Assessing corruption :  Using political economy approaches (in sectors) EuropeAid Anti-corruption seminar  24-26 June, Bru...
What is political economy analysis? <ul><li>Political economy analysis is concerned with the interaction of political and ...
What do we mean by Governance? <ul><li>State’s ability to serve its people  </li></ul><ul><li>Public functions carried out...
The different dimensions of governance   <ul><li>Governance clusters: democratisation, human rights, decentralisation, rul...
<ul><li>WHY ADDRESSSING  </li></ul><ul><li>GOVERNANCE AT SECTOR LEVEL?  </li></ul><ul><li>USING POLITICAL ECONOMY ANALYSIS...
The challenge of  weak governance  in sectors:  state <ul><ul><li>Leakage of funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-optimal ...
Governance for better procurement procedures.... Doctor’s surgery in Central Africa
Avoid the denial strategy
Core  governance  concerns Governance  clusters Governance  principles OPENING THE  “ BLACK BOX” TOOLS FOR ANALYZING SECTO...
T he methodology  –  analyzing sector governance <ul><li>S ome guiding principles </li></ul><ul><li>T he analysis framewor...
1 .  G uiding principles <ul><li>T he purpose of the governance analysis must drive the choices, hence must be defined  – ...
2. The governance analysis framework Political system/government Rule making and executive actors at different levels  Non...
3. Four steps to analyse sector governance: the methodology <ul><li>Step 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the Context of Sec...
STEP 1 <ul><li>CONTEXT </li></ul>Context
STEP 1  –  typical questions include: <ul><li>W hat is the degree of political attention a particular sector receives?  </...
STEP 2  <ul><li>ACTORS </li></ul>Political system/government Rule making and executive actors at different levels  Non-sta...
STEP 2: points of attention  <ul><li>Six clusters of actors:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-state actors </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
STEP 3 <ul><li>GOVERNANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY RELATIONS </li></ul>Political system/government Rule making and executive act...
Step 3: Analyzing governance and accountability relations between actors   <ul><li>Mix of governance mechanisms: </li></ul...
Governance mechanisms - patrimonialism Patrimonial Hierarchies Markets Networks Basis of relationships Loyalty Employment ...
E xample: Transport sector in “Assima” <ul><li>Sector objective:  reduce cost of transport </li></ul><ul><li>Main obstacle...
New openings in context * Using windows of opportunity given by new players: HoD, Ministers, new management * Coordination...
M apping the actors N on-state actors  state actors: ACTOR Power / Interest Driver of change National Transport Federation...
<ul><li>GOVERNANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY RELATIONS </li></ul>Political system/government Rule making and executive actors at ...
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The Sector Governance Approach with Jean Bossuyt

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A presentation delivered by Jean Bossuyt of ECDPM delivered at Aidco headquarters in June 2009.

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The Sector Governance Approach with Jean Bossuyt

  1. 1. Assessing corruption : Using political economy approaches (in sectors) EuropeAid Anti-corruption seminar 24-26 June, Brussels Jean Bossuyt (ECDPM)
  2. 2. What is political economy analysis? <ul><li>Political economy analysis is concerned with the interaction of political and economic processes in a society: the distribution of power and wealth between different groups and individuals and the processes that create, sustain and transform these relationships over time (OECD/DAC) </li></ul><ul><li>Can promote development effectiveness by contributing to an increased understanding of contextual factors into account </li></ul><ul><li>Is an essential tool for capturing informal realities “behind the façade” in governance matters (such as corruption) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What do we mean by Governance? <ul><li>State’s ability to serve its people </li></ul><ul><li>Public functions carried out </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to: </li></ul><ul><li>rules, processes, behaviour: </li></ul><ul><li>interests are articulated </li></ul><ul><li>resources managed </li></ul><ul><li>power exercised </li></ul><ul><li>(Communication on Governance and Development 615/2003) </li></ul><ul><li>(Communication on Governance in the European Consenus on Development 421/2006) </li></ul>
  4. 4. The different dimensions of governance <ul><li>Governance clusters: democratisation, human rights, decentralisation, rule of law,… </li></ul><ul><li>Governance principles: transparency, accountability, participation, inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Core governance concerns: rules, interests, power, resources </li></ul>Core governance concerns Governance clusters Governance principles
  5. 5. <ul><li>WHY ADDRESSSING </li></ul><ul><li>GOVERNANCE AT SECTOR LEVEL? </li></ul><ul><li>USING POLITICAL ECONOMY ANALYSIS </li></ul>
  6. 6. The challenge of weak governance in sectors: state <ul><ul><li>Leakage of funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-optimal spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional capacities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> citizens </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Governance for better procurement procedures.... Doctor’s surgery in Central Africa
  8. 8. Avoid the denial strategy
  9. 9. Core governance concerns Governance clusters Governance principles OPENING THE “ BLACK BOX” TOOLS FOR ANALYZING SECTOR GOVERNANCE
  10. 10. T he methodology – analyzing sector governance <ul><li>S ome guiding principles </li></ul><ul><li>T he analysis framework </li></ul><ul><li>Four practical steps to move forward </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1 . G uiding principles <ul><li>T he purpose of the governance analysis must drive the choices, hence must be defined – cfr GOVNET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D onor decisions and concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G eneral partner-donor cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S upport partner country governance reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Build on what is available – and try not to burden the existing consultative mechanisms at sector level </li></ul><ul><li>M ake public more than you think </li></ul><ul><li>I t’s a continuous process </li></ul><ul><li>C ombine governance and sector expertise </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. The governance analysis framework Political system/government Rule making and executive actors at different levels Non-state actors Citizens, voters, consumers, user groups economic agents, elites, media… Checks and balances organisations Supervise sector organisations or handle complaints (auditors, judiciary, ombudsmen,…) Frontline service providers Public and private providers delivering services Core public agencies Sector ministries, agencies with regulatory or supporting roles, … Context Donors, international organisations Influence on sector governance and accountability relations Governance Accountability
  13. 13. 3. Four steps to analyse sector governance: the methodology <ul><li>Step 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the Context of Sector Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping the Actors – Their Interests, Power and Incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing Governance and Accountability Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: </li></ul><ul><li>Summing up: analysing governance reform readiness </li></ul>
  14. 14. STEP 1 <ul><li>CONTEXT </li></ul>Context
  15. 15. STEP 1 – typical questions include: <ul><li>W hat is the degree of political attention a particular sector receives? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there ongoing public sector reforms? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a strong judiciary at national level? </li></ul><ul><li>W hat are the features of public service performance and management? </li></ul><ul><li>Are studies available on the political economy of corruption? </li></ul><ul><li>H ow is decentralisation pursued at national level? </li></ul><ul><li>A re there international obstacles that affect sector governance negatively? </li></ul>
  16. 16. STEP 2 <ul><li>ACTORS </li></ul>Political system/government Rule making and executive actors at different levels Non-state actors Citizens, voters, consumers, user groups economic agents, elites, media… Checks and balances organisations Supervise sector organisations or handle complaints (auditors, judiciary, ombudsmen,…) Frontline service providers Public and private providers delivering services Core public agencies Sector ministries, agencies with regulatory or supporting roles, … Context Donors, international organisations Influence on sector governance and accountability relations
  17. 17. STEP 2: points of attention <ul><li>Six clusters of actors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-state actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks and balances organisations (e.g. Anti-corruption bureau’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political system/government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core public agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontline service providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donors, regional and international organisations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to go about it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid the summing up – long list and little insight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F ocus on interests, power and incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key linkages </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. STEP 3 <ul><li>GOVERNANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY RELATIONS </li></ul>Political system/government Rule making and executive actors at different levels Non-state actors Citizens, voters, consumers, user groups economic agents, elites, media… Checks and balances organisations Supervise sector organisations or handle complaints (auditors, judiciary, ombudsmen,…) Frontline service providers Public and private providers delivering services Core public agencies Sector ministries, agencies with regulatory or supporting roles, … Context Donors, international organisations Influence on sector governance and accountability relations Governance Accountability
  19. 19. Step 3: Analyzing governance and accountability relations between actors <ul><li>Mix of governance mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrimonialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four other aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about and clarity of governance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsiveness of governance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability set-up and responsibility? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity for governance and accountability? </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  20. 20. Governance mechanisms - patrimonialism Patrimonial Hierarchies Markets Networks Basis of relationships Loyalty Employment relationship Contracts and property rights Resource exchange Degree of dependence Dependence Dependent Independent Interdependent Type of Accountability Informal between patron and client Formal financial and administrative accountability Horizontal through market mechanism Complex and blurred accountability Medium of exchange Patronage Authority Prices Trust Means of conflict resolution & coordination Submission or Exit Rules & commands Haggling, courts Diplomacy Culture Custom Subordination Competition Reciprocity Limitations of governance Bound only by other persons; arbitrariness Bound by institutions, predictability Bound by efficiency Bound by degree of consensus achieved
  21. 21. E xample: Transport sector in “Assima” <ul><li>Sector objective: reduce cost of transport </li></ul><ul><li>Main obstacle: monopoly of transport sector </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity of CSP in transport </li></ul>
  22. 22. New openings in context * Using windows of opportunity given by new players: HoD, Ministers, new management * Coordination amongst actors (consensus on way forward) *Audit *Investment funds frozen
  23. 23. M apping the actors N on-state actors state actors: ACTOR Power / Interest Driver of change National Transport Federation Powerful; Keep monopoly; collusion with police; political links Resistance to change Other transport organisations Liberalise market; no weight; tension with Administration Driver of change
  24. 24. <ul><li>GOVERNANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY RELATIONS </li></ul>Political system/government Rule making and executive actors at different levels Non-state actors Citizens, voters, consumers, user groups economic agents, elites, media… Checks and balances organisations Supervise sector organisations or handle complaints (auditors, judiciary, ombudsmen,…) Frontline service providers Public and private providers delivering services Core public gncies Sector ministries, agencies with regulatory or supporting roles, … Context Donors, international organisations Influence on sector governance and accountability relations Governance Accountability

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