Mongolia (Vanessa Almirante)


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Mongolia (Vanessa Almirante)

  1. 1. <ul><li>Mongolia: </li></ul><ul><li>from 1989-present </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>1990 Peaceful Democratic Revolution in Mongolia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-month demonstration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bloodless transition from communism to socialism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dec. 10, 1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Human Rights Day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activists rallied for a peaceful pro-democracy demonstration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Center for Youth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended the 70-year single party rule in Mongolia with the creation of opposition parties led by the Democratic Union </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Democratic Party <ul><li>Founded on December 10, 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Union: union of 5 political parties including Mongolian National Democratic Party and Mongolian Social Democratic Party </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: continued transformation of Mongolia into an open and democratic society. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>January 14, 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 200 to 1,000+ activists met at the lenin Museum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>January 21, 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large-scale pro-democracy demonstration on sub-zero weather </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Followed by weekend demonstrations in January and March </li></ul>
  5. 5. Demands: <ul><li>Resignation of the political bureau of the MPRP </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of a Provisional People’s Hural within March </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of MPRP from the government </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>March 7-9, 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger strikes due to denial of those demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sukhbaatar square </li></ul></ul><ul><li>March 9, 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist MPRP government resigned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>July 29, 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st democratic election </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppositions failed to win a majority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPRP on 357/430 seats in the Great Khural and 31/53 seats in the small Khural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>February 12, 1992 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new constitution became effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When an outbreak of violence seemed likely, Zorig took a microphone, sat atop a friend’s shoulders to make himself visible in the crowd and called for calm. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sanjaasuren Zorig
  8. 8. Contents: <ul><li>The 1992 Constitution of Mongolia establishes the country as a sovereign, independent republic (Chapter I) </li></ul><ul><li>...with legal guarantees for the protection of human rights and freedom (Chapter II), </li></ul><ul><li>the organs and the structures of the state (Chapter III) </li></ul><ul><li>the administrative and territorial units (Chapter IV) </li></ul><ul><li>the mandate and function of the Constitutional Court (Chapter V) </li></ul><ul><li>and procedures for amending the constitution. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Consequences: <ul><li>Tremendous unemployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to privatization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Massive devaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 10 tugrik- 1$ to 800 tugrik-1$ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>poverty </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>June 6, 1993 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st direct presidential election </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P. Ochirbat won the 1 st popular presidential election, a candidate of the democratic opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>June 30, 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st time that opposition wins the majority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Year of political crisis on Mongolia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>April 23, 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T. Elbegdorj was elected as prime minister in Mongolia (1 st term) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj Democratic Party &quot; Cherish our history, embrace our freedom, develop our country&quot; Prime Minister President Took Office August 20, 2004 June 18, 2009 Left Office January 13, 2004 Incumbent
  12. 12. <ul><li>Achievements: </li></ul><ul><li>Co-initiated the Law on Press Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Collect tax and create income tax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper ore mining and Erdenet Mining Corp.; biggest contributor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Swindle of the Century </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction Bank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biggest financial burden the economy </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>December 8, 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbegdorj resigned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S. Zorig, Infrastructure Minister, was the candidate for prime minister </li></ul><ul><li>October 5, 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduled announcement of Zorig as Prime Minister </li></ul></ul><ul><li>October 2, 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zorig was murdered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabbed 16 times, 3 of which were directed to the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stole a bottle of vinegar and soy sauce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buried on October 7, 1998 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Civic Will Party (Irgenii Zorig Nam) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by his sister Oyuun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Mongolian non-profit organization promoting democracy through social actions, youth activities and good governance programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2000 elections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPRP regained its power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N. Enkhbayar was elected as prime minister </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPRP got 72/76 seats in the Parliament </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Achievements: <ul><li>Millennium Road </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st to traverse Mongolia’s 600,000 square mile territory from east to west </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Settled the controversial debt of Mongolia to the Soviet Union </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>2004 elections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPRP lost almost half of its seat to the Democratic Coalition resulting to an evenly split result in parliamentary elections between 2 major political forces: MDC and MPRP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>August 20, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbegdorj was elected as prime minister (2 nd term) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Achievements: <ul><li>Fight against corruption and poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Greenwall Environment project </li></ul><ul><li>National State Television Program </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of legal provisions that prohibited demonstrations on Ulan Baatar’s Sukhbaatar Square </li></ul><ul><li>Technical schools and specialized professions were supported and subsidized to reduce unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of Information and Communication Agency to promote affordable computers and internet access </li></ul><ul><li>Mongolia was accepted into the European Union’s GSP+ system </li></ul><ul><li>English replaced Russian as the foreign language to be taught in public schools </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>August 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbegdorj wanted to run for presidency but was threatened by MPRP that if he ran against Enkhbold, the MPRP candidate, they will leave the coalition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>January 13, 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPRP left the coalition anyway forcing Elbegdorj to resign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPRP formed a new government with DP defectors and appointed Enkhbold as prime minister </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Nambaryn Enkhbayar (MPRP) Prime Minister President Took Office July 26, 2000 June 24, 2005 Left Office August 20, 2004 June 18, 2009
  20. 20. <ul><li>June 29, 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landslide victory of MPRP in the parliamentary elections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>July 1, 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protesters burned the MPRP headquarters in downtown Ulan Baatar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clash between civilians and security officers resulted to 5 deaths, 13 missing and 800 being arrested </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Different Views: <ul><li>International observers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elections appeared to be mostly free and fair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MPRP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accused by Elbegdorj of inciting the riot of July 1 st 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elbegdorj </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accused MPRP with the deaths of 5 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alleged that MPRP’s inactions had encouraged the rioters and that it was using dictatorial methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4-day state emergency </li></ul>
  22. 24. 2009 Presidential Elections <ul><li>Elbegdorj won the election and was decided to swear in on June 18, 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st DP president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by DP, Civic Will Party and Green Party </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achievements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation of Amnesty Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disbanded the Community Council of the IAAC (Independent Authority Against Corruption) formed by Enkhbayar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolition of death penalty </li></ul></ul>