particular use. FANER | SURIO
  24. 24. 22 | PLUMBING BATHTUB A bathtub is a large container for holding water in which a person may bathe. Most modern bathtubs are made of acrylic or fiberglass, but alternatives are available in enamel on steel or cast iron; occasionally, waterproof finished wood. A bathtub is usually placed in a bathroom either as a stand-alone fixture or in conjunction with a shower. FANER | SURIO
  25. 25. 22 | PLUMBING BIDET Bidets are primarily used to wash and clean the genitalia, perineum, inner buttocks, and anus. They may also be used to clean any other part of the body such as feet. Despite appearing similar to a toilet, it would be more accurate to compare it to the washbasin or bathtub. Bidets once served as a practical way for couples to prepare themselves before sex, as well as to rinse themselves afterwards. It is generally understood that the user should sit on a bidet facing the tap and nozzle for washing the genitalia, and should sit with back to the tap and wall when washing the anus and buttocks. A dedicated towel or wipe is often available for drying. FANER | SURIO
  26. 26. 22 | PLUMBING DRINKING FOUNTAIN A drinking fountain, also called a water fountain or bubbler, is a fountain designed to provide drinking water. It consists of a basin with either continuously running water or a tap. The drinker bends down to the stream of water and swallows water directly from the stream. Modern indoor drinking fountains may incorporate filters to remove impurities from the water and chillers to reduce its temperature. Water fountains are usually found in public places, like schools, rest areas, libraries, and grocery stores. Many jurisdictions require water fountains to be wheelchair accessible (by sticking out horizontally from the wall), and to include an additional unit of a lower height for children and short adults. The design that this replaced often had one spout atop a refrigeration unit. FANER | SURIO
  27. 27. 22 | PLUMBING KITCHEN SINK used for washing dishes, vegetables, etc. FANER | SURIO
  28. 28. 22 | PLUMBING LAVATORY bathroom sink FANER | SURIO
  29. 29. 22 | PLUMBING SHOWER A shower (or shower-bath, walk-in shower, steam shower) is a place in which a person bathes under a spray of water. The water is then drained through a drain in the shower base. The modern shower comes with configurable temperature and spray pressure settings, along with adjustable showerhead nozzle settings. FANER | SURIO
  30. 30. 22 | PLUMBING OUTLETS AND DRAINS Each of these plumbing fixtures has one or more water outlets and a drain. In some cases, the drain has a device that can be manipulated to block the drain to fill the basin of the fixture. Each fixture also has a flood rim, or level at which water will begin to overflow. Most fixtures also have an overflow, which is a conduit for water to drain away, when the regular drain is plugged, before the water actually overflows at the flood rim level. However, water closets and showers (that are not in bathtubs) usually lack this feature because their drains normally cannot be stopped. FANER | SURIO
  31. 31. 22 | PLUMBING TRAPS AND VENTS All plumbing fixtures have traps in their drains; these traps are either internal or external to the fixtures. Traps are pipes which curve down then back up; they 'trap' a small amount of water to create a water seal between the ambient air space and the inside of the drain system. This prevents sewer gas from entering buildings. Most water closets, bidets, and many urinals have the trap integral with the fixture itself. The visible water surface in a toilet is the top of the trap's water seal. Each fixture drain, with exceptions, must be vented so that negative air pressure in the drain cannot siphon the trap dry, to prevent positive air pressure in the sewer from forcing gases past the water seal, and to prevent explosive sewer gas buildup. FANER | SURIO
  32. 32. 22 | PLUMBING POOL A typical swimming pool has a number of major components including a basin, a motorized pump, a water filter, drains, return lines, and plumbing piping connecting these components. Chlorine is often the sanitizing agent used in swimming pools, and given the corrosive nature of chlorine, PVC plastic is usually the material of choice for swimming pool plumbing and piping. The water in a pool must be sanitized and have debris strained out of it. FANER | SURIO
  33. 33. 22 | PLUMBING FOUNTAIN Fountain pumps are pumps designed to handle the particular challenges associated with fountains. Most fountains are designed to lift columns of water into the air for decorative effect. Fountains are also open to the atmosphere and subject to surface debris similar to a swimming pool, and therefore, the pumps and pumping systems are designed to operate in this environment. An example is the Debris Pumping Tetra Pond Pump shown below. FANER | SURIO
  34. 34. 22 | PLUMBING This includes information related to gas and vacuum systems that are installed in laboratory and healthcare facilities during construction. Gas and vacuum systems deliver compressed air, gas and processed water to point of use locations within a facility. They also serve to remove or dispose of general wastewater, chemical waste and vapors. FANER | SURIO

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