Michael Walsh on Mazda


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  • These are estimated annual average concentrations of PM10 in cities with populations over 100,000 and in national capital cities The darkest spots are heavily concentrated in regions of China and India. Other areas of note include Indonesia, Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, and West Africa
  • Technologies such as the advanced Three Way Catalyst are continuing to evolve in response to the tighter standards.
  • Technologies such as the diesel PM filter are maturing
  • Pictures of current DPF applications Today, more than 800 000 cars are equipped wit DPFs in EU
  • Engine ECM SCR algorithm functions will reside in the ECM (IEM approach) Determines the injection rate Tank control and diagnostics Controls the pump and reports pump diagnostics Doser Pump Injects the urea at the rate requested by the engine ECM by using air pressure Maintains and reports diagnostics status of the pump (via J1939) Tank Fill tank for the urea Contains heater and sensor for urea level/quality/temperature (quality consists of concentration and contamination levels) Exhaust Gas Processor (EGP) Canned Catalyst Inlet and Outlet Temperature sensors
  • System description “ one shot” design – no optimisation of component sizes etc. Note advanced urea dosing system – low dose because low EO NOx 1 st NOx sensor for monitoring. Not closed-loop control. Urea dosing calibrated for ESC, ETC and WHTC only.
  • Top speed of between 20 – 30kph and a range of 25 – 100 km During operation they emit zero local air pollution, but they do use about 2 kWh of electricity per 100 km Power ranges between 200 - 600 W and they take around 6 – 8 hours to charge
  • When we develop our regulations, we estimate the health benefits and associated costs. In addition to public health benefits – there are other benefits: improved visibility, reduced acid rain, etc.
  • Time and time again, we find that the benefits far exceed the costs of reducing pollution from vehicles. We know that many people may ask---so what does this mean in the Chinese context, in light of different income levels, etc. In session three after lunch we will hear a very important presentation on a “Cost-Benefit Analysis for Chinese Clean Fuel Promotion” by Tsinghua University and the International Council on Clean Transportation. Without stealing the spotlight from the presenters this afternoon, I think it is fair to say that the presentation that China could also realize substantial benefits from a similar clean fuel and vehicle program.
  • Top speed of between 20 – 30kph and a range of 25 – 100 km During operation they emit zero local air pollution, but they do use about 2 kWh of electricity per 100 km Power ranges between 200 - 600 W and they take around 6 – 8 hours to charge
  • Michael Walsh on Mazda

    1. 1. International Trends in Environmental Regulations for Vehicles Santiago, Chile May 13, 2008 Michael P. Walsh International Consultant Chairman, Board of Directors, International Council on Clean Transportation
    2. 2. Major Global Trends <ul><li>Environmental Concerns Increasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cleaner and Cleaner Technologies Entering Marketplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passenger Cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motorcycles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cleaner Fuels Increasingly Critical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur Levels Approaching Zero </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead Almost Gone; MMT Increasing Concern </li></ul></ul>
    3. 4. Growth of Vehicle Population in Shanghai, 1988-2002 E:Changhong CHEN 对外合作 能源基金会 交通项目 基础数据 机动车统计报表 .xls Most Vehicles Are In Cities
    4. 5. One Result: Serious Health Concerns <ul><li>WHO Concludes ~ 800,000 Premature Deaths Each Year From Urban PM </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous Studies Consistently Link PM With Premature Deaths, Hospital Admissions, Asthma Attacks, Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>No Evidence of a Threshold </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone, NO 2 , Various Toxics Also Serious Health Concerns </li></ul>
    5. 6. PM 10 in Major cities Slide Source: Cohen et al, 2005
    6. 8. <ul><li>Energy Demand in the Transport Sector: Annual Average Growth Rate (%) by Region 2004 - 2030 </li></ul>In 2004, 94 % of transport energy based on fossil oil. The share will only slightly decrease to 93 % in 2030. Source: IEA WEO 2006 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 World OECD OECD North America USA OECD Pacific Japan OECD Europe European Union Transition Economies Russia Developing Countries Developing Asia China India Latin America Brazil Middle East Africa Growth (% p.a.) Background
    7. 9. Carbon Dioxide is Not The Whole Story!
    8. 10. Transportation sector priorities 3 key interventions <ul><ul><li>Fuel-efficient, low Emitting cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-carbon fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced vehicle-miles traveled through congestion pricing, Bus Rapid Transit, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 11. Slide
    10. 12. Technology Capable of Cleaning Vehicle Emissions Has Improved Dramatically in the Past 30-40 Years
    11. 13. The Three-way Catalytic Converter: A Familiar Technology Re-Engineered for High Performance in Close-coupled and Underfloor Applications <ul><li>Layered washcoat architectures and support materials with high thermal stability </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated HC adsorption functions </li></ul><ul><li>Mounting materials with improved durability </li></ul><ul><li>High cell density ceramic or metallic substrates </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation schemes for heat management </li></ul>Maximum Emissions Performance Is Only Achieved With Near Zero Sulfur Fuel
    12. 14. Diesel Particulate Filters Trapped PM Cell Plugs Exhaust (PM, CO, HC) Enter Ceramic Honeycomb Wall Exhaust (CO 2 , H 2 O) Out <ul><li>Issues to balance: </li></ul><ul><li>sulfate formation </li></ul><ul><li>regeneration and back pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Reductions: </li></ul><ul><li>-80 to 95% PM </li></ul><ul><li>-80-100% HC, CO </li></ul><ul><li>-80%+ toxins </li></ul>
    13. 15. How The Trap Functions
    14. 16. Typical engine exhaust mass and number weighted size distributions shown with alveolar deposition
    15. 17. from non grey.. Gasoline and LPG G-DI Conventional Diesel
    16. 18. Current DPF Applications Millions of cars are equipped with DPF around world
    17. 19. Air Tank Urea Tank Catalyst Input Temperature Catalyst Output Temperature Engine SCR Connector ECM Dosing Unit J1939 (Public) Air Solenoid Urea Sensor SCR Control Exhaust Gas Processor SCR Solution System Architecture
    18. 20. Emissions control system for Euro VI <ul><li>Oxidation catalyst (DOC), catalyst-based particulate filter and urea-SCR with ammonia slip catalyst (ASC). </li></ul>Mixer SCR + ASC DOC (optional) NOx sensor NOx sensor
    19. 21. California’s ZEV History ZEV Regulation PZEVs created CaFCP Started AT PZEVs Created ZEV Reg Implementation FC Buses on-road
    20. 22. ZEV - Status <ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive development of ZEVs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports bridging technologies like Hybrids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximizes air quality benefits with PZEVs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PZEVs marketed by all automakers subject to the regulation, 425,000 PZEVs sold to date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrids very successful in the marketplace, 70,000 AT PZEV hybrids sold to date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 Fuel cell vehicles being placed in California in real world demonstration fleets </li></ul></ul>Honda Civic Hybrid AT PZEV
    21. 23. Near-Zero Emission Vehicles <ul><li>Lifetime emissions (VOC+NOx) </li></ul><ul><li>Partial Zero Emissions Vehicles (PZEVs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently 20 models for sale, including 4 HEVs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 annual sales (14%) in 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000,000 sales by 2015 (55%) </li></ul></ul>Model Year VOC + NO x (kg) Reduction 1970 1900 -- 2005 ‘PZEV’ 8 99.6%
    22. 24. Near-Zero Emission Vehicles <ul><li>BMW 325i </li></ul><ul><li>Chrysler Sebring </li></ul><ul><li>Ford Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Ford Fusion </li></ul><ul><li>Ford Escape HEV </li></ul><ul><li>Honda Accord </li></ul><ul><li>Honda Civic HEV </li></ul><ul><li>Honda insight HEV </li></ul><ul><li>Hyundai Elantra </li></ul><ul><li>Kia Spectra </li></ul><ul><li>Mazda 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Mazda 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Mitsubishi Galant </li></ul><ul><li>Nissan Altima </li></ul><ul><li>Nissan Sentra </li></ul><ul><li>Subaru Outback </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota Camry </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota Prius HEV </li></ul><ul><li>VW Jetta </li></ul><ul><li>Volvo S40 </li></ul>
    23. 25. Fleet Demonstrations <ul><li>100 Fuel cell light duty vehicles to date </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 7 Fuel cell buses </li></ul><ul><li>Testing, outreach, data collection, validation </li></ul>
    24. 26. ZEV Technology Review - CARB
    25. 27. Plug In Hybrids Are Emerging
    26. 28. Electric bikes in China, P.R. <ul><li>China Produced Approximately 15 Million Electric bikes in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>This dramatic growth has been largely due to legislation banning gasoline fuelled scooters and motorcycles, introduced from 1996 onwards in several major Chinese cities </li></ul>Sources: Cherry, 2006; Weinert, 2006
    27. 29. Which Countries Are Getting Clean Technologies? <ul><li>Clean Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Stringent Standards Including Advanced Technology Mandates </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Incentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul>
    28. 30. My Global Vision For 2015 <ul><li>Every New Diesel Has PM Filter & Low NOx </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline Vehicles Approaching ZERO Emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Technologies (Including Plug In Hybrids) Are Mature, Widespread Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Small Battery Electric Vehicles (City) Vehicles Widely Used </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Cell Vehicle Numbers Increasing </li></ul>
    29. 31. What Is The Situation Today in Santiago <ul><li>Good Fuel Quality < 50 PPM Sulfur But Not Taking Advantage of This To Introduce Diesel Filters Widely – Should Be Highest Priority </li></ul><ul><li>Much Cleaner Gasoline Vehicles Are Feasible, Especially With Low S in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives For Hybrids Could Be Expanded </li></ul>
    30. 32. A Short Term Plan For Santiago <ul><li>Tighten Requirements Sufficiently To Require PM Filters on New Diesel Cars and Buses </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Diesel Sulfur to 10/15 PPM </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce Euro 5 or Tier 2 Bin 5 for All New Cars and Light Trucks </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce Euro 3 For Motorcycles </li></ul><ul><li>Implement ASM Based Centralized I/M For All Light Duty Vehicles </li></ul>
    31. 33. Europe
    32. 34. Europe Overview <ul><li>2007 Developments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light Duty Euro 5 & 6 Adopted (Too Slow But # Added) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truck & Bus Euro VI Proposed By Commission </li></ul></ul>
    33. 35. Euro 5+ and Euro 6 Will Include 6X10 11 /km Particle Number Limit
    34. 36. Comparison of NOx and PM regulations for HD diesel vehicle among Japan, USA and Europe
    35. 38. Reconciling the Diesel Engine With the Environment: A Comprehensive Approach Tier 2 Light-duty (1999) 2007/2010 Heavy-duty (2001) Tier 4 diesel (2004) <ul><li>Common Aspects-- </li></ul><ul><li>Systems approach– fuel change enables clean technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Large environmental benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive to needs of States to meet air quality goals </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative process </li></ul>Highway Nonroad Locomotive/Marine
    36. 39. * This figure is intended to illustrate the timeline for the final highway and nonroad diesel fuel sulfur control programs. It is not drawn to exact scale. Refer to 40 CFR Part 80 for specific program dates. All Diesel ~3400 ppm Highway Diesel 500ppm All Off-Highway Diesel ~3400 ppm >80% 15 ppm <20% 500 ppm All Highway 15 ppm 10/1993 06/2006 01/2010 Highway + Nonroad Diesel Fuel Sulfur Specs* NR, L&M Diesel 500 ppm NR 15 ppm 6/2007 6/2010 HWY NR L&M 500 ppm 6/2014 HHF ~3400ppm Small 15 ppm 6/2012 Small & Credit 500 ppm Small & Credit ~3400 HHF ~3400ppm L&M 15ppm
    37. 40. over 3 million 40,000 lost work days hospital admissions chronic bronchitis premature deaths number prevented annually (in 2030) 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Health Benefits Are Tremendous!
    38. 41. The Benefits Far Outweigh The Costs 40,000 cost benefit Total Cost: $11 billion Total Benefits: $175 billion 0 20 40 60 80 100 Tier 4 Nonroad 2007 Heavy-duty Highway Tier 2 Light-duty Highway $ Billion Annually in 2030
    39. 42. ZEV Program (2012 – 2014) Current ZEV Program 30 % PZEV “ 10%” Mandate 42% by volume 2 % AT PZEV 11% ~1% ZEV
    40. 43. ZEV Program
    41. 44. ZEV Technology Review - CARB
    42. 45. China
    43. 46. Status of Air Quality PM10 levels in Major Chinese Cities (1999 – 2005) NAAQS Class II PM10 limit = 100µg/m 3
    44. 47. China’s GDP
    45. 48. Urbanization Rate in China
    46. 49. New Vehicle Sales Are Booming No. 2 largest auto market
    47. 50. Crude oil prod’n & consum’n > 40% oil import dependence
    48. 51. Motor Vehicle Growth Forecast 9 x by 2025 3.5 x by 2025 Vehicle Population Projection from Segment Y plc See: http://segmenty.com
    49. 52. China Overview <ul><li>2007 Developments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 3 (Euro III) Standards Introduced Nationally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 4 (IV) Adopted by Beijing (January 1, 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 PPM Sulfur Adopted by Beijing (January 1, 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MMT Maximum Reduced From 18 to 16 Nationally and to 6 in Beijing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEPA Now Ministry of Environmental Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Looking Ahead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue Clean Fuels Push </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce Euro 4 (IV) Nationally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerate in Other Cities (Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen,) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrofits </li></ul></ul>
    50. 53. Electric bikes in China, P.R. <ul><li>Electric bikes in China increased from only 40,000 in 1998 to 10 million in 2005 to ~15 in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Sales increased from about 7.5 million units in in 2004 to 10 million units in 2005 to ~ 15 in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>This dramatic growth has been largely due to legislation banning gasoline fuelled scooters and motorcycles, introduced from 1996 onwards in several major Chinese cities </li></ul><ul><li>The most problematic issue with electric bikes is the use of lead acid batteries that have high lead loss rates during the production, manufacturing and recycling processes </li></ul>Sources: Cherry, 2006; Weinert, 2006
    51. 54. Hong Kong’s Approach <ul><li>1/1/2006 – New Gasoline Cars Meet Euro 4 standards </li></ul><ul><li>1/1/2006 – New Diesel Cars Meet CA LEV2 standards </li></ul><ul><li>1/1/2007 – Light Trucks Between 2.5-3.5 tons Meet Euro 4 standards </li></ul><ul><li>10/1/2006 – New standards will be Introduced for Trucks over 3.5 tons </li></ul><ul><li>ULSD (Maximum 50 PPM) Required; Lower Sulfur Fuels (10 PPM) Encouraged By Tax Policy </li></ul>
    52. 55. India
    53. 56. Vehicle population growth in India Vehicle Population Projection from Segment Y plc See: http://segmenty.com 6.7 x by 2025 5 x by 2025
    54. 57. New Vehicle Standards in India <ul><li>Entire Country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 2 – April 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 3 – April 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad & Ahmedabad, Pune Surat, Kanpur & Agra Euro 3 in 2005 & Euro 4 in 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tighter emission norms for all private vehicles, city public service vehicles and city commercial vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 3 From April 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 4 From April 2010 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    55. 58. Brazil
    56. 59. Brazil <ul><li>Passenger Cars & Light Commercial Vehicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US EPA 1983 Standards Since 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 1 Phased in 2005-2007 (40/70/100%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FedLev in 2009 (Phase in) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Diesel Cars Allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy Duty Trucks & Buses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 3 Phased in 2004-2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 4 in 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Diesel Fuel Phase In Schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline S from 1000 to 400 in 2004 & to 80 in 2008 </li></ul></ul>
    57. 60. % ESTIMADO DE PRODUÇÃO ÓLEO DIESEL INTERIOR 2 a BOMBA (PUMP) ÓLEO DIESEL FERROVIÁRIO E P/ TERMOELÉTRICAS ÓLEO DIESEL 500 ÓLEO DIESEL METROPOLITANO ÓLEO DIESEL 50 ÓLEO DIESEL AUTOMOTIVO 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 D 2000 73% 73% 73% 63% 58% 53% 5% 5% 5% 5% D 500 27% 27% 27% 27% 27% 27% 60% 45% 30% 15% D 50 10% 15% 20% 35% 50% 65% 80%
    58. 61. Exhaust Emission Standards in Korea <ul><li>Gasoline Passenger Car </li></ul><ul><li>- ULEV of LEV-2 standard (of CARB) applied from 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>- LEV 2 NMOG Standard Applied in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel HDV </li></ul><ul><li>- EURO-4 standard applied from 2006.10/2008.1. </li></ul><ul><li>- EURO-V standard introduced 9/09-2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel Passenger Car </li></ul><ul><li>- EURO-4 starts from 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>- EURO 5 starts from 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel LDT </li></ul><ul><li>- EURO-4 applied from 2006.1/2007.1 </li></ul><ul><li>- EURO 5 applied from 9/2010 to 2012 </li></ul>Sulfur in Fuels 1/1/2006 50 PPM Gasoline 30 PPM Diesel
    59. 62. Worldwide Motorcycle Emission Regulations Japan III Stage (2008) HC+NOx:1.0~1.25 CO: 1.0~1.25 China II Stage (2004) ECE40 HC: 1.2 NOx:0.3 CO: 5.5 10,000 km Europe EU II (2003) ECE40 Cold Start HC: 1.0 NOx:0.3 CO: 3.0 EU III (2006) HC: 0.8 NOx:0.15 CO: 2.0 30,000 km (2006/2007) ECE40 Cold Start HC: 0.3/0.5 NOx:0.15 CO: 2.0 12,000/24,000 km IV Stage (2004) ECE40 Cold Start HC+NOx:2.0 CO: 7.0 15,000 km Taiwan II Stage (2005) IDC Cold Start HC+NOx:1.5 CO: 1.5 30,000 km India
    60. 63. Life-cycle Emission Control Note: I/M (Inspection and Maintenance)
    61. 64. The Current Situation in Santiago <ul><li>Fuel Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline – 15 PPM Sulfur in 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diesel – 50 PPM Sulfur; 15 PPM in ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Light Duty Vehicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline – US Tier 1 or Euro 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diesel CA Tier 1 or Euro 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium Duty Vehicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 1 or Euro 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy Duty Bus and Truck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US EPA 98 or Euro III </li></ul></ul>
    62. 65. Resultados homologación diesel EURO IV por modelo EURO IV EURO V
    63. 66. Resultados homologación diesel EURO IV por modelo EURO IV EURO V
    64. 67. Resultados homologación EPA por modelo grs/km (CO y HC) Tier 0, Tier 2 Bin 5 Modelos homologados bajo normas EPA (6 de los 10 modelos más vendidos) Corsa Plus homologado Euro Tier 0
    65. 68. Resultados homologación EPA por modelo gr/km (Nox) Tier 1 Tier 2 Bin 8 Tier 2 Bin 5
    66. 69. Motorcycles Increasing Rapidly
    67. 70. Bellagio Principles <ul><li>Design Programs & Policies That Reduce Conventional, Toxic, Noise and Greenhouse Emissions in Parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Treat Vehicles and Fuels As A System </li></ul><ul><li>New Vehicle Standards for Greenhouse Emissions & Conventional Pollutants Should Be Fuel Neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Expect & Require Best Technologies and Fuels Worldwide – in Both Industrialized and Developing Countries </li></ul>WWW.THEICCT.ORG
    68. 71. Priority #1: Reduce Diesel PM <ul><li>New Light Duty Diesel Fueled Vehicles (Cars and Medium Trucks) Should Meet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 2 Bin 5 in 2010, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 5 in 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Buses Should Meet Euro III Plus Diesel Particulate Filter; After 10/15 PPM Sulfur Fuel is Available, Either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US EPA 2010 or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro VI </li></ul></ul>
    69. 72. New Diesel Trucks <ul><li>City Trucks (Sticker Enforced) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro III Plus Diesel Particulate Filter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Trucks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro IV Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Trucks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro III Standards </li></ul></ul>
    70. 73. Priority #2: Reduce NOx, Other Toxic Emissions <ul><li>Light Duty Gasoline Fueled Vehicles Should Meet Either </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 2 bin 5 in 2010 or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 5 in 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motorcycles Adopt Euro 3 Standards by 2010 </li></ul>
    71. 74. Priority #3: Improve Fuel Quality <ul><li>Reduce Sulfur in Diesel Fuel to 10/15 PPM </li></ul>
    72. 75. Priority #4: Implement I/M <ul><li>ASM Loaded Test Procedure Throughout Santiago </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized Testing Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually Tighter In Use Standards </li></ul>
    73. 76. Priority #5: Incentivize Advanced Technologies <ul><li>Currently: Hybrids Get Immunity From Annual Tax For Several Years – Shows Great Leadership! </li></ul>