CLINTONCLINTON
BACKS CITYBACKS CITY
BID TO ENDBID TO END
SOCIALSOCIAL
PROMOTIONPROMOTION
FLUNK WARNINGSFLUNK WARNINGS
FOR ...
WINDY CITY SCHOOLSWINDY CITY SCHOOLS
LET UP – CHICAGOLET UP – CHICAGO
REVISES RULE ONREVISES RULE ON
SOCIAL PROMOTIONSOCIA...
BUSH BEGINS ATTACK ON SOCIAL PROMOTIONBUSH BEGINS ATTACK ON SOCIAL PROMOTION
-- Source: The Victoria Advocate, Jan 26, 1999
PLAN AXESPLAN AXES
‘SOCIAL‘SOCIAL
PROMOTION’PROMOTION’
IN SCHOOLIN SCHOOL
-- Source: Philadelphia Daily News, Feb 10, 1998
-- Source: NY Post, Feb 11 & June 29, 2004
PARENTSPARENTS
FLUNKFLUNK
MIKE’S NO-MIKE’S NO-
PROMOTIONPROMOTION
PLANPLAN
COUN...
OBAMA CALLS SOCIALOBAMA CALLS SOCIAL
PROMOTION ‘A DISSERVICE’PROMOTION ‘A DISSERVICE’
-- Sources: Murphy, The Education Re...
What is …What is …

Grade Retention?Grade Retention?

Social Promotion?Social Promotion?

The big To-Do all about?The b...
Grade Retention:Grade Retention:

a.k.a.,a.k.a., Grade Repetition,Grade Repetition,
Flunking, Failing, BeingFlunking, Fai...
Social Promotion:Social Promotion:

SSometimes referred to asometimes referred to as
promotionpromotion based onbased on ...
History:History:

Prior to mid-1800s:Prior to mid-1800s:
1-room schoolhouse1-room schoolhouse
/ all ages./ all ages.
-- S...
Grade Retention: FactsGrade Retention: Facts

Retention has risen over past 25Retention has risen over past 25
years, est...
Social Promotion Effects:Social Promotion Effects:
-- Source: http://www.geocities.com/solidbat/patrickhammer.jpg
Black Text = Nations participating in only one survey
Blue Text = Nations participating in both
Red Text = United States s...
4th
Grade (TIMMS) 8th
Grade (PISA)
Country Average Score Country Average Score
Singapore 587 Singapore 567
Chinese Taipei ...
Social Promotion: ConsSocial Promotion: Cons

Forces next teacher to deal w/Forces next teacher to deal w/
under-prepared...
Grade Retention Effects:Grade Retention Effects:
Grade Retention: ConsGrade Retention: Cons

Average annual cost per studentAverage annual cost per student
= $7500= $7500...
Grade Retention: ConsGrade Retention: Cons

5 – 11x5 – 11x more likely to drop out.more likely to drop out.

Less likely...
Grade Retention: ConsGrade Retention: Cons

Stressful life event. (Stressful life event. (Ranked 3Ranked 3rdrd
inin
surve...
Social Promotion: ProsSocial Promotion: Pros

Maintains self-esteem.Maintains self-esteem.

Keeps with same-age peers.Ke...
Local History:Local History:
-- Source: Wikipedia

19821982 - Stops social promotions.- Stops social promotions.

Mid 19...
Alternative Strategies:Alternative Strategies:
-- Source: http://www.grand-illusions.com/images/articles/articles/monty_ha...
-- Source: NASP. (2003) Student GR & SP (Position Statement). Bethesda, MD: Author

““Both grade retention & socialBoth g...
Alternative Strategies:Alternative Strategies:

Early DevelopmentEarly Development
Programs (Pre-Programs (Pre-
School)Sc...
-- Source: http://www.jupiterimages.com/Image/royaltyFree/90287106
-- Source: Wikipedia
History:History:
History:History:
History:History:
History:History:
History:History:
History:History:
History:History:
History:History:
History:History:
 Poor, minority,Poor, minority,
inner-city youthinner-city youth

Boys > GirlsBoys > Girls

ELLELL

Late birth datesLa...
History:History:
-- Source:
World GDP, also known as world gross domestic product or GWP - gross world product, calculated...
International Productivity New 2008International Productivity New 2008
Estimates:Estimates:
-- http://www.statistics.gov.u...
History:History:
-- Source: Wikipedia
History:History:
-- Source: Wikipedia
History:History:
-- Source: Wikipedia
History:History:
 What typically happens is that administrators announce a "no social
promotions" policy with a great dea...
History:History:
 Attitudes toward the two policies tend to flow in cycles, with first
one and then the other gaining asc...
History:History:
 In the 1990s, Chicago Public Schools stopped
promoting students to the next grade — or graduating
them ...
Social Promotion:Social Promotion:

Retention refers to the practice of requiring aRetention refers to the practice of re...
Current Trend:Current Trend:
 Citing the "impressive success" of his own administration's anti-social-promotion
policies ...
Current Trend:Current Trend:
 No Child Left Behind. And it could be explained in a single sentence -- "Test all
students ...
Current Trend:Current Trend:
 So now comes “Race to the Top,” which the Obama Administration claims will reward only
thos...
Social Promotion vs Grade Retention - Presentation
Social Promotion vs Grade Retention - Presentation
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Social Promotion vs Grade Retention - Presentation

  1. 1. CLINTONCLINTON BACKS CITYBACKS CITY BID TO ENDBID TO END SOCIALSOCIAL PROMOTIONPROMOTION FLUNK WARNINGSFLUNK WARNINGS FOR 30% OFFOR 30% OF SCHOOL KIDSSCHOOL KIDS -- Source: NY Post, Oct 1, 1999 & Mar 19, 2004
  2. 2. WINDY CITY SCHOOLSWINDY CITY SCHOOLS LET UP – CHICAGOLET UP – CHICAGO REVISES RULE ONREVISES RULE ON SOCIAL PROMOTIONSOCIAL PROMOTION -- Source: NY Post, Mar 25, 2004
  3. 3. BUSH BEGINS ATTACK ON SOCIAL PROMOTIONBUSH BEGINS ATTACK ON SOCIAL PROMOTION -- Source: The Victoria Advocate, Jan 26, 1999
  4. 4. PLAN AXESPLAN AXES ‘SOCIAL‘SOCIAL PROMOTION’PROMOTION’ IN SCHOOLIN SCHOOL -- Source: Philadelphia Daily News, Feb 10, 1998
  5. 5. -- Source: NY Post, Feb 11 & June 29, 2004 PARENTSPARENTS FLUNKFLUNK MIKE’S NO-MIKE’S NO- PROMOTIONPROMOTION PLANPLAN COUNCIL FLUNKSCOUNCIL FLUNKS HOLD-BACK PLANHOLD-BACK PLAN
  6. 6. OBAMA CALLS SOCIALOBAMA CALLS SOCIAL PROMOTION ‘A DISSERVICE’PROMOTION ‘A DISSERVICE’ -- Sources: Murphy, The Education Report, July 24, 2009 & NY Post, Oct 20, 2008 ‘‘F FOR BARACK’S SCHOOL FIX’F FOR BARACK’S SCHOOL FIX’
  7. 7. What is …What is …  Grade Retention?Grade Retention?  Social Promotion?Social Promotion?  The big To-Do all about?The big To-Do all about?  What to do about the big To-Do?What to do about the big To-Do?
  8. 8. Grade Retention:Grade Retention:  a.k.a.,a.k.a., Grade Repetition,Grade Repetition, Flunking, Failing, BeingFlunking, Failing, Being Held Back, Gift of TimeHeld Back, Gift of Time..  Refers to childRefers to child repeatingrepeating his or herhis or her current gradecurrent grade levellevel again inagain in followingfollowing yearyear due to academic,due to academic, behavioral, language orbehavioral, language or attendance difficulties /attendance difficulties / failure to meet grade-levelfailure to meet grade-level performance standards.performance standards. -- Source: Jimerson, Woehr, Kaufman, NASP, Parent Info Handout, 2007
  9. 9. Social Promotion:Social Promotion:  SSometimes referred to asometimes referred to as promotionpromotion based onbased on seatseat time,time, or amount of time child spent sittingor amount of time child spent sitting in school,in school, regardless of whether childregardless of whether child learnedlearned the necessary material.the necessary material. -- Source: Wikipedia  The practice ofThe practice of promotingpromoting a student to thea student to the nextnext gradegrade despite lowdespite low achievement in order toachievement in order to keep withkeep with social peers.social peers.
  10. 10. History:History:  Prior to mid-1800s:Prior to mid-1800s: 1-room schoolhouse1-room schoolhouse / all ages./ all ages. -- Source: Wikipedia  Mid-1800s:Mid-1800s: Retention becomes a common practice w/Retention becomes a common practice w/ proliferation of graded schools.proliferation of graded schools.  Early 1900s:Early 1900s: ≈ 50% of all American students retained≈ 50% of all American students retained 1 ≥ before 13 years old.1 ≥ before 13 years old.  1930s:1930s: Social Promotion begins to spread w/ concernsSocial Promotion begins to spread w/ concerns about psychosocial effects of retention.about psychosocial effects of retention.  1980s:1980s: Trend toward retention again, as concernsTrend toward retention again, as concerns re: slipping academic standards rise.re: slipping academic standards rise.
  11. 11. Grade Retention: FactsGrade Retention: Facts  Retention has risen over past 25Retention has risen over past 25 years, estimatedyears, estimated + 40%+ 40% over past 20 years.over past 20 years.  2M >2M > students retained each year.students retained each year.  5 – 15%5 – 15% students retained each year.students retained each year.  30 – 50%30 – 50% students retainedstudents retained 1 ≥1 ≥ before 9before 9thth grade.grade. -- Source: NASP. (2003) Student GR & SP (Position Statement). Bethesda, MD: Author
  12. 12. Social Promotion Effects:Social Promotion Effects: -- Source: http://www.geocities.com/solidbat/patrickhammer.jpg
  13. 13. Black Text = Nations participating in only one survey Blue Text = Nations participating in both Red Text = United States scores -- Source: Leahy, Bart, www.sciencecheerleader.com. Dec 11, 2008 Average Math Scores 2007Average Math Scores 2007 44thth & 8& 8thth Grade Students, by countryGrade Students, by country 4th Grade (TIMMS) 8th Grade (PISA) Country Average Score Country Average Score Hong Kong SAR 607 Chinese Taipei 598 Singapore 599 Korea, Rep. of 597 Chinese Taipei 576 Singapore 593 Japan 568 Hong Kong SAR 572 Kazakhstan 549 Japan 570 Russian Federation 544 Hungary 517 England 541 England 513 Latvia 537 Russian Federation 512 Netherlands 535 9. United States 508 Lithuania 530 Lithuania 506 11. United States 529 Czech Republic 504 36 4870% 81%
  14. 14. 4th Grade (TIMMS) 8th Grade (PISA) Country Average Score Country Average Score Singapore 587 Singapore 567 Chinese Taipei 557 Chinese Taipei 561 Hong Kong SAR 554 Japan 554 Japan 548 Korea, Rep. of 553 Russian Federation 546 England 542 Latvia 542 Hungary 539 England 542 Czech Republic 539 8. United States 539 Slovenia 538 Hungary 536 Hong Kong SAR 530 Italy 535 Russian Federation 530 Kazakhstan 533 11. United States 520 -- Source: Leahy, Bart, www.sciencecheerleader.com. Dec 11, 2008 Average Science Scores 2007Average Science Scores 2007 44thth & 8& 8thth Grade Students, by countryGrade Students, by country Black Text = Nations participating in only one survey Blue Text = Nations participating in both Red Text = United States scores 36 4878% 72%
  15. 15. Social Promotion: ConsSocial Promotion: Cons  Forces next teacher to deal w/Forces next teacher to deal w/ under-prepared students, takingunder-prepared students, taking away from prepared students.away from prepared students.  Gives parents false sense of childrens’ progress.Gives parents false sense of childrens’ progress.  Robs student of an education.Robs student of an education.  Sets up student for further failure.Sets up student for further failure.  Sends message that one doesn’t have to workSends message that one doesn’t have to work hard to succeed.hard to succeed. -- Source: Wikipedia
  16. 16. Grade Retention Effects:Grade Retention Effects:
  17. 17. Grade Retention: ConsGrade Retention: Cons  Average annual cost per studentAverage annual cost per student = $7500= $7500  Total annual cost of retention:Total annual cost of retention: $13B -- $18B$13B -- $18B  No evidence of long-term academicNo evidence of long-term academic benefit.benefit.  Temporary gains. Immediate gains declineTemporary gains. Immediate gains decline in later grades.in later grades. -- Sources: Xia, Glennie, Cost-Benefit Analysis of Grade Retention, Duke U. Policy Brief, Jan 2005 Jimerson, Woehr, Kaufman, NASP, Parent Info Handout, 2007
  18. 18. Grade Retention: ConsGrade Retention: Cons  5 – 11x5 – 11x more likely to drop out.more likely to drop out.  Less likely to be enrolled inLess likely to be enrolled in post-secondary education programs.post-secondary education programs.  More likely to receive lower education /More likely to receive lower education / employment status, lower wages.employment status, lower wages.  More likely to be unemployed, onMore likely to be unemployed, on public assistance, prison.public assistance, prison. -- Source: Jimerson, Woehr, Kaufman, NASP, Parent Info Handout, 2007
  19. 19. Grade Retention: ConsGrade Retention: Cons  Stressful life event. (Stressful life event. (Ranked 3Ranked 3rdrd inin survey after blindness / loss of parent.)survey after blindness / loss of parent.)  Self-esteem / peer relationship /Self-esteem / peer relationship / attention problems.attention problems.  Increased rates of dangerous behavior:Increased rates of dangerous behavior: -- Source: Jimerson, Woehr, Kaufman, NASP, Parent Info Handout, 2007 - Drinking- Drinking - Drug use- Drug use - Suicidal intentions- Suicidal intentions - DUI- DUI - Violence- Violence - Teen pregnancy- Teen pregnancy - Crime- Crime - Depression- Depression
  20. 20. Social Promotion: ProsSocial Promotion: Pros  Maintains self-esteem.Maintains self-esteem.  Keeps with same-age peers.Keeps with same-age peers.  Facilitates sports involvement.Facilitates sports involvement.  Advances further in strong areas if strongAdvances further in strong areas if strong in some, but not others.in some, but not others. -- Source: Wikipedia
  21. 21. Local History:Local History: -- Source: Wikipedia  19821982 - Stops social promotions.- Stops social promotions.  Mid 1980sMid 1980s - Starts social promotions- Starts social promotions due to problems with retention policy.due to problems with retention policy.  19991999 - Stops social promotions.- Stops social promotions.  20042004 - Reinstates social promotions when- Reinstates social promotions when repeaters mount to 100K, driving up costsrepeaters mount to 100K, driving up costs and leading to cutbacks, including those forand leading to cutbacks, including those for helping underachievers.helping underachievers.
  22. 22. Alternative Strategies:Alternative Strategies: -- Source: http://www.grand-illusions.com/images/articles/articles/monty_hall/mainimage.jpg
  23. 23. -- Source: NASP. (2003) Student GR & SP (Position Statement). Bethesda, MD: Author  ““Both grade retention & socialBoth grade retention & social promotion fail to improve learning orpromotion fail to improve learning or facilitate positive achievement outcomes. Neitherfacilitate positive achievement outcomes. Neither repeating a grade nor merely moving on to therepeating a grade nor merely moving on to the next grade provides students w/ the supports theynext grade provides students w/ the supports they need to improve academic & social skills.”need to improve academic & social skills.”  ““NASP encourages school districts to consider aNASP encourages school districts to consider a wide array of well-researched, evidence-based,wide array of well-researched, evidence-based, effective & responsible strategies in lieu ofeffective & responsible strategies in lieu of retention or social promotion.”retention or social promotion.” Alternative Strategies:Alternative Strategies:
  24. 24. Alternative Strategies:Alternative Strategies:  Early DevelopmentEarly Development Programs (Pre-Programs (Pre- School)School)  Early ReadingEarly Reading ProgramsPrograms  Student SupportStudent Support TeamsTeams  School-based MentalSchool-based Mental Health & BehaviorHealth & Behavior Management ProgramsManagement Programs -- Source: Jimerson, Woehr, Kaufman, NASP, Parent Info Handout, 2007  Monitor Progress, IDMonitor Progress, ID Strengths & WeaknessesStrengths & Weaknesses  Parental InvolvementParental Involvement  Extended Year / Day /Extended Year / Day / Summer ProgramsSummer Programs  Tutoring / MentoringTutoring / Mentoring
  25. 25. -- Source: http://www.jupiterimages.com/Image/royaltyFree/90287106
  26. 26. -- Source: Wikipedia
  27. 27. History:History:
  28. 28. History:History:
  29. 29. History:History:
  30. 30. History:History:
  31. 31. History:History:
  32. 32. History:History:
  33. 33. History:History:
  34. 34. History:History:
  35. 35. History:History:
  36. 36.  Poor, minority,Poor, minority, inner-city youthinner-city youth  Boys > GirlsBoys > Girls  ELLELL  Late birth datesLate birth dates (younger students)(younger students)  Attention problemsAttention problems  Single parentSingle parent householdshouseholds Source – D. Johnson, Critical Issue: Beyond Social Promotion & Retention North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 2001  Frequent schoolFrequent school changes (moving)changes (moving)  Low parental educationalLow parental educational level / involvementlevel / involvement  Behavior problemsBehavior problems  Low self-confidence /Low self-confidence / self-esteemself-esteem Grade Retention: FactsGrade Retention: Facts
  37. 37. History:History: -- Source: World GDP, also known as world gross domestic product or GWP - gross world product, calculated on a nominal basis, was estimated at $65.61 trillion in 2007 by the CIA World Factbook. While the US is the largest economy, growth in world GDP of 5.2% was led by China (11.4%), India (9.2%) and Russia (8.1%). Throughout the twentieth century the United States of America has dominated world gross domestic product, or World GDP. In 2007, according to the International Monetary Fund, the US GDP was $13.8 trillion. Since rising from the ashes of World War II, Japan has become the second largest world economy, with a GDP of $4.4 trillion. Germany is Europe’s largest economy and the third largest in the world, with an annual gross domestic product of $3.2 trillion. China is close behind Germany at $3.2 trillion, and due to overtake it soon. If current growth rates continue, China will become the largest economy in the world somewhere between 2025 and 2030. The United States will be pushed down to second spot. At that time, three out of the four largest economies in the world will be Asian - China, India and Japan. The US has the largest and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $46,900. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
  38. 38. International Productivity New 2008International Productivity New 2008 Estimates:Estimates: -- http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=160 office for GDP Per Worker (compared to UK = 100)
  39. 39. History:History: -- Source: Wikipedia
  40. 40. History:History: -- Source: Wikipedia
  41. 41. History:History: -- Source: Wikipedia
  42. 42. History:History:  What typically happens is that administrators announce a "no social promotions" policy with a great deal of fanfare, then over the next couple of years call attention to any data that appear to suggest that the policy is working. Later, however, when it becomes clear that too many students are being retained (some repeatedly) and the administrators are confronted with angry parents, frustrated teachers, upset students, and rising costs, they quietly begin to back off by lowering standards (i.e., the test scores that will be required to earn promotion to the next grade) and by exempting certain categories of students from the policy (e.g., those who are learning English as their second language or have been assigned a special education diagnosis). Eventually they or the administrators who succeed them quietly drop the policy (without, of course, admitting that all of the problems that it created could have been foreseen if attention had been paid to the relevant research literature). -- Source: Read more: http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2431/Social-Promotion.html#ixzz0RbZd
  43. 43. History:History:  Attitudes toward the two policies tend to flow in cycles, with first one and then the other gaining ascendancy for a decade or so, and the same essential arguments repeated on both sides. Grade retention was ascendant in the 1990s and early 2000s, with U.S. Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, many state governors, and many state-and district-level policymakers calling for eliminating social promotion as part of their plan for reforming schools. Read more: http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2431/Social-Promotion.html#i -- Source: Wikipedia
  44. 44. History:History:  In the 1990s, Chicago Public Schools stopped promoting students to the next grade — or graduating them from high school – just because they were a certain age. Obama said it is now ”obvious” that so- called social promotion is a “disservice to students” and their parents. http://www.ibabuzz.com/education/2009 /07/24/obama-on-social-promotion/ -- Source: Wikipedia
  45. 45. Social Promotion:Social Promotion:  Retention refers to the practice of requiring aRetention refers to the practice of requiring a student who has been in a given grade levelstudent who has been in a given grade level for a full school year to remain at that level forfor a full school year to remain at that level for a subsequent school year (e.g., "flunking"). Ita subsequent school year (e.g., "flunking"). It is estimated that currently over 2.4 million (5-is estimated that currently over 2.4 million (5- 10%) students are retained every year in the10%) students are retained every year in the United States. On the rise for the past twenty-United States. On the rise for the past twenty- five years, retention today is estimated to costfive years, retention today is estimated to cost over 13 billion dollars per year to pay for theover 13 billion dollars per year to pay for the extra year of schoolingextra year of schooling -- National
  46. 46. Current Trend:Current Trend:  Citing the "impressive success" of his own administration's anti-social-promotion policies in city schools, Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced today that the city would expand the program by ending automatic advancement in the fourth and sixth grades.  Bloomberg spoke at the Patrick Henry Preparatory School on East 103 street in front of children's books, his schools chancellor, Joel Klein, and the deputy mayor for education, Dennis Walcott (who he thanked for a "brief and thankfully uneventful" time as president of a temproary Board of Education). He said it would be "inconceivable" that his appointees on the educational panel would fail to support the plan.  After much touting of his record in improving test scores under his control, the mayor took questions on a wide variety of topics, though most concerned the fatal crash between a small plane and a helicopter above the Hudson River this weekend. http://www.politickerny.com/4842/bloom berg-picks-social-promotion-nra -- Source: Wikipedia
  47. 47. Current Trend:Current Trend:  No Child Left Behind. And it could be explained in a single sentence -- "Test all students every year to hold schools accountable for closing achievement gaps."  In Chicago, we went through this argument at the time that was very controversial -- Peter will remember this -- but in retrospect seems obvious, which was ending the practice of social promotion. This notion that we should just graduate kids because they've reached a certain age and we don't want to embarrass them, despite the fact that they may not be able to read, that is a disservice to students; that's a disservice to parents.  And what we want to do is raise standards, but also provide the kinds of best practices, with money behind it, that evidence shows allows every child to meet these standards. And that's what this Race to the Top is all about. -- Shttp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- srv/special/politics/education/interview.html? hpid=topnewsource: Wikipedia
  48. 48. Current Trend:Current Trend:  So now comes “Race to the Top,” which the Obama Administration claims will reward only those states that raise their academic standards, improve teacher quality and expand the reach of charter schools.  The Obama administration’s “Race to the Top” program is using federal money to encourage states to better track student progress; recognize and reward good teachers; and close chronically low-performing schools, replacing them with higher-quality charter schools  Test-Based Grade Retention Program Fails in Chicago  Subject: K-12 Testing  Status: Archived  Issue: Jan 2000  The first independent study of Chicago’s expensive grade retention program shows that about 70% of the 10,000 students who were required to repeat a grade in 1997 failed to meet minimum test scores for promotion set by the school system, even after test- prep summer school and a year of retention — at an annual cost exceeding $100 million. Retained students gained no more than similar low-achieving Chicago students who had simply been promoted before the new policy was put in place  http://www.fairtest.org/test-based-grade-retention-program-fails-chicago-- Shttp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- srv/special/politics/education/interview.html? hpid=topnewsource: Wikipedia

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