Mrsa infectionnhschoices

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Resource for GCSE General Studies Case study

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  • Indeed. If you want more look at http://kldresources.weebly.com/case-study.html
    That is where I keep all my resources
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Mrsa infectionnhschoices

  1. 1. MRSA infection - information prescriptionIntroductionMRSA is a type of bacterial infection that is resistant to a number of widely used antibiotics. This meansit can be more difficult to treat than other bacterial infections.The full name of MRSA is meticillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. You may have heard it called a superbug.Staphylococcus aureus (also known as staph) is a common type of bacteria. It is often carried on the skin, insidethe nostrils and the throat and can cause mild infections of the skin, such as boils and impetigo.If staph bacteria get into a break in the skin, they can cause life-threatening infections, such as blood poisoning orendocarditis (an infection of the inner lining of the heart).Read more about the symptoms of a staph infection.How bacteria become resistant to antibioticsAntibiotic resistance can occur in several ways.Strains of bacteria can mutate and over time become resistant to a specific antibiotic.Alternatively, if you are treated with an antibiotic, it can destroy many of the harmless strains of bacteria that live inand on the body. This allows resistant bacteria to quickly multiply and take their place.The overuse of antibiotics in recent years has played a major part in antibiotic resistance. This includes usingantibiotics to treat minor conditions that would have got better anyway or not finishing a recommended course ofantibiotics.How do you get MRSA?MRSA infections are more common in people who are in hospital or nursing homes. Doctors often refer to this ashealthcare-associated MRSA (or HA-MRSA).NHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk
  2. 2. Hospital patients are more at risk because:q They often have an entry point for the bacteria to get into their body, such as a surgical wound, burn ora intravenous drip (a tube used to give fluids directly into a vein).q They are usually older and weaker, which makes them more vulnerable to infection.q They are surrounded by a large number of people, which means bacteria can easily spread through directcontact with other patients or staff or contaminated surfaces.More recently, MRSA has been known to develop outside hospitals and nursing homes. This is known ascommunity-associated MRSA (or CA-MRSA). It is more common in crowded environments where thereis frequent skin-to-skin contact and hygiene is poor, such as homeless shelters or army bases.Read more about the possible causes of MRSA.Preventing MRSAIn recent years, rates of MRSA have fallen because of increased awareness of the infection by both medical staffand the public. However, MRSA still places a considerable strain on healthcare services.To reduce your risk of an MRSA infection:q Wash your hands before and after visiting someone in a care home (many hospitals provide antibacterialgel in wards).q If you are going into hospital for an operation, ask to be screened for MRSA (see below).q Speak to your nurse or doctor if you have any concerns about hygiene in your hospital.q Put all disposable items, such as dressings, into the appropriate bins promptly.Read more about preventing MRSA.Screening for MRSAMost NHS patients who are admitted to hospital for a planned procedure are screened for MRSA. This helpsreduce the chance of patients developing an MRSA infection or passing an infection on to other patients.Read more about screening for MRSA.Treating MRSANHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk
  3. 3. Minor skin infections may not require any treatment other than draining away any pus from the site of the infection.Otherwise, infections can be treated with antibiotics that MRSA has not yet developed resistance to. The exactantibiotic that is used will depend on the specific strain of MRSA involved.Depending on the severity of your symptoms, antibiotic tablets or injections will be used and you may need tohave a much longer course of treatment compared to a normal staph infection.Read more about treating MRSA.Common questions about MRSAq Can someone with an MRSA infection have visitors?q What are the risks of MRSA during pregnancy?Symptoms of MRSA infectionThe symptoms of an MRSA infection will depend on what part of the body is infected. Many peoplecarry the MRSA bacteria inside their nose but will never have any symptoms.Skin and soft tissue MRSA infectionsBoils and abscessesAn MRSA skin infection usually first develops as a painful bump or a mark in the skin that looks like an insect bite.The bacteria often enter the skin through a cut, graze or a hair follicle. This develops into a painful, pus-filledswelling (boil).Some people have additional symptoms, such as a high temperature and a general feeling of being unwell.In some cases, MRSA can cause a larger, pus-filled lump to develop underneath the skin. This is known as anabscess.CellulitisMRSA contracted outside hospitals or care homes (called community-associated MRSA or CA-MRSA) oftencauses more extensive skin infections, including a type of infection called cellulitis.NHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk
  4. 4. Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the deeper layers of skin and the layer of fat and soft tissues underneath theskin. The main symptom is the skin suddenly turning red, painful, hot and swollen.Invasive MRSA infectionsIf the MRSA bacteria penetrate deeper inside your body or into your blood, they can cause serious infections.Signs that you may have an invasive infection include:q a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or aboveq chillsq a general sense of feeling unwellq dizzinessq confusionq muscular aches and painsq pain, swelling and tenderness in the affected body partInvasive MRSA infections can lead to the following conditions:q blood poisoningq urinary tract infection - infection of the parts of the body used to take urine out of the body, such as thebladderq infection of the lining of the heart (endocarditis)q septic bursitisq septic arthritisq osteomyelitisCauses of MRSA infectionMRSA is caused by strains of bacteria that have developed resistance to a number of widely usedantibiotics.How MRSA spreadsMRSA bacteria are usually spread through skin-to-skin contact with someone who has an MRSA infection or whois colonised by the bacteria. Colonised means bacteria are present on your body but do not cause any symptoms.NHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk
  5. 5. The bacteria can also spread through contact with towels, sheets, clothes, dressings or other objects that havebeen used by a person who is infected with or colonised by MRSA.MRSA can survive for long periods on objects or surfaces, such as door handles, sinks, floors and cleaningequipment.Healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA)It is much more common for someone to develop MRSA while they are in hospital or a care home than in thecommunity. This is because:q People in hospital often have a point that allows bacteria to enter their body, such as a surgical wound, burn,catheter (a tube used to drain away urine) or an intravenous tube. If a patient who is colonised with MRSAbacteria touches their wound or catheter tube, they may infect themselves.q People in hospital tend to be older and have more complex health problems than the general population,which makes them more vulnerable to infection.q People in hospital are surrounded by a large number of people, both patients and staff. This makes it iseasier for bacteria to spread from person to person, or from a person to an object and then toanother person.Who is at risk?Factors that increase your chance of developing HA-MRSA include:q a weakened immune system, for example in elderly people, newborn babies and people with a long-termhealth condition, such as type 2 diabetesq an open woundq a catheter or an intravenous dripq a burn or cut on the skinq a severe skin condition, such as a leg ulcer or psoriasisq surgeryq taking frequent courses of antibioticsMRSA infections usually develop in people being treated in hospital, particularly patients in intensive care units(ICUs) and on surgical wards.Community-associated MRSANHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk
  6. 6. MRSA contracted outside hospitals is known as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Its much lesscommon than HA-MRSA.However, in recent years the number of cases has increased and could continue to increase in the future. Thefollowing factors increase your risk of getting CA-MRSA:q living in a very crowded environment - for example a military base, prison or student hall of residenceq frequent skin-to-skin contact - outbreaks of CA-MRSA have been reported in people who play contactsports, such as rugbyq cut or grazed skin - this is more vulnerable to infection, as are people who regularly inject illegal drugs, suchas heroinq contaminated items and surfaces - places where many people share utensils, tools or where many peopleare likely to touch the same surfacesq lack of cleanliness - outbreaks of MRSA can occur in homeless people or in people on active military dutywho have limited access to cleaning facilitiesq previous use of antibioticsDiagnosing MRSA infectionAn MRSA infection is most commonly diagnosed using a blood, urine, tissue or sputum (spit) culture.This involves taking a sample of one or more of these substances and placing them in a dish of nutrients. Thisshould encourage any staph bacteria that are present to reproduce and grow.If the bacteria develop, different antibiotics can be directed at them to see if the bacteria have developedresistance to the antibiotics.This type of test is often used to screen people before they are admitted to hospital to help reduce rates of MRSA.Read more about NHS screening for MRSA.Treating MRSA infectionIf you are diagnosed with an MRSA infection, your recommended treatment plan will depend on:q the type of infection you haveq the site of the infectionNHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk
  7. 7. q the severity of your symptomsq the antibiotics that the specific strain of MSRA is sensitive toA number of possible treatment plans are outlined below.Skin and soft tissue infectionsMinor skin and soft tissue infections, such as smaller boils or abscesses, may only require a treatment calledincision and drainage.Incision and drainage involves piercing the tip of the boil or abscess with a sterile needle or scalpel. Thisencourages the pus to drain out, which should help relieve pain and stimulate the recovery process. Before havingthe procedure, you are likely to be given a local anaesthetic to numb the affected area.More extensive skin infections, such as cellulitis (an infection of the underlying layers of skin), will usually require a5- to 10-day course of antibiotic tablets.It is hard to predict what antibiotic you will be given. The choice depends on the result of testing and, in somecases, what part of the country you live in. Different regions of England often have different patterns of antibioticresistance.Youre likely to be given a 7- to 14-day course of antibiotic injections if you develop a skin or soft tissue infection inhospital and youre more vulnerable to the effects of the infection. This might be because you have burns or asurgical wound.Invasive infectionsIf you develop MRSA in hospital, its likely that you will need to be transferred to an isolation room. This reducesthe risk of the infection spreading to other patients.You may be placed in a room by yourself or in a small ward with other people who have an MRSA infection. Youshould still be able to have visitors, but it is very important that they clean their hands thoroughly before and aftervisiting you and before and after touching you.Treatment for an invasive MRSA infection will involve a course of antibiotic injections. Depending on the type andlocation of the infection, this could last up to six weeks.A combination of antibiotics may be used.NHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk
  8. 8. Click on the links below for more information about different types of invasive infection:q blood poisoningq bursitisq endocarditisq meningitisq osteomyelitisq pneumoniaq toxic shock syndromeColonisationYou may be screened for MRSA if you are going into hospital. If you are found to be colonised with MRSA (wherebacteria are present on your body but they do not cause any symptoms), removing the bacteria is usually relativelystraightforward.An antibacterial bodywash or powder can be used to remove MRSA from your skin. A cream can be used toremove it from inside your nose and an antibacterial shampoo can be used to remove it from your scalp.You will usually be asked to repeat the process once a day for five days. You do not have to be admitted tohospital to carry out the process. You can do it at home before you go into hospital.Read more about screening for MRSA.Preventing MRSA infectionPreventing healthcare-associated MRSAHospital staff, patients and hospital visitors can take simple hygiene measures to help prevent the spread ofMRSA and stop infection.PatientsHospital patients can reduce their risk of infection by:q always washing their hands after using the toilet or commode (many hospitals now routinely offer handNHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk
  9. 9. wipes)q always washing their hands or cleaning them with a hand wipe immediately before and after eating a mealq making sure their bed area is regularly cleaned and reporting any unclean toilet or bathroom facilities to staffFor more information about your stay in hospital, see NHS hospital services: in hospital.VisitorsVisitors can reduce the chance of spreading MRSA to other people by not sitting on the patients bed and bycleaning their hands before and after entering the ward. They should use hand wipes or hand gel before touchingthe person they are visiting.Hand gel or hand wipe dispensers are often placed by patients beds and at the entrance to clinical areas.For more information about visiting someone in hospital, see NHS hospital services for visitors.Hospital staffHospital staff who come into contact with patients should maintain very high standards of hygiene and take extracare when treating patients with MRSA:q Staff should thoroughly wash and dry their hands before and after caring for a patient, before and aftertouching any potentially contaminated equipment or dressings, after bed making and before handling food.q Hands can be washed with soap and water or, if they are not visibly dirty, a fast-acting antiseptic solutionlike a hand wipe or hand gel.q Disposable gloves should be worn when staff have physical contact with open wounds, for example whenchanging dressings, handling needles or inserting an intravenous drip. Hands should be washed aftergloves are removed.q The hospital environment, including floors, toilets and beds, should be kept as clean and dry as possible.q Patients with a known or suspected MRSA infection should be isolated.q Patients should only be transferred between wards when this is strictly necessary.These steps aim to reduce the chance of patients infecting themselves and others.For more information, see the Royal College of Nursings MRSA: a guide for nursing staff (PDF, 450Kb).Preventing community-associated MRSANHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk
  10. 10. The following advice will help reduce your risk of catching or passing on MRSA outside hospital:q Regularly wash your hands and have frequent showers or baths.q Keep your fingernails short and clean because bacteria can grow under larger nails.q Do not share any products that come into contact with your skin, such as soaps, lotions, creams andcosmetics.q Do not share unwashed towels.q Do not share any personal items that come into contact with your skin, such as razors, nail files, combsor hairbrushes, without thoroughly cleaning them first.If you develop a skin or soft tissue MRSA infection:q Cover it with a dressing unless you are told not to by the doctor in charge of your care.q Wash your hands after touching affected areas of skin and potentially infected materials, such as useddressings.q Dispose of any potentially infected material promptly and safely in a dustbin or similar.MRSA screeningAll patients going to hospital for a relevant planned procedure are now offered a simple swab test to see whetherthey are carrying MRSA. You will be offered treatment for MRSA to get rid of it if youre found to be carrying thebacteria before you go into hospital.For more information, see the FAQs in screening for MRSA.Screening: frequently asked questionsq Why am I being screened for MRSA?q When and where will I be screened for MRSA?q How will I be screened for MRSA?q When will I get the results from the swabs?q What happens after I have been screened?q What happens if I am a carrier of MRSA?q What treatment is used to get rid of MRSA from my skin?q What if my operation is urgent?Why am I being screened for MRSA?NHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk
  11. 11. Many people carry MRSA on their skin or in their nose.If the NHS hospital can find out if you are carrying MRSA before you go in, it can use a simple treatment to get ridof as much of the bacteria as possible. This means that there is a much smaller chance of you getting an MRSAinfection or passing MRSA on to another patient.When and where will I be screened for MRSA?Usually you will be screened before you come into hospital for an operation. This may be in a pre-admissionassessment clinic, an outpatient clinic or sometimes at your GP surgery.Typically, a nurse will take swabs as part of other checks, such as blood pressure and blood tests, leading up toyour hospital stay.How will I be screened for MRSA?NHS staff can find out if you are carrying MRSA by taking a sample of bacteria using a swab. A swab is a cottonbud that is placed on the area of skin to be tested. Swabs may be taken from different places, such as the insideof your nose, your armpit or your groin. Swabbing is painless and only takes a few seconds.When will I get the results from the swabs?Your swabs will be sent to a laboratory, which tests them for MRSA. The results usually take three to five days, butmay come back on the same day.What happens after I have been screened?If you are found to be carrying MRSA on your skin or in your nose, you will be contacted by the hospital or your GP.Dont worry if you are contacted. Many people carry MRSA. Carrying MRSA does not make you ill and you are nota risk to healthy people. Healthy older people, pregnant women and children are not usually affected by MRSA. Adoctor or nurse will let you know what you need to do next.If you are not carrying MRSA, you are unlikely to be contacted by the hospital or your GP. If you are notcontacted, continue with your hospital care as planned.What happens if I am a carrier of MRSA?NHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk
  12. 12. If you are carrying MRSA on your skin, you may not be able to have your planned operation or procedure straightaway. You may need to be treated for MRSA first to protect you and other patients from getting ill.What treatment is used to get rid of MRSA from my skin?Your doctor or nurse will discuss treatment with you. It usually involves using an antibacterial wash or powder anda special cream in your nose.You may be asked to change your clothes, sheets and pillowcases every day, usually for five days.You do not need to be in hospital while you are using the treatment. Continue until the day of your operation orprocedure or until the five days are complete. You do not usually need to be screened again before you come intohospital.What if my operation is urgent?If your operation is urgent and you need to go into hospital quickly, you may be admitted to a side room in thehospital and started on MRSA treatment as soon as possible.Additional informationUseful organisationsMRSA Action UK–Tel : 01337 841098http://www.mrsaactionuk.net/NHS Choices puts you in control of your healthcareNHS Choices has been developed to help you make choices about your health, from lifestyle decisions aboutthings like smoking, drinking and exercise, through to the practical aspects of finding and using NHS serviceswhen you need them.www.nhs.uk

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