by Kevin F. Galligan, GECI
What, Why & Where
What is a microgrid?
The U.S. DOE describes a microgrid as “a group of interconnected loads and
distributed energy resources (DER) with clearly defined electrical boundaries
that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid [and can] connect
and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid-connected or
What is the value of a microgrid?
• MA DPU as part of Grid Modernization includes microgrids
with energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, demand
response, electricity storage and EVs as important means for
advancing statutory requirements and policy goals (D.P.U. 12-
76-B at 9)
– Reducing the effects of outages;
– Optimizing demand, including reducing system and customer costs;
– Integrating distributed resources; and,
– Improving workforce and asset management.
– [Potential environmental benefits, depending on mix of sources]
• Increasing frequency and intensity of weather-caused grid
outages has increased R&D emphasis by U.S. DOE to enhance
resilience to climate change and extreme weather
Why & Where to Implement?
Analyze load(s), resources and interconnects
(City of Boston project underway)
Location of a microgrid – multiple factors
Cape Cod & Martha’s Vineyard may be well positioned
• Smart meters with time-sensitive rates (TBD)
• PV resources with potential battery storage to
manage intermittency (D-Y project)
• High energy efficiency and demand reduction efforts
• Geographic end-use load profiles
• Electricity supply pricing
• Encourage feasibility and local siting/optimization be
pursued to identify potential opportunities
– Facility or campus-based
Questions & Discussion
Kevin F. Galligan
Acknowledgements, Sources & References
• Berkeley Lab. DER Siting And Optimization Tool to Enable Large Scale Deployment of DER In
California. [Online]. https://building-microgrid.lbl.gov/projects/der-siting-and-optimization-tool-
• Berkeley Lab. Microgrid Definitions. [Online]. https://building-microgrid.lbl.gov/microgrid-
• City of Boston Microgrid Workshops. [Online]
• K. P. Schneider, F.K. Tuffner, M. A. Elizondo, C.C. Liu and Y. Xu, “Microgrid as a resiliency resource,”
PNNL-23674, Pacific Northwest Nat. Lab., Richland, Washington, Sept. 2014.
• The Role of Microgrids in Helping to Advance the Nation’s Energy System [Online]
• Swing, Bradford. (2015). City of Boston Energy System Planning. [Online]
• Ton, D., & Wang, W. (2015). A More Resilient Grid: The U.S. Department of Energy Joins with
Stakeholders in an R&D Plan. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 13(3), 26-34.
• Ton, D., & Smith, M. (2012). The U.S. Department of Energy's Microgrid Initiative. The Electricity
Journal, 25(8), 84-94.
• U.S. Department of Energy. (June, 2014). 2014 DOE Resilient Electric Distribution Grid R&D
Workshop summary report. [Online]. Available: http://energy.gov/oe/articles/final-report-and-