MulticompetenceCook, 1992; 2009
Multicompetence?   the coexistence of more than one    language in the human brain   the opposite of the idea of separat...
Multicompetence   the compound state of mind with two    grammarsVS.   Monocompetence (the state of the    mind with onl...
Cook 1992MAIN QUESTIONS:1.   Is multicompetence a different state     of mind from monocompetence?2.   Is multicompetence ...
Cook 1992IN OTHER WORDS …   Are languages known by an individual    separate entities in the brain or are    they part of...
Implications ofmulticompetence   a multicompetence perspective allow    for languages to be viewed as part of    a larger...
Implications ofmulticompetence   the introduction of the    multicompetence concept changed the    way in which crossling...
Supersystem?   since the first language or languages    are in the same mind, they must form    a language supersystem at...
Supersystem?   reaction to Selinker’s (1972) notion of    Interlanguage that distinguishes a    system of stages in-betwe...
Further claims:   languages in the multilingual mind are    connected in a larger supersystem    whereby changes in one l...
That is:   a language that has been acquired is    not viewed as a stable system in    which knowledge, once stored, is  ...
Clyne 2003   multicompetence implies that    languages are always subject to    change and this change is influenced    i...
Language Attrition   clear evidence that languages (native    or non native) show signs of decline    when they are not u...
Furthermore   since languages are assumed as    being in constant change, the idea of    ‘end-state’ becomes irrelevant  ...
And …   the notion of multicompetence might    prove explanatory for researchers of    all paradigms, as its core tenets ...
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Multicompetence

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Multicompetence

  1. 1. MulticompetenceCook, 1992; 2009
  2. 2. Multicompetence? the coexistence of more than one language in the human brain the opposite of the idea of separate language systems
  3. 3. Multicompetence the compound state of mind with two grammarsVS. Monocompetence (the state of the mind with only one grammar)
  4. 4. Cook 1992MAIN QUESTIONS:1. Is multicompetence a different state of mind from monocompetence?2. Is multicompetence simply adding an L1 competence, albeit defective?
  5. 5. Cook 1992IN OTHER WORDS … Are languages known by an individual separate entities in the brain or are they part of a supersystem?
  6. 6. Implications ofmulticompetence a multicompetence perspective allow for languages to be viewed as part of a larger system rather than as separate entities in a learner’s mind.
  7. 7. Implications ofmulticompetence the introduction of the multicompetence concept changed the way in which crosslinguistic influence was viewed: transfer became multidirectional
  8. 8. Supersystem? since the first language or languages are in the same mind, they must form a language supersystem at some level other than be completely isolated systems (Cook, 2003)
  9. 9. Supersystem? reaction to Selinker’s (1972) notion of Interlanguage that distinguishes a system of stages in-between the first and second language. (as per Rothman et. al, 2011)
  10. 10. Further claims: languages in the multilingual mind are connected in a larger supersystem whereby changes in one language will automatically have an impact on the other existing languages.
  11. 11. That is: a language that has been acquired is not viewed as a stable system in which knowledge, once stored, is invulnerable to change
  12. 12. Clyne 2003 multicompetence implies that languages are always subject to change and this change is influenced in great part, by sociolinguistic as well as psycholinguistic factors.
  13. 13. Language Attrition clear evidence that languages (native or non native) show signs of decline when they are not used.
  14. 14. Furthermore since languages are assumed as being in constant change, the idea of ‘end-state’ becomes irrelevant (Rothman et. al, 2011)
  15. 15. And … the notion of multicompetence might prove explanatory for researchers of all paradigms, as its core tenets are compatible with virtually any existing theory of acquisition ◦ can account for individual variation and unexpected development patterns (Rothman et. al. 2011)

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