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Network Enabled Research: Connectivity, groups and growth in the production of knowledge

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We often talk about “research networks” for projects. Our measures of research quality are often based on networks of citations. Social media networks are increasingly important in internal and external communications of research. Usually we think about these things as external technologies that have affected how we do things. Social technologies of funding intended to drive collaboration, data collection technologies that let us think about not just one link between articles but the characteristics of the whole system, communications technologies with new possibilities. But to think of these as external effects is to miss the fact that the networks have always been there. What has changed is their density and interconnection. We can actually turn the question around. Rather than ask what impact social media networks have had on research, we should ask what changes were occurring that required something like social media to be developed? For science to continue growing, it needs more complex and larger networks to be formed. What are the characteristics of systems that support that? How do we design scholarship as networks so that it can continue to grow?

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Network Enabled Research: Connectivity, groups and growth in the production of knowledge

  1. 1. Network Enabled Research @cameronneylon http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0068-716X Adventures in Culture and Technology Curtin, 23 August 2018 Connectivity, groups and growth in the production of knowledge
  2. 2. Divided and dividing times…
  3. 3. Bollen et al. (2009) http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004803 CC-BY
  4. 4. https://www.eff.org/cyberspace-independence
  5. 5. Andris et al. (2015) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123507 CC-BY
  6. 6. https://www.nature.com/news/interdisciplinary-research-by-the-numbers-1.18349
  7. 7. https://www.nature.com/news/interdisciplinary-research-by-the-numbers-1.18349 ‘Britain is sick of experts’ – Michael Gove
  8. 8. What went so wrong?
  9. 9. Network Ready Research The role of Open Source and Open Thinking BOSC - Berlin - 19 July 2013 Cameron Neylon
  10. 10. Torres-Sosa et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002669 Waters et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040337 http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-fig1 http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-fig2
  11. 11. Torres-Sosa et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002669 Waters et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040337 http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-fig1 http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-fig2
  12. 12. Torres-Sosa et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002669 Waters et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040337 http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-fig1 http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-fig2
  13. 13. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arpanet_logical_map,_march_1977.png
  14. 14. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_Showing_the_Telegraph_Lines_In_Operation,_Under_Contract,_and_ Contemplated_to_Complete_the_Circuit_of_the_Globe,_1869.jpg
  15. 15. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Post_und_Reisecarte_der_Wege_durch_Frankreich_1703.PNG
  16. 16. Many networks
  17. 17. http://www.flickr.com/photos/47691521@N07/6082519811/ CC BY-SA What can we...
  18. 18. P = Interest Friction x N(getting help) Proportion that create work that you can use Ease of contributing Number of people you can reach
  19. 19. Fixed P = Interest Friction x N(getting help)
  20. 20. As small as possible... As large as possible... P = Interest Friction x N(getting help)
  21. 21. ‘Open’ builds bigger networks…
  22. 22. The bigger the network the better…
  23. 23. The bigger the network the better…?
  24. 24. The group-level scale matters…
  25. 25. The group matters…
  26. 26. A side step on knowledge…
  27. 27. Two assertions…
  28. 28. 1. Knowledge Grows
  29. 29. de Solla Price, Big Science, Little Science (1963) Nlm.nih.gov Schofer and Meyer (2005), American Sociological Review 70:898
  30. 30. de Solla Price, Big Science, Little Science (1963) Nlm.nih.gov Schofer and Meyer (2005), American Sociological Review 70:898
  31. 31. de Solla Price, Big Science, Little Science (1963) Nlm.nih.gov Schofer and Meyer (2005), American Sociological Review 70:898
  32. 32. 2. Knowledge is made by groups
  33. 33. ESOTERIC EXOTERIC Ludwig Fleck (1981 [1935]) Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact
  34. 34. *
  35. 35. *
  36. 36. Knowledge is a product of translation
  37. 37. Lotman’s stages of reception 1. Exoticism 2. Translation/Adaption 3. Abstraction 4. Dissolution 5. Re-transmission Yuri Lotman (2009) Dialogue Mechanisms in Universe of the Mind
  38. 38. *General knowledge is produced at the boundaries of group in contact/conflict
  39. 39. 1. Knowledge Grows
  40. 40. 2. Knowledge is made by groups
  41. 41. Groups do not scale…
  42. 42. Adapted from an original Created by Richard Slade from the Noun Project
  43. 43. Adapted from an original Created by Richard Slade from the Noun Project
  44. 44. …and yet it grows…
  45. 45. 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
  46. 46. Culture & institutions support scaling…
  47. 47. …but also have limits to scale
  48. 48. Growth Intrinsic Limit Endogenous Innovation Growth Intrinsic Limit Adoption
  49. 49. Innovations/Institutions are endogenous
  50. 50. There will always be a next crisis…
  51. 51. Distribution/Logistics Limitations 1950 1975 2000
  52. 52. IndustrialisationDistribution/Logistics Limitations 1950 1975 2000
  53. 53. IndustrialisationDistribution/Logistics Limitations 1950 1975 2000 What counts as scholarly? Peer Review
  54. 54. Many of the discussions of the future at CERN and the LHC era end with the question – “Yes, but how will we ever keep track of such a large project?”
  55. 55. Many of the discussions of the future at CERN and the LHC era end with the question – “Yes, but how will we ever keep track of such a large project?” https://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html
  56. 56. IndustrialisationDistribution/Logistics Limitations 1950 1975 2000 What counts as scholarly? Peer Review The Web ? Discoverability/Siloing Trust
  57. 57. Diversity is a first order principle for knowledge creation
  58. 58. …but so is community/identity…
  59. 59. …and therefore locality (exclusion)
  60. 60. IndustrialisationDistribution/Logistics Limitations 1950 1975 2000 What counts as scholarly? Peer Review The Web ? Discoverability/Siloing Trust Opening Up
  61. 61. IndustrialisationDistribution/Logistics Limitations 1950 1975 2000 What counts as scholarly? Peer Review The Web ? Discoverability/Siloing Trust Opening Up Closing Down
  62. 62. IndustrialisationDistribution/Logistics Limitations 1950 1975 2000 What counts as scholarly? Peer Review The Web ? Discoverability/Siloing Trust Opening Up Closing Down Opening Up Closing Down
  63. 63. Not just bigger networks…
  64. 64. …but the right local structure
  65. 65. *
  66. 66. Institutions for Productive Boundaries
  67. 67. Institutions for Productive Conflict
  68. 68. Image originally from Strange Matter by Nick D Kim. Used with permission.
  69. 69. Gobierno Infraestructura científico-tecnológica Estructura productiva
  70. 70. Sabato and Botana (1968) Gobierno Infraestructura científico-tecnológica Estructura productiva
  71. 71. Gobierno Infraestructura científico-tecnológica Estructura productiva Sabato and Botana (1968)
  72. 72. Gobierno Infraestructura científico-tecnológica Estructura productiva Sabato and Botana (1968)
  73. 73. Gobierno Infraestructura científico-tecnológica Estructura productiva Sabato and Botana (1968)
  74. 74. Sabato and Botana (1968) Gobierno Infraestructura científico-tecnológica Estructura productiva
  75. 75. Gobierno Infraestructura científico-tecnológica Estructura productiva
  76. 76. Gobierno Infraestructura científico-tecnológica Estructura productiva
  77. 77. Gobierno Infraestructura científico-tecnológica Estructura productiva
  78. 78. Gobierno Infraestructura científico-tecnológica Estructura productiva
  79. 79. John O’Sullivan https://visual.ly/community/infographic/transportation/world-airline-routes-map
  80. 80. Leydesdorff et al (2013) https://arxiv.org/abs/1301.0801
  81. 81. Building the right networks…
  82. 82. …requires institutionalizing locality
  83. 83. Gobierno Infraestructura científico-tecnológica Estructura productiva
  84. 84. This process – of ever-widening, concentric circles – allows a drip-feed of stories to a wider audience, even as a specific heritage is both consolidated and enhanced. Scott (2015) Not so easy, Griffith Review, 47
  85. 85. @cameronneylon http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0068-716X

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