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Cooperative Learning & the Introverted Student - Presentation

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Cooperative Learning & the Introverted Student - Presentation

  1. 1. Cooperative Learning & the Introverted Student Carl Mahlmann University of Texas at Arlington July 27, 2014
  2. 2. Presentation Outline 1) Introduction: Statement of the problem 2) Literature Review 3) Methodology & Results 4) Discussion 5) Summary
  3. 3. Introduction: What’s the Problem?
  4. 4.  Cooperative Group Learning: Commonly-used Instructional Method Where does that leave the  Intrapersonal Learner / Introvert?
  5. 5. Basic research study question: Is the current emphasis on group work / cooperative learning activities: - Beneficial or Detrimental to, or - Does it have No Effect either way on, Introverted/Intrapersonal Learners?
  6. 6. Literature Review
  7. 7. Literature Review Cooperative Learning Introverts/Interpersonal Learners a) What is it? a) Who are they? b) To what extent is it being used in classrooms? b) What are their learning styles/preferences? c) What have been the overall results of this method? c) What have been the results of cooperative learning with introverts / intrapersonal learners? d) What have been the results of this method on different classifications of students?
  8. 8. Cooperative Learning: What is it?  Independent Learning Cooperative Group Learning 
  9. 9. Cooperative Learning: To what extent is it being used? Then… Now. Now.Now.Now. Now. Now.
  10. 10. Cooperative Learning: What have been the overall results? Cooperative learning has been widely studied and is accepted today as a ‘best practice’ with measurable benefits. (Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T., 1989.) A synthesis of research about cooperative learning finds that cooperative learning strategies improve the achievement of students and their interpersonal relationships. (Dotson, 2001.) “ “ “ “
  11. 11. Cooperative Learning: What have been the results with different classifications of students? The general consensus is that cooperative learning… usually does result in positive student outcomes in all domains. (Johnson & Johnson, as cited in Dotson, 2001.) “ “ “ “Cooperative learning has been found to be a successful teaching strategy at all levels, from pre-school to post-secondary. (Dotson, 2001).
  12. 12. Cooperative Learning: What have been the results with different classifications of students? In 67 studies… (61% showed) …Positive effects… in all major subjects, all grade levels, in urban, rural, and suburban schools, and for high, average, and low achievers. “ “ (Slavin, as cited in Dotson, 2001.)
  13. 13. Introverts & Extraverts: Who are they? Most people utilize elements of both; however there generally is a dominant personality trait that reflects best how the individual prefers to work or deal with the environment… (Burruss & Kaenzig, 1999.) “ “ “Introversion” & “Extraversion” are terms used to describe a person’s personality / temperament.
  14. 14. Introverts & Extraverts: Who are they? “ “The introvert’s main focus is within his/her head, in the internal world of ideas and concepts; the extravert’s primary focus is on the external world of people and activities. (Myers & Myers, 1980.)
  15. 15. Introverts & Extraverts: Who are they? “The main difference between the extrovert and the introvert is how each receives his energy. (Isaacs, 2009.) “ “ “Introverts are energized by solitude. Extroverts are energized by interactions with others. (Sacks, 2012.)
  16. 16. Introverts & Extraverts: Who are they? Retrieved from: http://danineteen.wordpress.com/2013/05/08/dr-carmellas-guide-to-understanding-the-introverted/
  17. 17. Introverts & Extraverts: Who are they? Retrieved from: http://danineteen.wordpress.com/2013/05/08/dr-carmellas-guide-to-understanding-the-introverted/
  18. 18. Introverts/Intrapersonal Learners: What are their Learning Styles? The descriptions of Extroverted & Introverted personality profiles seem to correlate with certain aspects of Howard Gardner’s learning styles theory – Interpersonal and Intrapersonal learning styles.
  19. 19. Introverts/Intrapersonal Learners: What are their Learning Styles? Fleming's VAK/VARK model: Limited to 3 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences model: Includes Interpersonal & Intrapersonal
  20. 20. Introverts/Intrapersonal Learners: What are their Learning Styles? Interpersonal Intrapersonal Understanding, interacting with others. Understanding one's own interests, goals. Learn through interaction. Tend to shy away from others. Have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. Can be taught through group activities, seminars, dialogues. Can be taught through independent study and introspection. Tools include the telephone, audio conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, E-mail. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most independent of the learners. (Lane, 2004).
  21. 21. Introverts/Intrapersonal Learners: What are their Learning Styles? Correlating these personality profiles & learning styles, it may be said that: Extraverted Student Introverted Student Has Interpersonal Learning Style. Has Intrapersonal Learning Style. Learns through Interaction with Others. Is an Independent Learner. Is Energized by those Interactions. Is Energized by Working in Solitude.
  22. 22. Introverts/Intrapersonal Learners: What are their Learning Styles? Specific learning needs of Introverted/intrapersonal learners: “ “Introverts Need Time. Introverts Need Space. (Baldasaro, 2012.)
  23. 23. Introverts/Intrapersonal Learners: What are their Learning Styles? Introverts Need Time.
  24. 24. Introverts/Intrapersonal Learners: What are their Learning Styles? Introverts Need Space.
  25. 25. Introverts/Intrapersonal Learners: What are their Learning Styles? This then, prompts the question: How do these students function when operating in Cooperative Learning settings? The literature review indicates that: Introverts have learning styles that differ from those of Extraverts – They require a certain degree of solitude and time to work at their own pace.
  26. 26. Introverts/Intrapersonal Learners: What have been the results of Cooperative Learning with this sub-group? Although the literature review revealed an extensive body of research regarding how Cooperative Learning practices affect students from various backgrounds, grade levels & achievement levels, the research on Cooperative Learning methods as related to Introverted / Intrapersonal Learners seems to be limited.
  27. 27. However, the recent publication of the book Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking, by Susan Cain in 2012 has opened the topic as to whether or not Cooperative Learning is a “best practice” for Introverts.
  28. 28. In discussing Cain’s book, Genevieve White states: … it is clear that Cooperative Teaching provides an engaging and inclusive methodology. But do we risk alienating our Introverted Learners through an over reliance on it? “ “ And Ariel Sacks seems to answer: Progressive education can often favor the Extrovert because of the emphasis on Cooperative Learning and class participation. “ “
  29. 29. Schmeck and Lockhart also suggest that: A learning environment stimulating enough for Extraverted students may be too stimulating for Introverted students (and for the teacher). “ “ (Schmeck & Lockhart, 1983). Furthermore, Burruss & Kaenzig suggest: Instruction for the Introvert should differ from that provided for the Extravert. (Burruss & Kaenzig,1999). “ “
  30. 30. The literature review revealed that: - Results of Cooperative Learning methods related to Introverted / Intrapersonal learners appears to be limited. - However, there appears to be an emerging school of thought that questions whether or not this method is effective for this particular sub-group of the population, and - Suggests that there is a need to offer Introverted students alternatives to the popular trend of Cooperative Learning.
  31. 31. Further question to consider: - Researchers estimate Introverts make up 16% – 50% of the population. (Buettner, 2012). - So, if Introverts are a minority, is it possible that the studies regarding the positive effects of Cooperative Learning have been skewed by the predominance of Extraverts in the classroom?
  32. 32. Specific Research Questions 1) What % of the student population can be identified as Introverted? 2) What are their learning styles/preferences? 3) To what extent does Cooperative Learning affect their performance on math assessments? 4) What effect does Cooperative learning have on their attitudes toward learning in mathematics classrooms?
  33. 33. Hypothesis Null hypothesis used: For students identified as Introverted – - There will be no difference between results of lessons taught using Cooperative Learning methods vs. Independent Learning methods - Pertaining to both Performance on math assessments and in Attitudes toward learning in math classroom.
  34. 34. Methods & Results
  35. 35. Totals Control Group Treatment Group Demographic N % N % N % White 31 50% 15 48% 16 52% African-American 24 39% 14 45% 10 32% Hispanic 5 8% 1 3% 4 13% Asian 2 3% 1 3% 1 3% Male 31 50% 16 52% 15 48% Female 31 50% 15 48% 16 52% Econ. Disadvantaged 44 71% 22 71% 22 71% ELL 2 3% 0 0% 2 6% Gifted & Talented 13 21% 6 19% 7 23% SPED 2 3% 0 0% 2 6% Table 1. Demographic Characteristics of Study Participants Note. The total number of participants was 62, with 31 participants in each group.
  36. 36. 1) What % of the student population are Introverts? Students participated in a personality preferences survey using a Jung Typology Test .
  37. 37. Figure 1. Dual percentage scale measuring a person’s preferences toward the attitudes Extraversion or Introversion. 1) What % of the student population are Introverts? Students scoring Slight to Strong (10% to 100%) on: - Extraversion scale identified as Extraverted, - Introversion scale identified as Introverted.
  38. 38. 1) What % of the student population are Introverts? N & % of Students identified as Extraverted or Introverted according to this survey: Table 3. Personality Preferences of Study Participants % of Students identified Introverted in this study = 29%. (Compared to researchers estimate of 16% – 50%. (Buettner, 2012).
  39. 39. 2) What are their Learning Styles / Preferences? Students were given a Learning Style inventory assessment based on Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence model – includes Interpersonal (Extraverted) & Intrapersonal (Introverted) learners .
  40. 40. 2) What are their Learning Styles / Preferences? Of the 18 students identified as having a personality preference of Introversion: - 15 (83%) had an average score > 3 for the intelligence of “Intrapersonal,” – meaning they use that intelligence often to help them learn. - All 18 (100%) had a higher average score for the intelligence of “Intrapersonal” than that of “Interpersonal.”
  41. 41. 3) How does Cooperative Learning affect their performance? Students organized into 2 classes – 1 Control group, 1 Treatment group. Each of these groups was further classified into sub-groups of Extraverts and Introverts. Table 2. Sub-Group Classification of Study Participants
  42. 42. 3) How does Cooperative Learning affect their performance? Mean scores of lesson unit assessments for the 4 sub-groups were tabulated & compared. (See Fig. 2.) Control Group Treatment Group Instructional Method Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning & Independent Learning Lesson Units 1, 3, 5, 7 (Odd) Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning Lesson Units 2, 4, 6, 8 (Even) Cooperative Learning Independent Learning Lessons were designed and administered according to Learning Styles of both Interpersonal & Intrapersonal learners – i.e., using both Cooperative Learning and Independent Learning techniques.
  43. 43. 81.18 77.33 79.18 82.6781.45 77.78 82.73 77.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Extraverts 1 Introverts 2 Extraverts 3 Introverts 4 Fig. 2. Comparison: Sub-Group Unit Test Performance Raw Mean Total Unit Tests 1, 3, 5, 7 Raw Mean Total Unit Tests 2, 4, 6, 8 Control Group Instructional Technique: Cooperative Only Treatment Group Instructional Technique: Alternated between Independent & Cooperative COOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE INDEPENDENT INDEPENDENT
  44. 44. 3) How does Cooperative Learning affect their performance? Based on this analysis, it would appear that Extraverted sub-groups and Introverted sub-groups responded differently to different types of instruction. Test scores were generally higher: - For Extraverts – following lesson units taught using Cooperative Learning techniques. - For Introverts – following lesson units taught using Independent Learning techniques.
  45. 45. To test significance levels, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were run, comparing the overall means of each sub- group’s performance on assessments following each type of lesson unit. An alpha level of .05 was used for all statistical tests. The results appear in Table 4. Table 4. Wilcoxon signed-rank test results of Student Performances on Lesson Unit Assessments
  46. 46. 3) How does Cooperative Learning affect their performance? Results of Wilcoxon tests indicated the following differences between the means of the odd and even-numbered unit tests: - Control Sub-Groups 1 & 2: No significant differences. - Treatment Sub-Groups 3 & 4: Significant differences Control Group Treatment Group Extravert Sub-group 1) p = .702 > .05 3) p = .013 < .05 Introvert Sub-group 2) p = .551 > .05 4) p = .012 < .05
  47. 47. 4) How does Cooperative Learning affect their attitudes? - Students completed Likert-style questionnaires following each lesson unit. - Questionnaires were based on a 5-level scale, with 1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree. - Mean scores of the responses of the 4 sub-groups to these questionnaires were tabulated and compared. (See Fig. 3.)
  48. 48. 3.66 2.11 2.49 3.613.53 2.31 3.72 2.75 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 Extraverts 1 Introverts 2 Extraverts 3 Introverts 4 Raw Mean Total Attitude Surveys 1, 3, 5, 7 Raw Mean Total Attitude Surveys 2, 4, 6, 8 Fig. 3. Comparison: Sub-Group Attitude Survey Responses COOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE INDEPENDENT INDEPENDENT Control Group Instructional Technique: Cooperative Only Treatment Group Instructional Technique: Alternated between Independent & Cooperative
  49. 49. 4) How does Cooperative Learning affect their attitudes? Results of this data analysis were consistent with those of lesson assessments. Attitude scores were generally higher: - For Extraverts – following lesson units taught using Cooperative Learning techniques. - For Introverts – following lesson units taught using Independent Learning techniques.
  50. 50. To test significance levels, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were run, comparing the overall means of each sub- group’s responses to surveys following each type of lesson unit. An alpha level of .05 was used for all statistical tests. The results appear in Table 5. Table 5. Wilcoxon signed-rank test results of Student Responses to Lesson Unit Surveys
  51. 51. 4) How does Cooperative Learning affect their attitudes? Results of Wilcoxon tests indicated the following differences between the means of the odd and even-numbered units: - Control Sub-Groups 1 & 2: No significant differences. - Treatment Sub-Groups 3 & 4: Significant differences Control Group Treatment Group Extravert Sub-group 1) p = .135 > .05 3) p = .000 < .05 Introvert Sub-group 2) p = .167 > .05 4) p = .010 < .05
  52. 52. Discussion
  53. 53. Study seems to indicate a significant correlation between students’ personality preferences toward Introversion or Extraversion and their performance and attitudes toward learning in a mathematics classroom. Interpretation of Results
  54. 54. Results seem to support positions of Barruss & Kaenzig, (1999) and Cain, (2012): - Assert that learning needs of Introverts differ from those of Extraverts. - Suggest a need to offer Introverts alternatives to popular method of Cooperative Learning. Interpretation of Results
  55. 55. 1) Small sampling size: 2 classes, 1 researcher, 1 subject, 1 school in rural area. 2) HS students often adapt behavior & attitudes to conform to perceived dominant culture in order to be accepted (Reed, 2008). So, students may not have responded to the questions on the attitude survey authentically. Limitations of Study
  56. 56. Implications of Research 1) What % of the student population can be identified as Introverted? - Researchers estimate: 16% – 50%. (Buettner, 2012). - Identified in this study: 29%. If this is representative of whole population, & Introverts are a minority, then existing research indicating that Cooperative Learning is effective with student population as a whole may be skewed by predominance of Extraverts.
  57. 57. Implications of Research 2) What are Learning Styles of students identified as Introverted?” Of Introverts identified, learning styles assessment indicated that: - 83% use intelligence “Intrapersonal” frequently to help them learn. - 100% favored intelligence of “Intrapersonal” over “Interpersonal.” Therefore, when educators identify students’ styles, they must include those of Introverts & Extraverts. Tools often used to identify learning styles are based on Neil Fleming's VAK/VARK model – Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic. There needs to be a commensurable use of tools based on Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences model – includes Intrapersonal & Interpersonal styles.
  58. 58. Implications of Research 2) What are Learning Styles of students identified as Introverted?” Trend developing among educators to adapt Cooperative Learning for Introverts. Strategies include: “Think, Pair, Share,” (Long, 2013). Physical quiet space in the classroom. (Baldasaro, 2012). Asynchronous learning opportunities (e.g., online discussion board interaction). Rethinking definitions of “class participation,” on which students’ grades based. (Monohan, 2013).
  59. 59. Implications of Research 3) How does Cooperative Learning affect Introverts’ Performance & Attitudes? Statistical tests led to rejection of null hypothesis – that there would be no difference between the results of lessons taught using Cooperative Learning methods vs. Independent Learning methods, among students identified as being Introverted – pertaining to both these areas.
  60. 60. Implications of Research 3) How does Cooperative Learning affect Introverts’ Performance & Attitudes? - Results seem to strongly challenge prevailing ideology that Cooperative Learning is a best practice for all learners. - Suggests that for Introverts, Cooperative Learning may not be the most effective methodology.
  61. 61. Recommendations for Future Research - Limitation of this study: it cannot be assumed that small sampling represents the whole population. - Compelling findings suggest a need for a similar study to be performed with wider sampling. - Recommend looking at students in different grade levels & content areas. - Would similar findings be discovered among elementary school introverts in another discipline?
  62. 62. Summary
  63. 63. Summary Retrieved from: http://www.kaskus.co.id/thread/5277d1e2becb17b775000002/new--introvert-kaskus-community--home-base/1
  64. 64. What have been your observations regarding Introverts in your classroom?
  65. 65. Q & A

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