FIVE OPTIONS:1- Maximizing or minimizing dispute2- Linking issues or treating themseparately3- Communicating by word or deed4- Using coercion or reward5- Being precise or intentionally vague
1948, February 26 Jinnah‘s concept of Pakistan predisposed him in favour of democratic states. Jinnah‘s speech entitled the USA as a partner in ‗defense for democracy‘ Pakistan first extended a cordial hand towards the USA by being precise and communicating by word.
President Truman sent a warm gesture and showed a friendly predisposition towards the new state. Pakistan with its innumerable problems after getting rid of the shackles of British colonial rule and Indian atrocities wanted to improve its economic conditions. It did not side with USSR as it was a communist state and wasn‘t capable of providing financial assistance in the back draw of Nazi Germany wars. At the same time US was well aware of the strategic location of Pakistan with respect to South Asia and its proximity with Middle Eastern countries enriched with oil reserves.
Meeting of US ambassadors to South Asian countries held in Colombo ‗favoured the idea of Pakistani participation in the defence of the Middle East’.Pakistan‘s strategic location when linkedwith US interests in South Asia and MiddleEast oil bearing areas along with creation ofa bloc against USSR depicted US diplomacyas that of linking issues.
Liaqat Ali Khan visited the USA in May 1950. President Trumanreceived him during the start of his three-week visit in which hestressed upon mutual interests of both countries these included: Democracy Fundamental human rights Right to private ownership Equal citizenship irrespective of religion Equality of opportunity Equality before law and the moral irresponsibility of the wealthy and knowledgable towards the unfortunate members of the country. Liaqat Ali described Pakistan and the US as ‗comrades‘ in the quest for peace and treating dreams of democracy into reality.
Change in the US government in 1953 left President Dwilight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of state John Foster took the initiative to change US policy towards Pakistan. On a tour to the Middle East and South Asia in 1953. John Foster was impressed with Pakistan‘s stance which had sworn allegiance anti- communist cause‘ impressed by Governor Ghulam Muhamamd, Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra who had replaced Khwaja Nazimuddin. Foster publicly spoke of the idea of a defence arrangement of NORTHERN TIER countries – Turkey, Pakistan, Iraq and Iran.
The first defence agreement on May 1954 under which the US undertook to provide defence equipment to Pakistan‘s ―exclusivley to maintain its internal security, its legitimate self- defence or to permit it to participate in defence of the area‖. Prime Minister Muhamamd Ali Bogra lauded the Pakistan-US agreement. At the same time the US military aid began to flow into Pakistan on the recommendation of General Ayub Khan. Military aid to Pakistan between 1953 and 1961 totals $508 million.
This exhibits Pakistan-US ties moving towardsthe diplomacy of coercion or reward (carrotand stick diplomacy).
In 1956, Pakistan’s constitution proclaims it an Islamic republic. In 1958, martial law is declared and General Mohammed Ayub Khan takes over. 1962: Indo-China War The presidency of John F. Kennedy and the Indo- China War saw the United States reaching out to India and offering it both military and economic aid. To reassure Pakistan, Washington reaffirms its previous assurances that it will come to Pakistan’s assistance in the event of aggression from India. 1965: Second War over Kashmir The United States cuts off aid to both Pakistan and India as a second war erupts over Kashmir. The war begins in August 5, 1965, and ends September 22, 1965, with both sides agreeing to a UN-mandated cease-fire. The Pakistanis are embittered at what they consider a friend’s betrayal, while the United States is disillusioned by a war in which both sides used U.S.-supplied equipment.
ANALYSISPak-US ties during the first twodecades after the creation ofPakistan relied much on Pakistan‘sinsistence to the US that it isstrategically important.The US on the other hand tookadvantage of Pakistan‘s anti-communist aspiration but at thesame time it wasn‘t willing to earnthe displeasure of India.The carrot and stick diplomacyprevailed as opposed to the‗commonality of interests‘ presentedby the first Prime Minister of Pakistan
CivilWar East and West Pakistan fail to agree on a constitutionalarrangement.The Pakistani army, in an attempt to silence the Bengali politicalvoice and its demands for autonomy, cracks down in EastPakistan.The U.S. government, which has been secretly trying to open adialogue with China with the help of Pakistani military ruler YahyaKhan, is condemned by Western media for its silence on thedeplorable crackdown.The United States again suspends military aid to Pakistan,causing resentment among Pakistanis.
As a result of 1970s election, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto , a charismaticdemocratic socialist, became President (1971-1974) and laterPrime minister in 1974.This period is seen as a "quiet cold war" with the Pakistan whowas administer under democratic socialists led by Zulfikar AliBhutto.Under Bhutto, Pakistan would focused on Movement of Non-Aligned Countries, building closer ties with Soviet bloc andthe Soviet Union. Meanwhile, Bhutto tried to maintain a balancewith the United States, but such attempts were rebuffed by UnitedStates.
In 1974, with India carried out the test of nuclear weapons nearthe Pakistans eastern border, Bhutto sought United States toimpose economic sanctions in India.In 1970s, the ties were further severed with Bhutto as Bhutto hadcontinued to administer the research on weapons, and in 1976, ina meeting with Bhutto and Kissinger, Kissinger had told Bhutto,"that if you [Bhutto] do not cancel, modify or postpone theReprocessing Plant Agreement, we will make a horrible examplefrom you― Bhutto authorized the construction of Chagai weapon-testinglaboratories, whilst United States opposed the action andpredicted that it will lead to a massive and destructive warbetween India and Pakistan in the future.
In 1979, a group of Pakistani students burned the Americanembassy in Islamabad to the ground killing two Americans. After theremoval and death of Bhutto, the Pakistans ties with United Stateswere better and improved.Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, ISI and CIA ran multi-billion dollar worth Operation Cyclone to thwart the communistregime as well as defeating Soviets in Afghanistan.Throughout the military regime of General Zia-ul-Haq, the ties andrelations were promoted at its maximum point, and United States hadgiven billion dollars of economical and military aid to Pakistan.In the 1980s, Pakistan agreed to pay $658 million for 28 F-16 fighterjets from the United States; however the American congress froze thedeal citing objections to Pakistani nuclear ambitions.
ANALYSISPak-US ties wavered duringZ.A.Bhutto‘s regime.For the first time USrevealed the diplomacythrough coercion.It tried all possible means tostop Pakistan from pursuingits nuclear program.However to defeat theSoviets US poured inmaximum aid.
1990:U.S. Aid Suspended Again After the Soviet withdrawal fromAfghanistan beginning in 1988, Pakistan‘s nuclear activities againcome under intense U.S. scrutinyPresident George H.W. Bush suspends aid to Pakistan under theprovisions of the Pressler Amendment. Most economic and allmilitary aid is stopped and deliveries of major military equipmentare suspended.1998: Dueling Nuclear Tests India, and then Pakistan conductsnuclear tests and declare themselves full-fledged nuclear-weapons states. The United States imposes sanctions after thetests, restricting the provision of credits, military sales, economicassistance, and loans to the Pakistani government.
In May 1999, the incursion of Pakistan-backed armedforces into Kargil in Indian-held Kashmir leads to anotherwar between India and Pakistan. In July, U.S. PresidentBill Clinton urges Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif towithdraw the Pakistani forces. They sign a joint statementsaying ―concrete steps‖ will be taken to restore thecease-fire line in the disputed Himalayan territory.In October, overthrow of the Sharif government byArmy General Pervez Musharraf triggers an additionallayer of sanctions that includes restrictions on foreignmilitary financing and economic assistance.
CHANGE IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS AFTERTHE TWIN ATTACKS ON THE WORLD TRADECENTER
President Pervez Musharraf—under strong U.S. diplomaticpressure—offers President George W. Bush ―unstinted cooperationin the fight against terrorism.‖ Musharraf agrees to help eliminatethe Taliban Islamist movement in Afghanistan.Large amounts of aid begin to flow to Pakistan. Direct assistanceprograms include aid for health, education, food, democracypromotion, child labor elimination, counternarcotics, bordersecurity and law enforcement, as well as trade preferencebenefits.2002: New U.S. Military SalesPakistan President Pervez Musharraf wins another five years inoffice, test fires missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads,and grants himself sweeping new powers. The Pentagon reportsforeign military sales agreements with Pakistan worth $27 million infiscal year 2002 and $167 million in fiscal year 2003.
2003: Fight Against al-QaedaPresident Bush announces a five-year, $3 billion package forPakistan during Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf‘s visit to theUnited States. U.S. military commanders complain that members of al-Qaeda and the Taliban attack coalition troops in Afghanistan andthen escape across the Pakistani frontier.They urge Islamabad to do more to secure its western border. Inmid-2003, tensions between Kabul and Islamabad reach alarminglevels, with some top Afghan officials accusing Pakistan ofdestabilizing Afghanistan. In an unprecedented show of force,Musharraf moves some twenty-five thousand Pakistani troops into thetraditionally semiautonomous tribal areas.
In February 2004, the founder of Pakistan‘s nuclearprogram, A.Q. Khan, confesses to supplying nuclear-weapons technology to Iran, Libya, and North Korea. TheUnited States presses for Khans arrest. But having justdesignated Pakistan as a ―major non-NATO ally,‖ theUnited States settles for a form of home confinement forthe scientist, who is a national hero in Pakistan.Meanwhile, Pakistan escalates army operations in thetribal areas, sparking resentment among locals.
President George W. Bush visits Pakistan in March 2006. He andPresident Pervez Musharraf reaffirm their shared commitment tocontinuing their cooperation on a number of issues including thewar on terror, security in the region, strengthening democraticinstitutions, trade and investment, education, and earthquakerelief and reconstruction.President Musharraf visits the United States in September 2006.He holds a bilateral meeting with President Bush and alsoparticipates in a trilateral meeting with President Bush andPresident Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan. The United Statesconcludes the sale of F-16 aircraft to Pakistan in late 2006.
A new $7.5 billion U.S. aid package for Pakistan triples non-military aid forthe next five years and aims to improve the U.S.-Pakistan relationship yettriggers controversy. The Pakistani army and political opposition arguesome clauses in the package impinge on Pakistans sovereignty. The bill issigned only after legislators in Congress include an explanatory statement.Experts say the furor over the bill also highlights deteriorating civil-militaryrelations in Pakistan. Pakistan launches a long-awaited military operation inSouth Waziristan, one of the largest militant strongholds in the tribal areas,and home to Pakistani Taliban leadership. The offensive follows months-longmilitary operations in Swat Valley in the North West Frontier Province, wherethe army finally wrests control from the militants.
The United States government has made a series ofattacks on targets in northwest Pakistan since 2004using drones (unmanned aerial vehicles) controlled bythe Central Intelligence Agencys Special ActivitesDivision. These attacks are part of the United States Waron Terrorism campaign, seeking todefeat Taliban and Al-Qaeda militants in Pakistan. Mostof these attacks are on targets in the FederallyAdministered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border inNorthwest Pakistan. These strikes have increasedsubstantially under the Presidency of Barack Obama.Some media refer to the series of attacks as a "dronewar."
May 2010: Times Square BombingA failed car bombing on May 1 in New Yorks Times Square leadsto the arrest of Pakistani-American Faisal Shahzad. The PakistaniTaliban claims responsibility for the attack, and U.S. AttorneyGeneral Eric Holder says the group was "intimately involved" inthe plot. U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton warns there will be"severe consequences" for Pakistan if a successful terrorist attackin the United States is traced to that country. Pressure builds onPakistan to do more to fight militancy, especially in the tribalagency of North Waziristan.
Raymond Davis issueOsama Bin Laden’s mysterious deathAllegations levelled against PakistanNATO attacksMemogate scandal
This picture above itself describes Pak-US ties in a very vividmanner. US has since beginning of its formal relations with Pakistansought to exploit the strategic location of Pakistan. It has time totime influenced the major policy shifts and has even backed thetoppling of political regimes in Pakistan. Through Afghanistan it hasexerted immense pressure in the name of the so-called war onterror. It has challenged the sovereignty of Pakistan bycommunicating through deed (drone strikes), practising coercivediplomacy and using the carrot and stick method to feed thepoliticians for US interests in the South Asian region.