“

CARBOHYDRATES

”
CANDICE PIENAAR
201139189
REFERENCES
1) http://www.slideshare.net/kleppingerb/catrbohydrates?qid=674cbdcc-2c94-43fa-8f43ffdb057f65aa&v=qf1&b=&from_s...
Is an organic compound
σακχαρων
Greek “sakcharon” = sugar
LETS LEARN SOME GREEK!!!!
The name glucose comes from the Greek word
glykys (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet", plus the suffix
"-o...
Carbohydrates
• Carbohydrates, or saccharides (saccharo is Greek for ―sugar)
are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or subs...
Carbohydrates and Biochemistry
•Carbohydrates are compounds of tremendous
biological importance:
–they provide energy thro...
is the building block
of carbohydrates
Importance of carbohydrates:

CHIEF SOURCE OF
ENERGY
Types of Carbohydrates:

monosaccharide
disaccharide
polysaccharide
monosaccharide
MONOSACCHARIDES
CLASSIFICATION OF MONOSACCHARIDES
1- According to the number of carbon atoms:
.Trioses, contain 3 carbon a...
Glucose (a monosaccharide)
Plants:

photosynthesis
chlorophyll
6 CO2 + 6 H2O
sunlight
(+)-glucose

C6H12O6 + 6 O2
(+)-gluc...
monosaccharide
C6H12O6

Simple sugars that consist s only one (1)
sugar molecule
Under monosaccharide:
1. Glucose
2. Fruct...
monosaccharide
1. Glucose
Blood sugar; most important sugar in the bodies of
both vertebrates and invertebrates
monosaccharide
2. Fructose
Corn sugar; sweetest form of sugar commonly
found in fruits
monosaccharide
3. Galactose
Simplest sugar found in milk
Animals

plant starch

(+)-glucose

(+)-glucose

glycogen

glycogen

(+)-glucose

(+)-glucose

fats or aminoacids

respira...
2. MONOSACCHARIDES

• Examples

20
2. MONOSACCHARIDES

• Once a monosaccharide has been named as an aldose or a ketose, and the number of
carbons has been de...
disaccharide
disaccharide
C12H22O11
Pair of monosaccharide units
Glucose + monosaccharide unit = disaccharide
Under disaccharide:
1. Su...
FORMING DISACCHARIDES
Glucose
CH2OH
CH2OH

CH2OH
H

C

C

O

H

H

C

C

H

OH

OH

H

C

C

OH

OH

OH

O

H

OH

H

C

C...
disaccharide
1. Sucrose

Table sugar; glucose + fructose
disaccharide
2. Lactose

Milk sugar; glucose + galactose
disaccharide
3. Maltose

Malt sugar; glucose + glucose
polysaccharide
polysaccharide
Consists of chains of monosaccharide and
disaccharide
Under polysaccharide:
1. Starch
2. Glycogen
3. Cellul...
polysaccharide
1. Starch

Storage of glucose for plants
polysaccharide
2. Glycogen

Storage of excess sugar in animals; stored in
liver and muscles
polysaccharide
3. Cellulose
Structural support of plants; known as “fiber”
Additional info:
monomer: a molecule that may react chemically
to another molecule to form polymer; the
simplest unit; rep...
CLASSIFICATION:

1- Monosaccharides (simple sugars):
They can not be hydrolyzed into simpler units. E.g. glucose,
galactos...
2- According to the characteristic carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone group):
- Aldo sugars: aldoses:
Contain aldehyde gro...
GLUCOSE FORMS A RING STRUCTURE

Note: functional group is on carbon one
TWO TYPES OF RING
STRUCTURES FOR GLUCOSE
OH on carbon one:
BELOW the ring

ABOVE the ring
The existence of - and -isomers: leads to greater chemical variety
 is of importance in for example in
forming starch ...
NOTE DIFFERENCE:

The main difference between glucose and galactose
is that glucose is much sweeter than galactose.
13.4. REACTIONS--ADDITION
• Addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde:

H+

• The product is called a hemiacetal (-OH and –OR ...
13.4. REACTIONS--ADDITION

• The final product is an acetal (2 –OR groups attached to one carbon).

hemiacetal

acetal

41
13.4. REACTIONS--ADDITION

• Ketones undergo analogous addition reactions with alcohols.
•

The initial product is a react...
13.4. REACTIONS--ADDITION
Carbohydrates
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Carbohydrates

  1. 1. “ CARBOHYDRATES ” CANDICE PIENAAR 201139189
  2. 2. REFERENCES 1) http://www.slideshare.net/kleppingerb/catrbohydrates?qid=674cbdcc-2c94-43fa-8f43ffdb057f65aa&v=qf1&b=&from_search=5 2) http://www.slideshare.net/obanbrahma/carbohydrates-30770508?qid=674cbdcc-2c94-43fa8f43-ffdb057f65aa&v=qf1&b=&from_search=6 3) http://www.slideshare.net/mazz4/carbohydrates-28729095?qid=674cbdcc-2c94-43fa-8f43ffdb057f65aa&v=qf1&b=&from_search=9 4) http://www.slideshare.net/syed_ismail/carbohydrates-28872311?qid=674cbdcc-2c94-43fa8f43-ffdb057f65aa&v=qf1&b=&from_search=8 5) http://www.slideshare.net/gangadharchatterjee/carbohydrate-chemistry-27717759
  3. 3. Is an organic compound
  4. 4. σακχαρων Greek “sakcharon” = sugar
  5. 5. LETS LEARN SOME GREEK!!!! The name glucose comes from the Greek word glykys (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet", plus the suffix "-ose" which denotes a sugar 4 chiral centers give 24 = the 16 stereoisomer s of hexose sugars. Chirality, or "handedness", Greek, (χειρ), kheir: "hand” chiral carbons are enantiomers Alpha α and Beta β are letters in the Greek alphabet
  6. 6. Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates, or saccharides (saccharo is Greek for ―sugar) are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or substances that yield such compounds on hydrolysis. • Carbohydrates include not only sugar, but also the starches that we find in foods, such as bread, pasta, and rice. • The term ―carbohydrate comes from the observation that when you heat sugars, you get carbon and water (hence, hydrate of carbon).
  7. 7. Carbohydrates and Biochemistry •Carbohydrates are compounds of tremendous biological importance: –they provide energy through oxidation –they supply carbon for the synthesis of cell components –they serve as a form of stored chemical energy –they form part of the structures of some cells and tissues •Carbohydrates, along with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other compounds are known as biomolecules because they are closely associated with living organisms.
  8. 8. is the building block of carbohydrates
  9. 9. Importance of carbohydrates: CHIEF SOURCE OF ENERGY
  10. 10. Types of Carbohydrates: monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide
  11. 11. monosaccharide
  12. 12. MONOSACCHARIDES CLASSIFICATION OF MONOSACCHARIDES 1- According to the number of carbon atoms: .Trioses, contain 3 carbon atoms. • Tetroses, contain 4 carbon atoms. • Pentoses, contain 5 carbon atoms. • Hexoses, contain 6 carbon atoms. • Heptoses, contain 7 carbon atoms. • Octoses. contain 8 carbon atoms.
  13. 13. Glucose (a monosaccharide) Plants: photosynthesis chlorophyll 6 CO2 + 6 H2O sunlight (+)-glucose C6H12O6 + 6 O2 (+)-glucose starch or cellulose respiration C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
  14. 14. monosaccharide C6H12O6 Simple sugars that consist s only one (1) sugar molecule Under monosaccharide: 1. Glucose 2. Fructose 3. Galactose
  15. 15. monosaccharide 1. Glucose Blood sugar; most important sugar in the bodies of both vertebrates and invertebrates
  16. 16. monosaccharide 2. Fructose Corn sugar; sweetest form of sugar commonly found in fruits
  17. 17. monosaccharide 3. Galactose Simplest sugar found in milk
  18. 18. Animals plant starch (+)-glucose (+)-glucose glycogen glycogen (+)-glucose (+)-glucose fats or aminoacids respiration (+)-glucose + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
  19. 19. 2. MONOSACCHARIDES • Examples 20
  20. 20. 2. MONOSACCHARIDES • Once a monosaccharide has been named as an aldose or a ketose, and the number of carbons has been designated, there are still several different isomeric forms for each. • Each specific monosaccharide has a unique name. • A prefix (D- or L-) is added to designate which of two possible isomeric forms is being referred to. 21
  21. 21. disaccharide
  22. 22. disaccharide C12H22O11 Pair of monosaccharide units Glucose + monosaccharide unit = disaccharide Under disaccharide: 1. Sucrose 2. Lactose 3. Maltose
  23. 23. FORMING DISACCHARIDES Glucose CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH H C C O H H C C H OH OH H C C OH OH OH O H OH H C C C H H C OH H OH Maltose CH2OH H C OH C CH2OH O H OH H C C H H H C C OH OOH H C O H OH H C C C H OH H H OH Glycosidic Bond OH This is a CONDENSATION reaction, where a water molecule is lost.
  24. 24. disaccharide 1. Sucrose Table sugar; glucose + fructose
  25. 25. disaccharide 2. Lactose Milk sugar; glucose + galactose
  26. 26. disaccharide 3. Maltose Malt sugar; glucose + glucose
  27. 27. polysaccharide
  28. 28. polysaccharide Consists of chains of monosaccharide and disaccharide Under polysaccharide: 1. Starch 2. Glycogen 3. Cellulose
  29. 29. polysaccharide 1. Starch Storage of glucose for plants
  30. 30. polysaccharide 2. Glycogen Storage of excess sugar in animals; stored in liver and muscles
  31. 31. polysaccharide 3. Cellulose Structural support of plants; known as “fiber”
  32. 32. Additional info: monomer: a molecule that may react chemically to another molecule to form polymer; the simplest unit; repeating unit of polymer polymer: a compound made up of several repeating units (monomer) enzyme: speeds up chemical reaction
  33. 33. CLASSIFICATION: 1- Monosaccharides (simple sugars): They can not be hydrolyzed into simpler units. E.g. glucose, galactose,ribose 2- Oligosaccharides (oligo = few): contain from two to ten monosaccharide units joined in glycosidic bonds. e.g. • disaccharides (2 units) e.g. maltose and sucrose, • trisaccharides (3 units).....etc. 3-Polysaccharides (poly = many): Also known as glycans. They are composed of more than ten monosaccharide units e.g. starch, glycogen, cellulose.....etc.
  34. 34. 2- According to the characteristic carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone group): - Aldo sugars: aldoses: Contain aldehyde group e.g. glucose, ribose, erythrose and glyceraldehydes. - Keto sugars: ketoses: Contain ketone group e.g. fructose, ribulose and dihydroxy acetone.
  35. 35. GLUCOSE FORMS A RING STRUCTURE Note: functional group is on carbon one
  36. 36. TWO TYPES OF RING STRUCTURES FOR GLUCOSE OH on carbon one: BELOW the ring ABOVE the ring
  37. 37. The existence of - and -isomers: leads to greater chemical variety  is of importance in for example in forming starch and cellulose
  38. 38. NOTE DIFFERENCE: The main difference between glucose and galactose is that glucose is much sweeter than galactose.
  39. 39. 13.4. REACTIONS--ADDITION • Addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde: H+ • The product is called a hemiacetal (-OH and –OR attached to the same carbon). • Hemiacetals are very reactive. • They react with an additional alcohol molecule, losing –OH and adding another –OR. 40
  40. 40. 13.4. REACTIONS--ADDITION • The final product is an acetal (2 –OR groups attached to one carbon). hemiacetal acetal 41
  41. 41. 13.4. REACTIONS--ADDITION • Ketones undergo analogous addition reactions with alcohols. • The initial product is a reactive hemiketal (two –R groups, one –OH, and one –OR). • An additional –OR group is added to the hemiketal to produce a ketal. hemiketal ketal 42
  42. 42. 13.4. REACTIONS--ADDITION

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