A Space Suit for Extra-ordinary Martian Conditions Bertan Çoban Doğancan Özturan Kamil Can Kural
Bioastronautics <ul><li>Bioastronautics  is a specialty area of bioengineering research which encompasses numerous aspects...
Mars <ul><li>Mars  is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, ...
 
Planning a Manned Mission to Mars <ul><li>Since the discovery of Mars, scientists started to wonder whether if it’s possib...
Challenges of Manned Exploration <ul><li>Mars has about the %37 of the gravity of Earth. Also it is less illuminated than ...
Lack Of Gravity <ul><li>Being weightless for the entire mission would cause degeneration of muscles, bones, and the heart....
 
Exposure to Radiation <ul><li>Another issue that must be addressed is the huge amount of radiation exposure that occurs ou...
Difficulties of the Long Distance Travel <ul><li>It takes about a year and a half to cover the distance from Earth to Mars...
C:UsersJonhDesktopYeni klasörspacetravel-866347.jpeg
Getting Weaker <ul><li>Astronauts lose 1 to 2 percent of their bone mass for each month they spend in space. A  2001-2004 ...
C:UsersJonhDesktopYeni klasörbisphosphonates_004.jpg
After Landing on Mars <ul><li>The Problems just started after landing. Mars is a harsh environment for humans who have nev...
 
Extreme Temperatures <ul><li>Mars provides a harsh environment, extremely cold and with a very thin atmosphere of carbon d...
 
Mars Dust <ul><li>One of the biggest problems with the Martian surface will actually be the dust. It will be extremely eas...
 
<ul><li>A space suit  is a complex system of garments , equipment and environmental systems designed to keep a person aliv...
Spacesuit requirements <ul><li>A stable internal pressure. This can be less than earth's atmosphere, as there is usually n...
 
Current Space Suits <ul><li>Current space suits are not very efficient. They have very high masses and they re really big ...
Comparison of Current and Future Space Suits <ul><li>Current Space Suits </li></ul><ul><li>High in volume and mass. </li><...
Space Suit for Mars <ul><li>A space suit specifically designed for this mission is needed for the exploration of the Red P...
 
A Skin Suit for Start <ul><li>With stirrups that loop around the feet, the elastic gravity skin suit is purposely cut too ...
 
A Space Suit  for Mars <ul><li>A special suit designed for Mars atmosphere is required to travel around the Mars. This sui...
<ul><li>The Bio-Suit System would provide life support through mechanical counter-pressure where pressure is applied to th...
<ul><li>Flexible space system design methods are slated to enable adaptation of Bio-Suit hardware and software elements in...
Recycling <ul><li>During long missions on Mars surface, astronauts may not return  back to the facility. Recycling water a...
Providing Energy <ul><li>Energy is necessary to power astronaut tools ,  equipment inside the space suits including liquid...
G:GörsellerthumbnailCAR5R0SS.jpg G:Görsellerelectric-car-battery-500x375.jpg
Future Applications <ul><li>NASA plans to send a shuttle to the Galilean Moons (Io, Ganymede, Europa, Callisto), especiall...
D:space_suit___side_view_by_sammcj1962-d366h3b.jpg
<ul><li>All the equipments, and the vehicles must be human friendly in order to make the astronaut’s life easier in the ou...
D:nasa1.jpg
In the Distant Future <ul><li>Outer planets such as  Saturn ,  Uranus , and  Neptune  are too distant to reach with curren...
D:space_suit_by_rusty001-d2yj2ta.jpg
D:Russian_Space_Suit_by_onyxswami.jpg
The Year 5000 <ul><li>Devices that turns Gama Rays and Cosmic Rays into bioenergy could be developed. Scientific developme...
 
<ul><li>Fight over the Space technologies will be the main conflict between the leading nations on our planet. Scientific ...
Bioethical View <ul><li>When should the plug be pulled on a critically ill astronaut who is using up precious oxygen and e...
Bioethical questions begin with decisions about how to equip a craft. Given that crafts will have severe weight restrictio...
Any Questions ?
Resources <ul><li>http://www.wikipedia.org  15.12.2010 -05.01.2010 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nasa.gov  15.12.2010- 05.0...
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A Space Suit for Extra Ordinary Martian Conditions 1

  1. 1. A Space Suit for Extra-ordinary Martian Conditions Bertan Çoban Doğancan Özturan Kamil Can Kural
  2. 2. Bioastronautics <ul><li>Bioastronautics is a specialty area of bioengineering research which encompasses numerous aspects of biological, behavioral, and medical concern governing humans and other living organisms in a space flight environment; and includes design of payloads, space habitats, and life support systems. In short, it spans the study and support of life in space. </li></ul><ul><li>This area is divided into four basic categories: </li></ul><ul><li>The Space Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts of Microgravity on Human Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Life Support Systems and Countermeasures </li></ul><ul><li>Mission Logistics and Planning </li></ul>C:UsersJonhDesktopYeni klasörSTS-103_Reflection_on_astronaut's_visor.jpg
  3. 3. Mars <ul><li>Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is often described as the &quot;Red Planet&quot;, as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the highest known mountain within the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, the largest canyon. The smooth Borealis Basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature . </li></ul>
  4. 5. Planning a Manned Mission to Mars <ul><li>Since the discovery of Mars, scientists started to wonder whether if it’s possible to send astronauts to the Red Planet. This travel, as exciting as it is, has its own difficulties. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Challenges of Manned Exploration <ul><li>Mars has about the %37 of the gravity of Earth. Also it is less illuminated than our planet. Its atmosphere consists of mainly carbon dioxide. In addition to these, psychological impacts of this travel is a big issue to be solved. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Lack Of Gravity <ul><li>Being weightless for the entire mission would cause degeneration of muscles, bones, and the heart. And without a vigorous exercise program, an astronaut would likely experience heart problems because his or her heart would become too weak to pump blood upon returning to Earth and its gravitation. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Exposure to Radiation <ul><li>Another issue that must be addressed is the huge amount of radiation exposure that occurs outside the atmosphere. Being away from Earth for three years would mean that every cell of your body would be mutated by a galactic ray, and we just don't know what that would do to people. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Difficulties of the Long Distance Travel <ul><li>It takes about a year and a half to cover the distance from Earth to Mars. During the travel a machine that puts the astronauts to sleep could be used to minimize the effects of microgravity and the other extreme conditions. </li></ul>
  9. 11. C:UsersJonhDesktopYeni klasörspacetravel-866347.jpeg
  10. 12. Getting Weaker <ul><li>Astronauts lose 1 to 2 percent of their bone mass for each month they spend in space. A 2001-2004 NASA-sponsored study showed that crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) were still losing up to 2.7 percent of their interior bone material and 1.7 percent of outer hipbone material for each month they spent in space even if they use conditioning regiment exercises. If ISS crew members lose this much bone density after 4 to 6 months in space, astronauts on long missions to Mars—voyages that could take years—could lose enough bone mass that they suffer fractures while carrying out tasks on the Martian surface. </li></ul>
  11. 13. C:UsersJonhDesktopYeni klasörbisphosphonates_004.jpg
  12. 14. After Landing on Mars <ul><li>The Problems just started after landing. Mars is a harsh environment for humans who have never stepped foot before. It has a different time schedule than Earth.1 Martian year is equal to 687 Earth days. Mars lost its magnetosphere 4 billion years ago, so the solar wind interacts directly with the Martian ionosphere, lowering the atmospheric density by stripping away atoms from the outer layer. And Dust storms on the surface is another big problem. </li></ul>
  13. 16. Extreme Temperatures <ul><li>Mars provides a harsh environment, extremely cold and with a very thin atmosphere of carbon dioxide. Anyone living or traveling on Mars would require a robust life-support system to provide higher atmospheric pressure, adequate warmth, and such necessities (for us) as food and water. With no ozone in the atmosphere, the surface is strongly bathed in ultraviolet sunlight. This UV light would be lethal for exposed terrestrial life, but it is easily shielded by a space suit. </li></ul>
  14. 18. Mars Dust <ul><li>One of the biggest problems with the Martian surface will actually be the dust. It will be extremely easy to track inside the habitat if strict precautions are not taken. Similar to the regolith on the moon, it could jam up or interfere with machinery or irritate the crew's skin or eyes. The habitat will have to be equipped with well-designed airlocks as well as some sort of vacuum cleaner to clean up any dust that does make it inside. </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>A space suit is a complex system of garments , equipment and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space. This applies to extra-vehicular activity (EVA) outside spacecraft orbiting Earth, and has applied to walking, and riding the Lunar Rover , on the Moon . </li></ul>Space Suits
  16. 21. Spacesuit requirements <ul><li>A stable internal pressure. This can be less than earth's atmosphere, as there is usually no need for the spacesuit to carry nitrogen (which comprises about 78% of earth's atmosphere and is not used by the body). Lower pressure allows for greater mobility, but requires the suit occupant to breathe pure oxygen for a time before going into this lower pressure, to avoid decompression sickness. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility. Movement is typically opposed by the pressure of the suit; mobility is achieved by careful joint design. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathable oxygen. Circulation of cooled and purified oxygen is controlled by the Primary Life Support System </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature regulation. Unlike on Earth, where heat can be transferred by convection to the atmosphere, in space heat can be lost only by thermal radiation or by conduction to objects in physical contact with the space suit. Since the temperature on the outside of the suit varies greatly between sunlight and shadow, the suit is heavily insulated, and the temperature inside the suit is regulated by a Liquid Cooling Garment in contact with the astronaut's skin, as well as air temperature maintained by the Primary Life Support System. </li></ul><ul><li>Shielding against ultraviolet radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Limited shielding against particle radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against small micrometeoroids, provided by a Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, which is the outermost layer of the suit </li></ul><ul><li>A communication system </li></ul><ul><li>Means to recharge and discharge gases and liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Means to maneuver, dock, release, and/or tether onto spacecraft </li></ul><ul><li>Means of collecting and containing solid and liquid waste (such as a Maximum Absorbency Garment) </li></ul>
  17. 23. Current Space Suits <ul><li>Current space suits are not very efficient. They have very high masses and they re really big in volume. Not having recycling and providing back up energy is a big problem also. And you can get fried by a solar flare. Running out of oxygen is also a distinct problem. </li></ul>
  18. 24. Comparison of Current and Future Space Suits <ul><li>Current Space Suits </li></ul><ul><li>High in volume and mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Restricting movement . </li></ul><ul><li>No Backup energy . </li></ul><ul><li>No recycling . </li></ul><ul><li>Not strong enough to protect against micrometeoroids which travel at a speed of 15 .000 km/h or faster. </li></ul><ul><li>No protection against sun flares and radiation . </li></ul><ul><li>Future Space Suits </li></ul><ul><li>Lighter and compact. </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to move with. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Backup energy in emergency cases like loosing contact with the ship </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle nutrition s, N 2 ,O 2 and H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Can deflect meteorites with magnetic field or protect itself by creating a shield. </li></ul><ul><li>Can reflect or absorb Sun’s energy to power its own functions or power up the ship </li></ul>
  19. 25. Space Suit for Mars <ul><li>A space suit specifically designed for this mission is needed for the exploration of the Red Planet. As bioengineers, we have come to several solutions and ideas for the appropriate outfit of a Mars pioneer . </li></ul>
  20. 27. A Skin Suit for Start <ul><li>With stirrups that loop around the feet, the elastic gravity skin suit is purposely cut too short for the astronaut so that it stretches when put on—pulling the wearer’s shoulders towards the feet. In normal gravity conditions on Earth, a human’s legs bear more weight than the torso. Because the suit’s legs stretch more than the torso section, the wearer’s legs are subjected to a greater force—replicating gravity effects on Earth. </li></ul>
  21. 29. A Space Suit for Mars <ul><li>A special suit designed for Mars atmosphere is required to travel around the Mars. This suit needs to be protective against dust storms. The new suits will be built with new, more dust-resistant materials, with fortified joints to keep out the fine particles. Another problem is radioactive particles that came from Sun. To prevent this we can use special made absorptive vestments that can be used to turn these to energy </li></ul>
  22. 30. <ul><li>The Bio-Suit System would provide life support through mechanical counter-pressure where pressure is applied to the entire body through a tight-fitting suit with a helmet for the head. Wearable technologies will be embedded in the Bio-Suit layers and the outer layer might be recyclable. Hence, images of 'spraying on' the inner layer of the Bio-Suit System emerge, which offers design advantages for extreme, dusty, planetary environments. </li></ul>
  23. 31. <ul><li>Flexible space system design methods are slated to enable adaptation of Bio-Suit hardware and software elements in the context of changing mission requirements. Reliability can be assured through dependence of Bio-Suit layers acting on local needs and conditions through self-repair at localized sites while preserving overall system integrity. </li></ul>
  24. 32. Recycling <ul><li>During long missions on Mars surface, astronauts may not return back to the facility. Recycling water and nutrition s inside the body is very important for the missions outside the space shuttle. Oxygen recycling is also another big problem. By playing with genes of specific organisms we hope to get a new specie that can make a chemical reaction for recycling breathable oxygen from CO2. (Human Respiration). The system collects and recycles all the water in the environment including humidity from respiration, perspiration and microwave use; waste water from showers, hand washes, shaves, and toothbrushes; and urine. The Space Station Water Processor uses four technologies to purify the water. </li></ul><ul><li>These technologies include particulate filtration, ion exchange, carbon adsorption, and catalytic oxidation. </li></ul><ul><li> Following these steps, iodine is added as a microbial biocide, similar to the use of chlorine in most municipal water systems. Last of all, the quality of the water is monitored to ensure the purification process is working and water quality is acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>The system is 10.000 times better than an average water treatment plant. </li></ul>
  25. 33. Providing Energy <ul><li>Energy is necessary to power astronaut tools , equipment inside the space suits including liquid cooling and ventilation systems, communications equipment, bio-instrumentation and other life support systems. </li></ul><ul><li>For crew excursions, compact spacesuit batteries with even greater specific energy are critical for extending mission durations and therefore scientific return. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the requ i rements for a space battery. </li></ul><ul><li>•High specific energy - amount of energy per unit mass </li></ul><ul><li>•High energy density - amount of energy stored per unit volume </li></ul><ul><li>•Cell-level safety – tolerance to electrical and thermal abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Getting energy from the sun may be a solution. We can use light absorptive casings and heat absorptive modules to provide our energy needs. We can use nanobiotechnology to create a decent light absorptive organism for use of getting energy from the sun. </li></ul>
  26. 34. G:GörsellerthumbnailCAR5R0SS.jpg G:Görsellerelectric-car-battery-500x375.jpg
  27. 35. Future Applications <ul><li>NASA plans to send a shuttle to the Galilean Moons (Io, Ganymede, Europa, Callisto), especially Europa because of its possibility to host extraterrestrial life. Although this missions don’t include humans, it can be a manned mission in the near future. </li></ul>
  28. 36. D:space_suit___side_view_by_sammcj1962-d366h3b.jpg
  29. 37. <ul><li>All the equipments, and the vehicles must be human friendly in order to make the astronaut’s life easier in the outer Space. The equipments which we have mentioned are: Recycling Units, Extravehicular Mobility Units, Energy Converters etc. </li></ul>
  30. 38. D:nasa1.jpg
  31. 39. In the Distant Future <ul><li>Outer planets such as  Saturn ,  Uranus , and  Neptune  are too distant to reach with current crewed spaceflight technology, so telerobotic probes are the only way to explore them. But in the distant future these outer giants could be visited by manned spacecrafts. </li></ul>
  32. 40. D:space_suit_by_rusty001-d2yj2ta.jpg
  33. 41. D:Russian_Space_Suit_by_onyxswami.jpg
  34. 42. The Year 5000 <ul><li>Devices that turns Gama Rays and Cosmic Rays into bioenergy could be developed. Scientific developments will reach its peak and this will effect the balances on our world and society. </li></ul>
  35. 44. <ul><li>Fight over the Space technologies will be the main conflict between the leading nations on our planet. Scientific developments and improvements would be the most important issue in nations’ policies. </li></ul>
  36. 45. Bioethical View <ul><li>When should the plug be pulled on a critically ill astronaut who is using up precious oxygen and endangering the rest of the crew? </li></ul><ul><li>Should genetic screening to weed out astronauts who might get a disease on a long flight be employed ? </li></ul><ul><li>Should NASA mandate preventive surgery “to head off medical emergencies during a mission”? </li></ul><ul><li>Should astronauts be required to sign living wills with end-of-life instructions? </li></ul><ul><li>How should NASA cope with sexual desire among healthy young men and women during a mission years long? </li></ul><ul><li>Should astronauts of reproductive age be required to bank sperm or eggs because of the risk of genetic mutations from radiation exposure during long trips? </li></ul><ul><li>How should NASA balance the need for crew safety and minimizing risk exposure with the drive for mission success? </li></ul><ul><li>These are the questions that NASA is still trying to find out and observe if it is ethical or not . </li></ul>
  37. 46. Bioethical questions begin with decisions about how to equip a craft. Given that crafts will have severe weight restrictions—known as “ upmass ” in NASA parlance—every decision to include one piece of equipment is a decision to exclude something else. How do we balance different likelihoods and needs? Given a calculus between three measures—severity of a condition, likelihood of occurrence, and effectiveness of countermeasures - how do we decide which kinds of potential health events we will address? Once a craft is equipped, decisions must be made about allocation. Who decides what medical resources are used for whom? In some instances, it may not be prudent to use up a scarce resource on an injured or ill crewmember early in a mission, under the assumption that the resource may be needed later and restocking is not possible. Principles of triage should be worked out in advance of a mission and be part of medical and bioethical policy. Imagine a crewmember who discovers a life-threatening illness with two years left on a mission. Should we allow the crewmember to continue, to risk or even sacrifice his or her life for the mission? Do we give them that choice? What of a crew member with a severe head injury who is disabled? A disabled astronaut removes two crew members from their normal duties: the injured member and the crewmember caretaker. A mission may not be able to sacrifice the work of two of its members. And what if a crewmember does perish? Do we store the body for two years for return to earth, or give the member a “burial at space”?
  38. 47. Any Questions ?
  39. 48. Resources <ul><li>http://www.wikipedia.org 15.12.2010 -05.01.2010 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nasa.gov 15.12.2010- 05.01.2010 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.space.com 16.12.2010- 05.01.2010 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.popsci.com 16.12.2010- 05.01.2010 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.natgeo.com 17.12.2010- 05.01.2010 </li></ul><ul><li>http://science.howstuffworks.com/space-suit.htm 17.12.2010 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2010-10/superhero-style-skin-tight-spacesuit-provides-healthy-compression-astronauts 17.12.2010 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.universetoday.com 17.12.2010 </li></ul>

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