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Module 6: Designing Instructional Material and Visual Arts


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Module 6: Designing Instructional Material and Visual Arts

  1. 1. Module 6: Designing Instructional Material and Visual Aids Overview of Instructional Material Course Title: Designing and Delivering Successful Training Programs
  2. 2. • Devices that helps learners to comprehend information • Forms of communication of information • Documents that support teaching and learning 2 What are Instructional Material?
  3. 3. • Attendance sheets • Handouts • Presentations • Media/Technology (e.g. videos, podcasts, computer, software tools) • Simulations • Job Aids • Graphic Organizers • Charts/Flip Chart • Posters • Instructional guides • Checklists • Case studies • Assessment Rubrics • Quizzes • Post-tests 3 What are Instructional Material?
  4. 4. DEVELOPMENT PHASE SEARCH SELECT MODIFY CREATE 4 When are Instructional Material Created or Selected?
  5. 5. • Also called training material or learning tools • Assist: ▫ trainers in showing, transmitting, demonstrating, explaining content ▫ trainees in acquiring knowledge and skills during and beyond the training program/session. 5 Why are Instructional Material Created?
  6. 6. • Stimulate learners’ interest • Engage learners with content • Clarify concepts/relationships • Model behaviors or tasks • Improve retention of knowledge and skills • Encourage application of knowledge and skills 6 Advantages of Instructional Material
  7. 7. It is important to first look for existing materials, which can be used or adapted to fit the needs of a specific training course. ▫ Example 1: Use part of a video that involves demonstration of a process or procedure, such as computer/software skills. ▫ Example 2: Use a graphic organizer but modify it to fit the contents of your training course. 7 Using Existing Material
  8. 8. • In groups of 3, identify three examples of existing materials you have used or adapted in the past 8 Activity
  9. 9. 1. Multimedia Principle 2. Spatial Contiguity Principle 3. Temporal Contiguity Principle 4. Modality Principle 5. Redundancy Principle 6. Coherence Principle 7. Personalization Principle 9 Principles of Design by Clark and Meyer (2003)
  10. 10. • People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. ▫ Include both 10 Words Images The Multimedia Principle
  11. 11. People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen. 11 The Spatial Contiguity Principle
  12. 12. • Place corresponding words and graphics near each other. 12 This is an apple This is an apple YES NO The Spatial Contiguity Principle
  13. 13. People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. 13 The Temporal Continuity Principle
  14. 14. • Present words and corresponding images on same screen. 14 This is an apple YES This is an apple Screen 2Screen 1 NO The Temporal Continuity Principle
  15. 15. People learn better from animation and narration, than from animation and on-screen text. 15 The Modality Principle
  16. 16. • Present words as audio narration rather than on-screen text. 16 The Modality Principle
  17. 17. People learn better from animation and narration than from animation, narration, and on on-screen text. 17 The Redundancy Principle
  18. 18. • Avoid presenting words as narration and identical text in the presence of graphics. 18 narration animation text Animation & Narration YES NO The Redundancy Principle
  19. 19. People learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and sounds are excluded rather than included. 19 The Coherence Principle
  20. 20. • Do not include extraneous words, pictures, and sounds. 20 Extraneous: words pictures sounds The Coherence Principle
  21. 21. People learn better when the words are in conversational style rather than formal style. 21 The Personalization Principle
  22. 22. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN BALANCE PROPORTION RHYTHMEMPHASIS UNITY 22 indicates visual equilibrium indicates the size and scale between objects or parts of a whole indicates coherence and consistency indicates the point of focus or interruption indicates that all the other principles work together to achieve a common result
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  25. 25. • Do you have interactive activities for the “participative” learners? • Do you have independent learning for the “reflective” learners? • Do you think about presenting your content so that the “specific” learners don’t become frustrated by information that is not organized? • Do you allow learning to occur through “big picture” thinking or by giving general instruction for the participants that like to create their own framework or structure to the content? • Do you tie the learning to the participants’ needs? And if you’re not clear what they are, give them time to make the application themselves? • Do you provide auditory, visual, and kinesthetic opportunities throughout the training? 25 Tips for Selecting or Creating Instructional Material