103 ch 1 briehn.ppt 1.10 (1)

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103 ch 1 briehn.ppt 1.10 (1)

  1. 1. Chapter one A View of Life Bristlecone Pine World's oldest living trees (4,600 years old) which reside in the Inyo National Forest in the California White Mountains.
  2. 2. Biology = The study of living organisms
  3. 3. Many Branches….. • Botony = study of plants • Zoology = study of animals • Ecology = study of organisms interactions with environment & each other • Biochemistry = study of chemical reactions in living things • Anatomy = study of body structure • Physiology = study of body function
  4. 4. “Life?”
  5. 5. 5 Characteristics of “Life” 1. Organization 2. Acquisition of Materials & Energy 3. Response 4. Reproduction & Development 5. Adaptation
  6. 6. 1st Characteristic of “Life”= Organization Atom Molecule Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism Life Begins HERE!!!
  7. 7. Atom Smallest unit of a molecule… (made of elements)
  8. 8. Molecule 2 or more “atoms”
  9. 9. Cell • Basic Unit of Life • independent life functions • Comprised of “nonliving”
  10. 10. Tissue Different cells combine with common function
  11. 11. Organ Tissues combine for specific task
  12. 12. Organ System • Organs working together Example: respiration digestion
  13. 13. Organism • A single living individual Largest organism may be a fungus Armillaria ostoyae (honey mushroom) Malheur National Forest (E. Oregon) started from a single spore approx 2,400 years kills trees as it grows .5 miles across extends avg 3 ft into the ground. covers an area as big as 1,665 football fields No one has estimated its weight
  14. 14. single individual Salmonella (bacteria) Amoeba (Protist) Single Cell
  15. 15. Individual Tape Worm (no organs) Tissue Level
  16. 16. Individual Organ Systems Level
  17. 17. Emergent Properties “the sum is more than its parts” Atom  Molecule  Cell  Tissue  Organ  Organ System Organism
  18. 18. 2nd Characteristic of “Life” Acquisition of Materials & Energy
  19. 19. Materials = a. Provides nutrients (molecules used in metabolism) FOOD ….
  20. 20. Materials = Food b. Provides Energy (capacity to do work)
  21. 21. C. “AUTOTROPHS” Some “produce” their own food Photosynthesis = Solar energy + CO2  food Materials = Food “Auto” = self, same “Troph” = nurture, feed
  22. 22. Energy required for: METABOLISM = all chemical reactions in a cell
  23. 23. Energy required for HOMEOSTASIS = maintenance of internal conditions within certain limitations ex: human blood pH = 7.35-7.45 human body temperature
  24. 24. Homeostasis Internal control mechanisms Behavior
  25. 25. • To stimuli (temp or light) • Results = movement, behavior & learning • Helps organisms to survive 3rd Characteristic of “Life” = Response
  26. 26. Single Celled organisms simply split in two… “Binary Fission” 4th Characteristic of “Life”= Reproduction & Development = ability to make another organism like itself
  27. 27. Reproduction & Development Multicultural organisms – sexual reproduction unite sperm & egg result = immature individual
  28. 28. Instructions for development  encoded in GENES (made of DNA) Reproduction & Development
  29. 29. Genes passed from generation to generation in CHROMOSOMES
  30. 30. 5th Characteristic of “Life” = Adaptation modification that makes organisms “better suited” populations adapt by process of
  31. 31. Adaptations (modifications) Diversity lead to:
  32. 32. All Living things are Diverse (different) basic organizational unit = cell common genetic blueprint = DNA common environment = Earth But… Unified
  33. 33. Other levels of Biological Organization.. • Individual….. • Population: “individuals” of same species in an area • Community: all populations in an area. • Ecosystem: living community along with nonliving • Biosphere: anywhere living things exist.
  34. 34. Ecosystems: • Tropical Rain Forests • Deserts • Tundra • Grasslands • Aquatic • Etc….
  35. 35. Biotic = all the living things organisms, vegetation microscopic life, etc Abiotic = all the non living water, sunlight, air, minerals,
  36. 36. Ecosystems perform a vital function 1. Energy flows through ecosystems (lost as heat) 2. Nutrients cycle within an ecosystem (recycled)
  37. 37. Living Things are Classified Classification = grouping things based on some similarities Taxonomy = branch of Biology identifying and classifying living organisms according to certain rules. Taxo = “put in order” nomy = “law or rule”
  38. 38. Classification Carl Linnaeus = Father of Taxonomy
  39. 39. 8 Levels of Classification • Domain - most “inclusive” • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species – most “exclusive”
  40. 40. Domains - 3 1. Archaea – unicellular (bacteria) survive in harsh environments DO NOT have membrane bound nucleus (Prokaryotic) 2. Bacteria (or Eubacteria) – unicellular (“true bacteria”) most bacteria DO NOT have membrane bound nucleus (ProKaryotic) 3. Eukarya – unicellular/multicellular have a membrane – bound nucleus (Eukaryotic)
  41. 41. Cells – 2 types 1. With nucleus = eukaryotic 2. Without nucleus = prokaryotic Nucleus = membrane bound compartment of cell containing genetic material “Karyose” = greek “kernal” refers to nucleus of cell “Pro” = “before” (Prokaryotic = before a nucleus) “Eu” = “true” or “good” (Eukaryotic = prossessing a true nucleus)
  42. 42. Domain Eucarya Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Hierarchical System of Classification Levels of Classification Domain Archaea 3 Kingdoms Domain Bacteria Many Kingdoms Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
  43. 43. Domain Eucarya Kingdom Protista Protozoans & Algae Range from unicellular forms to multicellular ones
  44. 44. Domain Eucarya Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Mushrooms & Mold
  45. 45. Domain Eucarya Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae multicellular photosynthetic
  46. 46. Domain Eucarya Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia organisms that ingest and process their food
  47. 47. Living Things have Scientific Names that are UNIVERSAL
  48. 48. Species are named using Binomial Nomenclature Homo sapien
  49. 49. Rules - Binomial Nomenclature 1. 2 part name: – 1st word = genus – 2nd word = species 2. 1st letter 1st word uppercase 3. 1st letter 2nd word lower case 4. Both words underlined or italicized 5. latinized
  50. 50. Nature of science = understand the natural world through observations & testing
  51. 51. Basis of Science …… 1. Is objective 2. Events can be explained by natural causes 3. Material universe – observable & can be collaborated 4. no moral or ethical decisions 5. Not mythical, philosophical or theological
  52. 52. Scientists approach problems differently…. Scientific Method sets apart “natural sciences” from fields based on opinion, faith, & tradition
  53. 53. What is the Scientific Method? Step by Step approach for gathering info: 1. Identify Problem or Question 2. Form a Hypothesis (educated guess) 3. Experimentation and Observation (test the hypothesis/results in “data”) 4. Conclusion (is hypothesis supported or not?)
  54. 54. In Experimentation – always 2 Variables: 1. Independent – what is manipulated by the scientist (experimental variable) 2. Dependent – result or change due to the independent variable (responding variable) Also very important… Control Group: subject that does not experience the “Independent Variable”
  55. 55. Scientific Method Results must be able to be reproduced by other scientists.
  56. 56. Scientific Theory Concept supported by broad range of observations, experiments & data.
  57. 57. Unifying Theories of Biology • Cell Theory: all organisms are made of cells • Homeostasis: internal environment stays with range • Evolution: living organisms share a common ancestor & adapt • Gene: organisms contain coded info that determines their form, function, and to some degree, behavior • Ecosystem: organisms are members of populations, interacting with each other & physical environment

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