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Art nouveau
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  2. 2. OUTLINE• Birth of Art Nouveau• Introduction: Art Nouveau-Time & Place-Hallmarks of Art Nouveau Styles-Other names for Art Nouveau-Critical Nicknames• Art Nouveau Architecture-Features-Pierre Francastel-Stephan Tschudi Madsen-Art Nouveau Architects and their Works• Beginning of Art Deco• References
  3. 3. BIRTH OF ART NOUVEAU The last third of the 19th century saw the development of a fundamentally approach to architecture and interior design. All over Europe there was a need for liberating change of direction, a desire to break away from set formulas based on pastiche of historical styles and a search for original ideas, all of which resulted at the beginning of the 1890s in the birth of Art Nouveau.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU Art Nouveau (French for "New Style") was popularized by the famous Maison de lArt Nouveau (House of New Art), a Paris art gallery operated by Siegfried Bing.
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAUArt Nouveau represents the beginning ofmodernism in design (Modern Architecture).It occurred at a time when mass-producedconsumer goods began to fill themarketplace, and designers, architects, andartists began to understand that thehandcrafted work of centuries past could belost. While reclaiming this craft tradition, artnouveau designers simultaneously rejectedtraditional styles in favor of new, organic formsthat emphasized humanitys connectionto nature.
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAUTIME & PLACEArt Nouveauart andarchitectureflourished inmajorEuropean citiesbetween 1890and 1914.
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAUIt embraced all forms of art and design:• architecture• furniture• glassware• graphic design• jewelry• painting• pottery• metalwork• textileThis was a sharp contrast to the traditional separation of art intothe distinct categories of fine art (painting and sculpture) andapplied arts (ceramics,furniture, and other practical objects).
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAUHALLMARKS OFART NOUVEAU STYLE• flat, decorative patterns;• intertwined organic forms such as stems or flowers;• an emphasis on handcrafting as opposed to machine manufacturing;• the use of new materials;• and the rejection of earlier styles
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAUOther names for Art Nouveau:As it moved through Europe, Art Nouveauwent through several phases and took on avariety of names.• Nieuwe Kunst In Netherland• Jugendstil in Germany• Arte Joven, in Spain• Secession, in Austria• Stile Liberty, in Italy
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAUCRITICAL NICKNAMESFrom its earliest appearance, the ArtNouveau was also dubbed with a host ofcritical nicknames such as:• Eel style• Noodle style• Mutton bone style• Dandy style
  11. 11. ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTUREFEATURESArt Nouveau buildings have many of thesefeatures:• Asymmetrical shapes• Extensive use of arches and curved forms• Curved glass• Curving, plant-like embellishments• Mosaics• Stained glass• Japanese motifs
  12. 12. ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE Pierre Francastel divides Art Nouveau into two main tendencies that could broadly termed the organic and the rationalist
  13. 13. ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURERationalist: Organic:Mackintosh school Gaudi houseGlasglow, Scotland Barcelona, Spain1897-1909 1903-dependent on the straight line -gives precedence to the curved line and floral shapes
  14. 14. ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE Stephan Tschudi Madsen (Art Historian) proposed a more subtle classification, but still relies on an assumed antagonism between four designs
  15. 15. ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE In his book Sources of Art Nouveau, he describes for styles:1. An abstract, structural style with 2. A floral approach focuding on a strong symbolic and dynamic tendency (France & Belgium) organic plant forms(Horta, Guimard, Van de Velde) (Galle, Majorelle, Vallin)Henry Van de Velde’s house Aquarium Pavillion
  16. 16. ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE3. The linear, flat approach, with a 4. A structured, geometric style heavy symbolic element (Austria & Germany)(Glasglow group, Mackintosh) (Wagner, Olbrich, Hoffmann, Loos)Glasgow School of Art Majolikahaus in Viennaby Charles Rennie Mackintosh by Otto Wagner
  18. 18. VictorHorta(Belgian architect anddesigner)(January 6, 1861 - September 8 1947)
  19. 19. HotelTasselBrussels, BelgiumConstruction started 1893Completed 1894(1st Art Nouveau Building in the World)
  20. 20. Stairway of Tassel House, Brussels
  21. 21. Hôtel vanEetveldeBrussels, BelgiumConstruction started 1898Completed 1900
  22. 22. Hôtel van Eetvelde office : fireplace
  23. 23. HôtelSolvayBrussels, BelgiumConstruction started 1898Completed 1900
  24. 24. HortaMuseumformerly known asMaison & Atelier HortaBrussels, BelgiumConstruction started 1898Completed 1900
  25. 25. HectorGuimard(French architect)(Lyon, March 10, 1867 – New York,May 20, 1942)
  26. 26. CastelBerangerParis, France1890 circa multi-familty Building Type housing, apartment building Construction bearing masonry, System brick, cast iron Climate temperate Context urban Notes Graceful asymmetrical wrought iron entry gate, precedent to work of contemporary American blacksmith Albert Paley.
  27. 27. Details ofCastel Beranger
  28. 28. ParisMetroEntrancesParis, France1899 to 1905 light rail rapid Building Type transit stations Construction iron and glass System Climate temperate Context urban Notes Graceful organic forms.
  29. 29. HotelGuimardParis, France1912 Building Type private residence hotel cut stone bearing Construction System masonry Climate temperate Context urban Notes Elegant facade with organic detailing.
  30. 30. Louis Sullivan (American architect)(September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) "father of skyscrapers“ "father of modernism“ one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture"
  31. 31. WainwrightBuildingMissouri, USA1890 to 1891Height: 44.81 meters / 147 feetStories: 10
  32. 32. Charles RennieMackintosh(British Architect, Interior Designer)
  33. 33. TheLightHouseGlasglow, ScotlandCompleted in 1895
  34. 34. AntonioGaudi(Architect, Barcelona) Gaudi was a Spanish (Catalan) Architect who created complex buildings in that the architecture was considered sculptural as well. His buildings are consideredbiomorphic, or organically-shaped. This is possibly a rejection to the coldness that a machine-produced geometric object would create
  35. 35. CasaMilàBarcelona, Catalonia, Spain1905-1907
  36. 36. CasaBattloBarcelona, Spain1905-1907
  37. 37. LaSagradaFamilia(The Holy Family)Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain1882-2026
  38. 38. ParqueGüellBarcelona, Spain1900 to 1914Parque Güell, or Guell Park is surroundedby an undulating mosaic wall.
  39. 39. BEGINNING OF ART DECO• When Art Nouveau fell out of fashion in the 1920s and 1930s, it was replaced by the clean, simple geometries of Art Deco.• The extravagant curves of Art Nouveau were seen as old-fashioned and viewed with contempt.
  40. 40. BEGINNING OF ART DECO• Many Art Nouveau products were put away, spurned, or destroyed.• Rooms once decorated in what had been the height of fashion were redecorated to conform to the latest taste.
  41. 41. BEGINNING OF ART DECO• It was not until nearly half a century later, in 1952, the first comprehensive exhibition devoted to Art Nouveau was organized in Zurich, Switzerland.• Present day interest in Art Nouveau, and in particular its widespread appreciation within the last thirty years, has once again firmly established it as an important art movement.
  42. 42. REFERENCES•••••• KEIICHI TAHARA Art Nouveau Architecture Philippine Thiebaut Bruno Girveau©2000 Thames and Hudson Ltd, London• ALASTAIR DUNCAN Art Nouveau (170 illustrations, 32 in colour)©1994 Thames and Hudson Ltd, London• Art Nouveau (Spirit of the Belle Epoque) by Susan A. Sternau© 1996 Todri Production Limited• The Sources of Modern Architecture and Design by Nikolaus Pevsner©1968 Thames and Hudson Ltd, London
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