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The Late Baroque
Late Baroque
High point of music history
Characterized by length and counterpoint
Technical mastery and maturity
Not a tim...
Late Baroque Characteristics
Progressive melodic development
Melodies long and asymmetrical
Use of sequence
Rhythmic conti...
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
Born into very musical family
Lived entire life in Germany
Virtuoso organist and compose...
Johann Sebastian Bach
Extremely prolific composer (see p. 149)
Master of counterpoint, esp. the fugue
Was not internationa...
Later Baroque Cantata
Much more like a small scale oratorio
Consists of all operatic characteristics
Recitatives
Arias
Ens...
Sacred Cantata’s of J.S.Bach
Cantata integral to Lutheran church service
New cantata required every Sunday
Yearly cycle ap...
Lutheran Chorale
Chorale is the hymn tune
Sung by the congregation
Originally sung in unison
Later set in 4-part harmony, ...
Listening Example
Title: Awake, a Voice Is Calling (140)
Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach
Genre: Cantata
We’ll listen to mo...
Notes on Awake… (1st mvmt.)
Orchestral ritornello
Rhythmic momentum of ritornello builds
Chorale in soprano part
Elaborate...
Notes on Awake… (4th mvmt.)
Two central musical ideas
Chorale sung by tenors
Unison violin/viola melody
Walking bass in co...
Notes on Awake… (7th mvmt.)
Four part setting – chorale
Homophonic (homorhythmic) texture
Instruments double the voices
Ch...
The Baroque Suite
Evolved from Renaissance dance music
Began as actual dances but became concert
music
Suites could be wri...
Commonly-used Dances
German allemande
French courante
Spanish sarabande
English jig (gigue)
Standard Order
1. Overture or Prelude
2. Allemande
3. Courante
4. Sarabande
5. Other dances (such as Minuet, Bourée, or Ga...
Baroque Suite Form
Each dance is relatively short
Dances usually feature binary form
Two sections (A-B)
Sections are appro...
Bach’s Cello Suites
Among the best-known works for solo cello
Six suites of six movements each
No continuo accompaniment i...
Listening Example
Title: Prelude, Cello Suite No. 1 in G major
Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach
Genre: Suite
Notes on Prelude, Cello Suite No. 1
Best known movement of all six suites
Solo cello, no continuo
Mostly chords, no clear ...
Fugue
“Fuga” is Latin for “flight”
Highly contrapuntal
Based on principle of imitation
Theme (subject) is repeated in all ...
Fugue Terms
Subject
Countersubject
Exposition
Episode
Listening Example
Title: Organ Fugue in G Minor
Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach
Genre: Fugue
Notes on Organ Fugue
Entrance of solitary subject at beginning
Long subject, gathers rhythmic momentum
Exposition runs fro...
Concerto grosso (reminder)
Contrasting instrumental groups:
Small group of instruments (concertino)
Large group (ripieno o...
Listening Example
Title: Brandenburg Concerto #5
Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach
Genre: Concerto Grosso
Notes on Brandenburg #5
Concertino: flute, violin, and harpsichord
Relatively small tutti
Orchestral ritornello
Especially...
Equal Temperment
“New” tuning system for keyboards
Allowed for performance in all keys
Weakness of other systems
Not all k...
The Well-Tempered Clavier
Two-volume collection (1722 & 1742)
Prelude & Fugue pairs in every key
12 major keys
12 minor ke...
George Frideric Handel (1685 – 1759)
George Frideric Handel (1685 – 1759)
Born in Halle, Germany
Studied in Halle & Hamburg, then Italy
Composed first opera at...
George Frideric Handel (1685 – 1759)
Coronation Service for George II
Zadok the Priest played every coronation since
Direc...
Opera Seria
Dominant form of high Italian opera
Use of castrati for heroic lead roles
Handel sought financial gain by taki...
Oratorio
Began as small religious musical plays
Grows to mirror opera in scale and style
Extended musical setting of sacre...
Da Capo Aria
Italian for “from the top”
This is an aria with a specific structure
A-B-A’ form
Section A is sung followed b...
Handel and the Oratorio
As opera seria’s popularity waned, Handel
turned to oratorio for financial reasons
Lower productio...
Handel’s Messiah
Handel composed 20 oratorio in 20 years
Messiah is most famous and stands apart
Not a heroic story from O...
Listening Example
Title: Messiah, Rejoice Greatly (No. 18)
Composer: George Frideric Handel
Genre: Oratorio
Notes on Rejoice Greatly
Aria
Long melismas
Da Capo aria – ABA’
Note the contrast between A & B sections
Tempo
Mode (major...
Handel’s Orchestral Suites
Two orchestral suites:
Water Music
Music for the Royal Fireworks
Water Music
Actually three combined suites
Does not follow standard order
Composed for a royal party on the Thames
Perform...
Listening Example
Title: Water Music, Alla Hornpipe
Composer: George F. Handel
Genre: Suite
Notes on Alla Hornpipe
ABA (ternary) form with repeat of first A
Horns and trumpets featured prominently
Full orchestra pl...
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The Late Baroque

CC BY, Elliot Jones Santa Ana College

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The Late Baroque

  1. 1. The Late Baroque
  2. 2. Late Baroque High point of music history Characterized by length and counterpoint Technical mastery and maturity Not a time of innovation but of refinement The two masters of this period: Johann Sebastian Bach George Frideric Handel
  3. 3. Late Baroque Characteristics Progressive melodic development Melodies long and asymmetrical Use of sequence Rhythmic continuity and clarity One primary melodic idea per movement Clear beat – “sewing machine” Dense polyphonic texture
  4. 4. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
  5. 5. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Born into very musical family Lived entire life in Germany Virtuoso organist and composer Held various court and church positions Last 27 years in Leipzig as Cantor of St. Thomas’ Church (music for 4 churches)
  6. 6. Johann Sebastian Bach Extremely prolific composer (see p. 149) Master of counterpoint, esp. the fugue Was not internationally known like Handel Often traveled regionally to test organs One of the greatest composers of all time
  7. 7. Later Baroque Cantata Much more like a small scale oratorio Consists of all operatic characteristics Recitatives Arias Ensembles Choruses Orchestra
  8. 8. Sacred Cantata’s of J.S.Bach Cantata integral to Lutheran church service New cantata required every Sunday Yearly cycle approx. 60 cantatas One per Sunday plus holidays/special occasions Usually 5 to 8 movements Bach composed 4–5 cycles (only 200 extant) Frequent use of Lutheran Chorale
  9. 9. Lutheran Chorale Chorale is the hymn tune Sung by the congregation Originally sung in unison Later set in 4-part harmony, melody in soprano (top voice) These 4-part settings referred to as a chorale Chorale unifies the cantata
  10. 10. Listening Example Title: Awake, a Voice Is Calling (140) Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach Genre: Cantata We’ll listen to movements 1, 4, and 7
  11. 11. Notes on Awake… (1st mvmt.) Orchestral ritornello Rhythmic momentum of ritornello builds Chorale in soprano part Elaborate polyphony in choir and orchestra Multiple layers of activity depict the energy of the text
  12. 12. Notes on Awake… (4th mvmt.) Two central musical ideas Chorale sung by tenors Unison violin/viola melody Walking bass in continuo Much simpler texture than 1st mvmt. More lyrical, flowing quality This movement was one of Bach’s favorites and was the only cantata mvmt he published
  13. 13. Notes on Awake… (7th mvmt.) Four part setting – chorale Homophonic (homorhythmic) texture Instruments double the voices Chorale tune in the soprano
  14. 14. The Baroque Suite Evolved from Renaissance dance music Began as actual dances but became concert music Suites could be written for: Orchestral music Chamber music (small group) Solo instrument
  15. 15. Commonly-used Dances German allemande French courante Spanish sarabande English jig (gigue)
  16. 16. Standard Order 1. Overture or Prelude 2. Allemande 3. Courante 4. Sarabande 5. Other dances (such as Minuet, Bourée, or Gavotte) 6. Gigue (jig)
  17. 17. Baroque Suite Form Each dance is relatively short Dances usually feature binary form Two sections (A-B) Sections are approximately equal in length Often sections are repeated (A-A-B-B)
  18. 18. Bach’s Cello Suites Among the best-known works for solo cello Six suites of six movements each No continuo accompaniment is used Follow the standard suite form
  19. 19. Listening Example Title: Prelude, Cello Suite No. 1 in G major Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach Genre: Suite
  20. 20. Notes on Prelude, Cello Suite No. 1 Best known movement of all six suites Solo cello, no continuo Mostly chords, no clear tune Harmonic emphasis rather than melodic Note the driving steady rhythm Bach’s harmonic mastery turns what is essentially a warm-up into a work of beauty
  21. 21. Fugue “Fuga” is Latin for “flight” Highly contrapuntal Based on principle of imitation Theme (subject) is repeated in all voices Subject is unifying idea Can be written for any instrument or group Vocal or instrumental
  22. 22. Fugue Terms Subject Countersubject Exposition Episode
  23. 23. Listening Example Title: Organ Fugue in G Minor Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach Genre: Fugue
  24. 24. Notes on Organ Fugue Entrance of solitary subject at beginning Long subject, gathers rhythmic momentum Exposition runs from top to bottom voices Use of pedal point A low pitch held or repeated while harmony changes around it Ends with major triad despite minor key
  25. 25. Concerto grosso (reminder) Contrasting instrumental groups: Small group of instruments (concertino) Large group (ripieno or tutti ) Different instruments featured at different times in the concertino Brandenburg Concertos by Bach are excellent example of the genre
  26. 26. Listening Example Title: Brandenburg Concerto #5 Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach Genre: Concerto Grosso
  27. 27. Notes on Brandenburg #5 Concertino: flute, violin, and harpsichord Relatively small tutti Orchestral ritornello Especially prominent harpsichord part Harpsichord cadenza
  28. 28. Equal Temperment “New” tuning system for keyboards Allowed for performance in all keys Weakness of other systems Not all keys were equally in tune Modulation was therefore restricted
  29. 29. The Well-Tempered Clavier Two-volume collection (1722 & 1742) Prelude & Fugue pairs in every key 12 major keys 12 minor keys These collections demonstrated that pieces played in every key sounded equally in tune This was not possible with earlier tunings
  30. 30. George Frideric Handel (1685 – 1759)
  31. 31. George Frideric Handel (1685 – 1759) Born in Halle, Germany Studied in Halle & Hamburg, then Italy Composed first opera at age 20 Accepted position as Kappelmeister to the Elector of Hanover in 1710 (age 25) 1710 visit to England becomes permanent Enjoys international fame
  32. 32. George Frideric Handel (1685 – 1759) Coronation Service for George II Zadok the Priest played every coronation since Director of the Royal Academy of Music (1720 – 1728) Oratorio Messiah has been performed continuously since its composition Handel buried in Westminster Abbey
  33. 33. Opera Seria Dominant form of high Italian opera Use of castrati for heroic lead roles Handel sought financial gain by taking this Italian style to English audiences Composed 24 operas for Royal Academy of Music – generally successful until 1728 Academy went bankrupt due to production costs and shrinking sales
  34. 34. Oratorio Began as small religious musical plays Grows to mirror opera in scale and style Extended musical setting of sacred text Role of chorus is emphasized No scenery, costumes, or staging
  35. 35. Da Capo Aria Italian for “from the top” This is an aria with a specific structure A-B-A’ form Section A is sung followed by section B After section B, section A is repeated with embellishments
  36. 36. Handel and the Oratorio As opera seria’s popularity waned, Handel turned to oratorio for financial reasons Lower production costs No opera stars No scenery or costumes Adapting to English tastes English long choral tradition Puritan market
  37. 37. Handel’s Messiah Handel composed 20 oratorio in 20 years Messiah is most famous and stands apart Not a heroic story from OT with characters Combination of OT and NT verses No character or dramatic plot Extra choral emphasis (19 choruses) Composed in 3½ weeks
  38. 38. Listening Example Title: Messiah, Rejoice Greatly (No. 18) Composer: George Frideric Handel Genre: Oratorio
  39. 39. Notes on Rejoice Greatly Aria Long melismas Da Capo aria – ABA’ Note the contrast between A & B sections Tempo Mode (major vs minor)
  40. 40. Handel’s Orchestral Suites Two orchestral suites: Water Music Music for the Royal Fireworks
  41. 41. Water Music Actually three combined suites Does not follow standard order Composed for a royal party on the Thames Performed outdoors on floating barges Performed without continuo instruments for 1717 Thames River trip Louder instruments (trumpets & horns) are therefore emphasized
  42. 42. Listening Example Title: Water Music, Alla Hornpipe Composer: George F. Handel Genre: Suite
  43. 43. Notes on Alla Hornpipe ABA (ternary) form with repeat of first A Horns and trumpets featured prominently Full orchestra plays A section Strings play B section Majestic sound characteristic of Handel

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