• Length from crest to crest is a hundred miles or
more and its height from crest to trough only few
feet or more.
• In the deepest oceans , the waves will reach speeds
exceeding 600 miles per hour (970 km/hr).
• When the tsunami enters the shoaling water of
coastlines in its path, the velocity will diminishes and
the wave height is increases.
• Shallow waters heights exceeding 100 ft.(30m).
• In 1963 the term tsunami was adopted for
general use by an international scientific
• Tides are the result of gravitational
influences of the moon, sun and planets.
• Scientific community referred to tsunamis
as “seismic sea waves”.
The sea floor deforms and displaces the overlying
water from its equilibrium position.
Its main factor determines the initial size of a tsunami
is the amount of vertical sea floor deformation.
Controlled by the earthquake’s magnitude , depth,
fault characteristics and coincident slumping of
Submarine landslides, which occur during a large
Gravitational forces propagate the tsunami given
its initial perturbation of the sea-level.
Violent marine volcanic eruption create an
impulsive force that displaces the water column.
• Wind-generated waves have period of five –
twenty seconds and wavelength of about 100-
Tsunami period in the range of 10 minutes to 2
hours and wavelength excess of 300 miles.
A wave is characterized as a shallow- water
The speed of shallow-water wave is equal to the
square root of the product of the acceleration of
gravity (32ft/sec/sec) and the depth of the water.
As a tsunami leaves the deep water of the open
sea propagates into the more shallow waters
near the coast, it undergoes a transformation.
The change of the total energy of the tsunami will
When a tsunami finally reaches the shore , it may
appear as a rising or falling tide, a series of breaking
waves or even a bore.
Tsunami it may form into a bore: a step-like wave
with a steep breaking front.
Water level can rise to more than 50 feet for the
tsunamis of distant origin and over 100 feet near the