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IXDD 2018 Lausanne - Guerrilla UX, 'quick' yet not 'dirty' (Carine Lallemand)

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Conference presented by Dr Carine Lallemand (University of Luxembourg) at the World Interaction Design Day on Sept 2018. Event organised by IXDA Lausanne.

The limited resources in design projects often encourage the use of fast, low-cost, quick & dirty UX methods. However, guerrilla UX can also be "quick" without being "dirty". It can be an inspiring and valid alternative to traditional UX design methods.
Beyond the famous Starbucks user tests, this conference will introduce you to several guerrilla alternatives to interviews, questionnaires, observations, as well as ideation, storyboarding or prototyping. A great dose of inspiration to give everyone the power to apply UX techniques and to focus on users even it seems unaffordable!

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IXDD 2018 Lausanne - Guerrilla UX, 'quick' yet not 'dirty' (Carine Lallemand)

  1. 1. GUERRILLA UX "QUICK" YET NOT    CARINELALLEMAND   "DIRTY"
  2. 2. 01 WHO AM I? DR. CARINE LALLEMAND @CARILALL AUTHOR OF A HANDBOOK ON UX DESIGN METHODS RESEARCHER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LUXEMBOURG « I SUPPORT DESIGNERS BY CREATING OR ADAPTING DESIGN METHODS » HOT AIR BALLOON STUDENT PILOT
  3. 3. Crédit photo: Francine Lee
  4. 4. Crédit photo: Sarah Khalid
  5. 5. Guerrilla quick & clean? HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION RESEARCH GROUP The concept of guerrilla refers to unconventional techniques used when: • the resources are lacking to apply conventional methods • one wishes to overcome certain limits of conventional methods • one wants to adopt a more original or innovative approach 5 #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
  6. 6. GUERRILLA TECHNIQUES CAN BE APPLIED AT ANY STAGE IN THE DESIGN PROCESS Planning Exploration Ideation Generation Evaluation
  7. 7. - LESS PARTICIPANTS NEEDED TO GET VALID RESULTS TIME-EFFICIENT PLANNING ADMINISTRATION ANALYSIS LOW COST SELF-ADMINISTERED DOES NOT REQUIRE THE DESIGNER’S PRESENCE THE GUERRILLA APPROACH SAVES RESOURCES Depending on the technique used, benefits might include:
  8. 8. BEYOND BEING “LOW COST”, GUERRILLA CAN ALSO BE AN OPPORTUNITY ENGAGE BUSY PEOPLE LESS BIASES (PARTICIPANT) LARGE-SCALELESS BIASES (DESIGNER)
  9. 9. WHAT ABOUT (A LOT OF) EXAMPLES?
  10. 10. Planning Exploration Ideation Generation Evaluation
  11. 11. USER INTERVIEWS Understanding a user's motivations and needs through an in-depth individual discussion #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL EXPLORATION CONDUCT THE INTERVIEWS TAKE NOTES ON THE FLY YET IN A STRUCTURED WAY TRANSCRIBE AND ANALYSE DATADEFINE INTERVIEW GUIDE AND RECRUIT PARTICIPANTS Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise P 1 ___ : ___ ___________ Etudesitewebv2 Q + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q 2 + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ Utilisabilité Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q X + - Fait X Émotion P 14 : 03 ___________ Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Emotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Émotion Indiquez ici votre observation ou un « verbatim du participant » Chaque observation est reportée dans une case différente Avant d’imprimer votre grille de prise de notes, indiquez l’identifiant du participant en haut à gauche et le nom de l’étude Utilisez ces cases pour décrire si l’observation concerne un fait ou une émotion et quelle est sa valence (est-ce positif ou négatif pour le participant ?) N’oubliez pas ici de noter le numéro de la question liée à chaque observation À la fin de vos entretiens, découpez les cases de vos grilles pour réaliser des diagrammes d’affinité ! Si l’observation est particulièrement intéressante, indiquez ici l’heure afin de retrouver ce moment précis de l’entretien dans votre enregistrement.. Personnalisez votre grille de prise de notes selon vos besoins ! Pendant l’entretien, vous pouvez indiquer ici un mot clé ou thème décrivant votre observation
  12. 12. VIRTUAL USER INTERVIEW 1. Recruit several participants in parallel: each receives by email the instructions and the first open-ended question of the interview 2. The interview is asynchronous and spread over several days: as soon as a participant answers your email, reply by moving forward to the next question/prompt 3. Participants can answer at the most opportune moment and have the time to elaborate their answers 4. The transcription of the data is already ready (and this is really time-efficient!) TIME-EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION > ANALYSIS LESS BIASES (PARTICIPANT) Crédit photo: https://perzonseo.com ENGAGE BUSY PEOPLE SELF-ADMINISTERED Interview
  13. 13. SENTENCE COMPLETION 1. Sentence completion is embedded into an online survey 2. In a free text field (similar to an open-ended question), participants spontaneously complete several sentence stems (=beginning of sentences) 3. The data collected is qualitative and provides information on the needs, motivations, frustrations or even dreams of target users 4. The method is funnier and more engaging than open-ended questions, which usually have a low response rate TIME-EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION > ANALYSIS Interview SELF-ADMINISTERED LARGE-SCALE LOW COST
  14. 14. OBSERVATION Collecting data on users’ behaviors and interactions in the field #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL EXPLORATION CONDUCT OBSERVATIONS IN THE FIELD TAKE SYSTEMATIC NOTES ON THE FLY TRANSCRIBE AND ANALYSE DATADEFINE YOUR PROTOCOL AND YOUR OBSERVATION TOOLS P 1 ___ : ___ ___________ Etudesitewebv2 Q + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q 2 + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ Utilisabilité Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q X + - Fait X Émotion P 14 : 03 ___________ Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Emotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Émotion Indiquez ici votre observation ou un « verbatim du participant » Chaque observation est reportée dans une case différente Avant d’imprimer votre grille de prise de notes, indiquez l’identifiant du participant en haut à gauche et le nom de l’étude Utilisez ces cases pour décrire si l’observation concerne un fait ou une émotion et quelle est sa valence (est-ce positif ou négatif pour le participant ?) N’oubliez pas ici de noter le numéro de la question liée à chaque observation À la fin de vos entretiens, découpez les cases de vos grilles pour réaliser des diagrammes d’affinité ! Si l’observation est particulièrement intéressante, indiquez ici l’heure afin de retrouver ce moment précis de l’entretien dans votre enregistrement.. Personnalisez votre grille de prise de notes selon vos besoins ! Pendant l’entretien, vous pouvez indiquer ici un mot clé ou thème décrivant votre observation Vendredi Samedi Dimanche Lundi Mardi Mercredi 0 20 40 60 80 100 Chargementdelabatterie(en%) Lieu : domicile Raison : batterie faible Moyen : recharge par secteur Lieu : domicile Raison : synchronisation Moyen : recharge par port USB Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  15. 15. FLY ON THE WALL 1. Just like a « fly on the wall », the designer observes users’ behaviors without interfering in the situation 2. Settle in close to the activity that you intend to observe, so that you can see people’s actions and you can hear their comments 3. Without intervening or get noticed, take notes on their activities, their emotions and their interactions as well as on the context of use. Do not use any recording device. If you do so, you need to ask for their permission. Observation Crédit photo: E. Mercier LESS BIASES (PARTICIPANT) TIME-EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION LOW COST
  16. 16. AUTO-OBSERVATION 1. Auto-observation is to observe oneself in performing the activity under investigation 2. In the absence of participants, the results are obviously not representative of target users 3. It is however a good basis for understanding the problem, scoping it and developing empathy for the users 4. It supports the designer in the creation of use scenarios, interview guides or relevant observation grids to conduct real user research Observation Crédit photo: E. Mercier LOW COST LESS BIASES (DESIGNER) - LESS PARTICIPANTS NEEDED
  17. 17. AUTO-OBSERVATION Example Patricia Moore (1985) At the age of 26, conduct an auto-ethnography experiment to understand “what it feels like to be old”. For 3 years, she travelled the USA disguised as an old lady. Her transformation also simulated sensory and physical changes related to aging (blurred vision, arthrisis, etc). Thanks to this experience, Patricia has been designing numerous innovative products for the elderly and became a key player within the field universal design. Observation Crédit photo: Patricia Moore
  18. 18. THE SHORT STORY DISPENSER Observation Crédit photo: Patricia Moore auto-observation fly-on-the wall
  19. 19. CULTURAL PROBES Gathering inspirational data about people via small creative packages of artifacts and evocative tasks #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL EXPLORATION DESIGN YOUR CULTURAL PROBES KIT DEPLOY THE PROBES USERS FILL THEM OUT ON THEIR OWN USE THESE RICH USERS’ INSIGHTS AS SOURCES OF INSPIRATION DEFINE YOUR TARGET USERS AND BRAINSTORM ON THE TYPE OF PROBES Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  20. 20. ‘CROSSING POINTS’ PROBES Cultural probes SELF-ADMINISTERED LARGE SCALE 1. Rather than a whole probe kit, make a unique and more ephemeral probe that you will place in a crossing point or crowded area 2. At first sight, your probe should challenge, pique curiosity, and thus encourage people to look at it and engage with it. 3. The proposed activity must be easy, fun and engaging. Do not ask too much: the activity must be short and adapted to the context. 4. Plan a way to collect the probe once filled out (e.g. return box, enveloppe+stamp) Photo pôle supérieur de designVillefontaine TIME EFFICIENT > PLANNING > ADMINISTRATION
  21. 21. THE PROBES POSTER SELF-ADMINISTERED LARGE SCALE 1. The probes poster is a summary of several probe activities on a single A0 format 2. It is sent to participants for self- documentation 3. They will keep it for 1-2 weeks and fill it out progressively as they find inspiring elements Thoring et al., 2015 TIME EFFICIENT > PLANNING > ADMINISTRATION Cultural probes
  22. 22. my wishlist for the idealab people I want to meet activities to do the perfect event at the lab what inspires me my current workspace what I really need what annoys me this is how my ideal IdeaLab looks like The probes poster - example (Thoring et al., 2015)
  23. 23. PHOTO SAFARI 1. Define the safari theme openly enough to make room for each participant's interpretation. Prepare a short tour guide covering different aspects of the topic. 2. Send participants on safari! Depending on the project, you can select the place or leave it open for them to go wherever they want. 3. Collect participants’ photos and look at them to find patterns. Ask each participant to describe in a few words the images collected, or to participate to a workshop where they will tell a story related to each photo. Crédit photo : Helle Rohde Andersen SELF-ADMINISTERED LARGE SCALE TIME EFFICIENT > PLANNING > ADMINISTRATION Cultural probes
  24. 24. Planning Exploration Ideation Generation Evaluation
  25. 25. USER PERSONAS Fictional characters created from user data used to reflect user types #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL IDEATION REPRESENT IDENTIFIED PROFILES UNDER THE FORM OF PERSONAS ORGANISE YOUR DATA TO IDENTIFY PATTERNS SYNTHESIZE USER RESEARCH DATACOLLECT DATA ABOUT USERS THROUGH INTERVIEWS OR OBSERVATION Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  26. 26. #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
  27. 27. CONFRONTED PROTO-PERSONAS 1. The design team creates proto-personas (= not based on user research) based on internal resources 2. These proto-personas are sent to some target users 3. Participants criticize and annotate the proto- personas so that they reflect their own user profile (motivations and behaviours) 4. The design team synthesize the data to enhance the generated personas iteratively 5. If real user research is done at a later stage, the personas are updated accordingly. ENGAGE BUSY PEOPLE TIME EFFICIENT > PASSATION Personas
  28. 28. BRAINSTORMING Group creativity technique, led by a facilitator conducting the discussion #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL IDEATION SELECT THE MOST RELEVANT IDEASORGANISE / CATEGORISE ALL IDEASINVITE THE GROUP TO GENERATE NEW IDEAS AND SOLUTIONS EXPOSE THE PROBLEM/GOAL AND THE BASIC RULES OF BRAINSTORMING Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  29. 29. NOTEBOOK TECHNIQUE 1. Each participant receives a notebook, in which you will write down the question/ challenge to solve 2. Each participant is asked to produce at least 3 ideas/day during a week 3. The following week, participants exchange their notebook and use other participants’ ideas as an inspiration to produce new ones. Repeat during 4 weeks. 4. The facilitator collects and synthesizes the ideas, which can optionally be discussed or sorted out during a workshop Brainstorming Crédit photo: MoleskineTIME EFFICIENT > PASSATION ENGAGE BUSY PEOPLE SELF-ADMINISTERED LESS BIASES (PARTICIPANT)
  30. 30. IDEATION CARDS 1. Card sets presenting particular concepts, theories or design strategies. Often based on scientific research, they are a bridge between research and practice. 2. Use the cards of your choice during a brainstorming session to improve the quantity and quality of ideas. 3. Many card sets can be downloaded for free: emotional design, UX needs, human values, persuasive design, IoT, service design … Ideation Crédit photo: Delft Institute of Positive Design TIME EFFICIENT SCIENCE-BASED
  31. 31. WORLD CAFÉ 1. Several tables are placed in a room. Participants are divided by groups of 4-5. Each table has a host (rotating role), who facilitates the discussion and takes notes. 2. Participants produce as many ideas as possible during an allotted time slot (10 min) 3. An audible signal indicates when it is time for participants to move to another table. The host stays at the table to report on the outputs to the next participants. 4. Participants generate new ideas on this basis or elaborate on previous ones. 5. At the end of the session, all hosts synthesize the brainstorming outcomes and present the results to the audience. Brainstorming LARGE-SCALE TIME EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION Crédit photo: http://www.kursaal.eus
  32. 32. Planning Exploration Ideation Generation Evaluation
  33. 33. PROTOTYPING Building a concrete representation of a system, product or service #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL GENERATION DEFINE THE FORMAT OF THE PROTOTYPE (FIDELITY LEVEL) DESIGN THE MOCKUPS AND PROTOTYPE ITERATIVELY USE THE PROTOTYPE FOR USER TESTING OR COMMUNICATION PURPOSES DETERMINE WHAT NEEDS TO BE PROTOTYPED Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  34. 34. SKETCH-A-THON Crédit photo: Connie Liegl LARGE-SCALE 1. The sketch-a-thon invites users to sketch the ideal interface of a system 2. Print out and distribute sketching templates. Place them in strategic locations where your target users are most likely to see them 3. To motivate your “lay designers”, offer an incentive under the form of a raffle 4. The produced sketches are not to be used directly. Use them as sources of inspiration, or combine the best ideas and add them to your final mockup. SELF-ADMINISTERED TIME EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION Prototyping
  35. 35. DIY PARTICIPATORY DESIGN KITS Prototyping Crédit photo: Carine Lallemand LARGE-SCALE 1. If you can’t run co-design workshops, or if you need a wider distribution (participation enhances engagement and appropriation of solutions), create DIY design kits. 2. These kits can take various forms depending on your project, but it is essential that they are engaging, fun, and self-explanatory. 3. Pilot test the kits to make sure they are understandable and produce the desired outcomes. SELF-ADMINISTERED TIME EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION
  36. 36. Crédit photo: Carine Lallemand
  37. 37. Crédit photo: Carine Lallemand
  38. 38. CARD SORTING Understanding users’ mental model to design an optimal information architecture #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL GENERATION ADMINISTER THE CARD SORT EXERCISE ANALYSE THE RESULTS THROUGH MATRIXES AND DENDOGRAMS DESIGN YOUR INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE IDENTIFY KEY CONCEPTS AND WRITE THEM ON INDEX CARDS Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  39. 39. 1. First participant (seed) creates initial structure 2. Second (and subsequent participants) comment on previous participant's structure and make changes to reflect their own mental model 3. Continue with new participants until there are no more (significant) changes 4. No need for an analysis to aggregate participants’ results as the outcome is already a synthesis of their choices DELPHI CARD SORTING -LESS PARTICIPANTS NEEDED TIME EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION > ANALYSIS Card sorting
  40. 40. Planning Exploration Ideation Generation Evaluation
  41. 41. THE QUICK & CLEAN RULES OF THUMB
  42. 42. SAMPLING TARGET USERS A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE
  43. 43. GUERRILLA RECRUITMENT ENGAGE BUSY PEOPLE Recruitment Crédit photo:Aktan Service Kitchen LOW COST TIME EFFICIENT 1. Identify your target users. Where to find them and how to engage with them? 2. The more heterogeneous the population is, the more participants you will need to collect relevant data. Better have a small representative sample than a large irrelevant sample. 3. Collect your data in the places (physical or virtual) where your target users are. Be ingenious!
  44. 44. IDENTIFYING SOURCES OF BIAISES TO GAIN UNBIASED FEEDBACK BEWARE OF BIASES
  45. 45. SAFEGUARDING THE QUALITY OF DATA PILOT TEST. ALWAYS. (REALLY)
  46. 46. #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL user insights before pilot testing © Université du Luxembourg QUALITY OF USER DATA Example - Do It Yourself Design Kit: participatory design for innovative learning spaces (University of Luxembourg) user insights after pilot testing
  47. 47. AND YOU SHOULD PROTOTYPE EVERYTHING YOU CAN PROTOTYPE ANYTHING © Aktan
  48. 48. © Carine Lallemand, University of Luxembourg
  49. 49. Photo credit : Ingrid Pettersson
  50. 50. Photo credit : Ford
  51. 51. TAKE AWAY MESSAGES
  52. 52. THERE IS ALWAYS A WAY
  53. 53. EVERYTHING IS A MATTER OF CHOICE
  54. 54. 3METHODS ARE INGREDIENTS OR MEALS RATHER THAN RECIPES
  55. 55. 4 INNOVATION IN OUR METHODS SPARKS INNOVATIVE OUTCOMES
  56. 56. 5DO IT “QUICK” YET DO IT “CLEAN”
  57. 57. 01 Thank you for your attention! 2ND EDITION SEPT 2018
  58. 58. 01 ICONS Citizens by MRFA from the Noun Project Time by Manohara from the Noun Project Crowd by Rockicon from the Noun Project User by Xinh Studio from the Noun Project Piggy Bank byVineet Kumar Thakur from the Noun Project Censorship by Luis Prado from the Noun Project Confirmation Bias by Mike Pick from the Noun Project Selfie Stick by mikicon from the Noun Project

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