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Friends
This month our activities give students the opportunity to explore the importance that
relationships have for people’s happiness and wellbeing. B2 First and C1 Advanced learners
will reflect on how relationships can benefit our health while they improve their speaking and
listening. B1 Preliminary students will talk about friends while they keep working on their
listening and speaking. Finally, Pre A1 Starters and A1 Movers learners will talk about their
friends while having fun and improving their listening, speaking and writing. Happy teaching!
1. Connection to happiness................................................................................................ 2
2. Best friends.................................................................................................................... 8
3. Fantastic friends!...........................................................................................................12
4. References....................................................................................................................14
2
1. Connection to happiness
Level: B2 First / C1 Advanced
Skills: listening and speaking
Interaction: in groupsof 3 /4, individual and whole class
activity
Time: 55 minutes
Warm up (15’) – in groups of 3 / 4
Discuss these questions in your groups. Listen to your colleagues and answer the questions.
• Think about the person you feel the closest to. Are they your partner? Are they
someone in your family? Are they friends? Are they workmates / classmates?
• Have you always had the same connection with that person? Why (not)?
• What makes this relationship special?
• What are the key qualities you value in this person? Why?
• Do you think it is possible to have more than ten good friends? Why (not)?
• How do you think relationships affect us? Why?
• In today’s world some people may feel lonely. How do you think loneliness affects
them?
• Do you think it is difficult to find and maintain strong, healthy relationships in today’s
world? Why (not)?
• How do you think technology affects our relationships? Why?
Listening (10’) – individually
You will hear a researcher called Robert Waldinger, who has led the Harvard Study of Adult
Development. The research, one of the longest-running studies of adult life ever conducted,
explores the vital connection between social bonds and quality of life.
For questions 1 to 3, write an answer. You will hear the recording twice.
Start video at 02:39 and stop the video at 06.25.
Questions
1. What effect doesthe fight or flight response have on our body?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3
2. What happens to people who have gone through an upsetting situation and don’t have
anyone to talk to at the end of the day?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3. What did people taking part in this study remember the most when they grew older?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Follow up! (5’) – whole class
• Are you surprised by any of the information Dr Waldinger shared? Why (not)?
• Do you agree with his views and conclusions? Why (not)?
Listening (10’) – individually
You will watch a video about how friendships affect our brain.
For questions 4 to 5, write an answer. You will watch the video twice. Start video at 01.07.
4. What social changes happen during teenage years?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
5. During teenage years, some brain areas increase their connectivity. How does this affect
relationships?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
4
Speaking (15’) – in groups of 3
Two of you will be the candidates and one of you will act as the interlocutor, conducting the
test. The person in the role of interlocutor will also give the two candidates feedback using
the success criteria below.
Now, I’d like you to talk about something together for about two minutes. How important are
these aspects to achieve happiness?
Now you’ve got about a minute to decide which two would be the least important.
happiness
relationships work
money
health
time
5
B2 First Speaking Success Criteria*
B2 First Speaking Success Criteria
Grammar and Vocabulary Yes No Comments / Examples
Did your classmatesusesimplegrammar e.g. present
simple, past simple, can?
Did your classmatesusesomecomplex grammar e.g.
modal verbs, future tenses, conditionals, perfect tenses,
phrasalverbs?
Did your classmatesusesynonyms?
Did your classmatesrepeat thesamewords several
times?
DiscourseManagement Yes No Comments / Examples
Did your classmatesuselonger sentences?
Were therelong pauses when your classmates spoke?
Did your classmatesspeakabout the task?
Did your classmatesrepeat their ideas?
Did your classmatesuseconnectors suchas and, but,
so, because, although, however, moreover?
Pronunciation Yes No Comments / Examples
Could you understand your classmates?
Were thereany problems with pronunciation that made
communication difficult?
Was intonation appropriatee.g. in questions, showing
interest?
InteractiveCommunication Yes No Comments / Examples
Did your classmatesstarttheconversationsometimes
and respond to each other’s ideas?
Did your classmateshelpeachother reach a decision?
Did your classmatesneedsomehelp when talking?
GlobalAchievement Yes No Comments / Examples
Did your classmateshandlecommunication on familiar
topics despitesomepauses?
Did your classmatesorganisetheir ideas in general?
Were thereany examples of incoherent ideas,
inaccuracies and inappropriateuse of grammar and
vocabulary?
6
C1 Advanced Speaking Success Criteria*
C1 Advanced Speaking Success Criteria Yes No Comments / Examples
Grammatical resource Yes No Comments / Examples
Did your classmatesshowa good degreeof control of simplegrammar e.g.
present simple, past simple, can?
Did your classmatesusesomecomplex grammar e.g. modalverbs, future tenses,
conditionals, perfect tenses, phrasalverbs?
Lexical resource Yes No Comments / Examples
Did your classmatesusea varietyof appropriatevocabulary to talk about
familiar topics?
Did your classmatesusea varietyof appropriatevocabulary to talk about
unfamiliar topics?
DiscourseManagement Yes No Comments / Examples
Did your classmatesuselonger sentences?
Were therelong pauses when your classmates werespeaking? Werethey
frequent?
Did your classmatesspeakabout the task?
Did your classmatesorganisetheir ideas clearly?
Did your classmatesusedifferent cohesive devices and discoursemarkers
(connectors, referencepronouns, substitution, etc.)?
Pronunciation Yes No Comments / Examples
Could you understand your classmates without difficulty?
Were thereany problems with pronunciation that made communication
difficult?
Was intonation appropriatee.g. in questions, showing interest?
Was sentenceand word stress accuratelyplaced?
Were individual sounds clear?
InteractiveCommunication Yes No Comments / Examples
Did your classmatesstarttheconversationand respond to eachother’s ideas in
a suitableway?
Did your classmatesfollowup on each other’s ideas?
Did your classmatesneedsomehelp when talking?
Did your classmatesdevelopthe ideas discussed?
Did your classmateshelpeachother reach a decision?
Globalachievement Yes No Comments / Examples
Did your classmateshandlecommunication on a variety of familiar topics
without many pauses?
Did your classmateshandlecommunication on a variety of unfamiliar topics
without many pauses?
Did your classmatesusesuitablegrammar andvocabulary with good control to
express ideas?
Did your classmatestalkin a coherent and organisedway?
* Please note that your classmates’ performance should be analysed independently,considering
what each of them does in the different parts of the test.
7
KEY
Questions 1 to 3
1. What effect does the fight or flight response have on our body?
Our heart rate goes up, we might start sweating a bit and, in general, we don’t feel very well.
2. What happens to people who have gone through an upsetting situation and don’t
have anyone to talk to at the end of the day?
They don’t have anyone acting as their stress regulators. As a result, their bodies remain in
the fight or flight mode and experience chronic stress, chronic levels of inflammation and
circulating stress hormones that wear away the people’s happiness and break down several
body systems.
3. What did people taking part in this study remember the most when they grew older?
They remembered mainly the strength and warmth of their relationships to others: whether
they were good mentors, they were good friends or had healthy children.
Adapted from Waldinger (n.d.)
Questions 4 to 5
4. What social changes happen during teenage years?
Teenagers start to spend more time with their friends than with their parents.
5. During teenage years, some brain areas increase their connectivity. How does this
affect relationships?
Teenagers can better understand their friend’s perspectives, allowing for deeper connections
to flourish.
Adapted from Odell (n.d.)
8
2. Best friends
Level: B1 Preliminary
Skills: listening and speaking
Interaction: in pairs, individual and whole class activity
Time: 35 minutes
Warm up (10’) – whole class activity
• When you have a problem or you want to share some good news, who do you go to?
Why?
• Have you always had the same connection with that person? Why (not)?
• What makes this relationship special?
• What is this person like? Why?
• In your opinion, is it possible to have more than ten good friends? Why (not)?
• Do you think it is difficult to find and maintain strong, healthy relationships in today’s
world? Why (not)?
• How do you think technology affects our relationships? Why?
Listening (10’) – individually
You will watch a video about friendship.
For questions 1 to 3, write an answer.
1. What is special about Priya?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
2. What did Priya do when her friend went through a difficult situation?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3. What does the girl say about her connection to Priya?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
9
Speaking (15’) – in pairs
Now, I’d like each of you to talk on your own about something. I’m going to give each of you
a photograph and I’d like you to talk about it.
Student A, here is your photograph. It shows someone at school.
Student B, listen and take some notes about your partner’s performance using the success
criteria below.
Student A, please tell us what you can see in the photograph. You’ve got about a minute.
Student B, share your feedback with your partner.
10
Student B, here is your photograph. It shows someone spending time outdoors.
Student A, listen and take some notes about your partner’s performance using the success
criteria below.
Student B, please tell us what you can see in the photograph. You’ve got about a minute.
Student A, share your feedback with your partner.
11
B1 Preliminary Speaking Success Criteria
B1 Preliminary Speaking Success Criteria
Grammar and Vocabulary Yes No Comments / Examples
Did your partner usesimple grammar e.g. present
simple, past simple, can?
Did your partner usesome complex grammar e.g.
modal verbs, future tenses, conditionals?
Did your partner usesynonyms?
Did your partner repeat the samewords severaltimes?
DiscourseManagement Yes No Comments / Examples
Did your partner uselonger sentences?
Were therelong pauses when your partner spoke?
Did your partner talkabout the task?
Did your partner repeat their ideas?
Did your partner useconnectors suchas and, but, so,
because?
Pronunciation Yes No Comments / Examples
Could you understand your partner?
Were thereany problems with pronunciation that made
communication difficult?
KEY
1. What is special about Priya?
She is so much fun, she can turn any situation into fun time.
2. What did Priya do when her friend went through a difficult situation?
She stayed with her and listened.
3. What does the girl say about her connection to Priya?
They are always on the same page, it is as if they could read each other’s mind, they can talk
about anything for hours.
12
3. Fantastic friends!
Level: Pre A1 Starters / A1 Movers
Skills: speaking, listening and writing
Interaction: whole class and individual activity
Time: 30 minutes
Warm up (10’) – whole class activity
 Who is your best friend?
 Why is he / she your best friend?
 Tell us about him / her.
 When do you see him / her?
 What do you like doing with him / her?
 When is your birthday?
 Do you like birthdays? Why (not)?
 How do you celebrate your birthday? (Where do you go? What do you do? Who do
you celebrate it with?)
Speaking (10’) – whole class activity
Look at the people below. They are celebrating a birthday. Look at the picture, point and
answer the questions.
Where is the cake? Do you like cakes?
Where is the green balloon? What is your favourite colour?
Where is the baby? Do you have brothers or sisters?
Where is the lorry? What toys do you have?
How is the birthday boy feeling? Why?
Where is the radio? Put the radio on the table.
Where is the orange juice? Put the orange juice next to the mirror.
Where is the painting? Put the painting under the alien.
Where is the pencil? Put the pencil behind the monster.
13
Writing (10’) – individually
Tell us about your best friend. Write a card describing your friend. Circle the correct option.
My friend’s name is ___________________________
He / She is _________________ years old.
He / She likes _______________________.
He / She has got ____________________ hair and
______________ eyes.
We play ____________________ together.
He / she has got ____________________.
His / her favourite colour is _____________________.
14
4. References
Cottonbro studio. (2017). Photo of girls dancing. [image / jpeg]. Available at:
https://www.pexels.com/photo/photo-of-girls-dancing-3662824/ [27th March 2023].
Kelley, L. (2017). Group of people enjoying music concert. [image / jpeg]. Available at:
https://www.pexels.com/photo/group-of-people-enjoying-music-concert-325521/ [27th
March 2023].
Leppänen, M. (2017). Men’s black denim pants. [image / jpeg]. Available at:
https://www.pexels.com/photo/men-s-black-denim-pants-1019771/ [27th March 2023].
Lopes, H. (2017). Group of people having fun togetherunder the sun. [image / jpeg]. Available
at: https://www.pexels.com/photo/group-of-people-having-fun-together-under-the-
sun-708392/ [27th March 2023].
Odell, S. (n.d.). How friendship affects your brain. [online]. TED. Available at:
https://www.ted.com/talks/shannon_odell_how_friendship_affects_your_brain/transcri
pt?language=en [24th March 2023].
UCLES (2017). Pre A1 Starters Flash cards. Available at:
https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/it/Images/425841-starters-flash-cards.pdf [27th
March 2023].
UCLES (2018). Pre A1 World list picture book. Available at:
https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/starters-word-list-picture-book.pdf [27th
March 2023].
Waldinger, R. (n.d.). The secret to a happy life -- lessons from 8 decades of research. [online].
TED. Available at:
https://www.ted.com/talks/robert_waldinger_the_secret_to_a_happy_life_lessons_fro
m_8_decades_of_research/comments/transcript [24th March 2023].

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Teaching Activities: Friends

  • 1. 1 Friends This month our activities give students the opportunity to explore the importance that relationships have for people’s happiness and wellbeing. B2 First and C1 Advanced learners will reflect on how relationships can benefit our health while they improve their speaking and listening. B1 Preliminary students will talk about friends while they keep working on their listening and speaking. Finally, Pre A1 Starters and A1 Movers learners will talk about their friends while having fun and improving their listening, speaking and writing. Happy teaching! 1. Connection to happiness................................................................................................ 2 2. Best friends.................................................................................................................... 8 3. Fantastic friends!...........................................................................................................12 4. References....................................................................................................................14
  • 2. 2 1. Connection to happiness Level: B2 First / C1 Advanced Skills: listening and speaking Interaction: in groupsof 3 /4, individual and whole class activity Time: 55 minutes Warm up (15’) – in groups of 3 / 4 Discuss these questions in your groups. Listen to your colleagues and answer the questions. • Think about the person you feel the closest to. Are they your partner? Are they someone in your family? Are they friends? Are they workmates / classmates? • Have you always had the same connection with that person? Why (not)? • What makes this relationship special? • What are the key qualities you value in this person? Why? • Do you think it is possible to have more than ten good friends? Why (not)? • How do you think relationships affect us? Why? • In today’s world some people may feel lonely. How do you think loneliness affects them? • Do you think it is difficult to find and maintain strong, healthy relationships in today’s world? Why (not)? • How do you think technology affects our relationships? Why? Listening (10’) – individually You will hear a researcher called Robert Waldinger, who has led the Harvard Study of Adult Development. The research, one of the longest-running studies of adult life ever conducted, explores the vital connection between social bonds and quality of life. For questions 1 to 3, write an answer. You will hear the recording twice. Start video at 02:39 and stop the video at 06.25. Questions 1. What effect doesthe fight or flight response have on our body? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________
  • 3. 3 2. What happens to people who have gone through an upsetting situation and don’t have anyone to talk to at the end of the day? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. What did people taking part in this study remember the most when they grew older? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Follow up! (5’) – whole class • Are you surprised by any of the information Dr Waldinger shared? Why (not)? • Do you agree with his views and conclusions? Why (not)? Listening (10’) – individually You will watch a video about how friendships affect our brain. For questions 4 to 5, write an answer. You will watch the video twice. Start video at 01.07. 4. What social changes happen during teenage years? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 5. During teenage years, some brain areas increase their connectivity. How does this affect relationships? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________
  • 4. 4 Speaking (15’) – in groups of 3 Two of you will be the candidates and one of you will act as the interlocutor, conducting the test. The person in the role of interlocutor will also give the two candidates feedback using the success criteria below. Now, I’d like you to talk about something together for about two minutes. How important are these aspects to achieve happiness? Now you’ve got about a minute to decide which two would be the least important. happiness relationships work money health time
  • 5. 5 B2 First Speaking Success Criteria* B2 First Speaking Success Criteria Grammar and Vocabulary Yes No Comments / Examples Did your classmatesusesimplegrammar e.g. present simple, past simple, can? Did your classmatesusesomecomplex grammar e.g. modal verbs, future tenses, conditionals, perfect tenses, phrasalverbs? Did your classmatesusesynonyms? Did your classmatesrepeat thesamewords several times? DiscourseManagement Yes No Comments / Examples Did your classmatesuselonger sentences? Were therelong pauses when your classmates spoke? Did your classmatesspeakabout the task? Did your classmatesrepeat their ideas? Did your classmatesuseconnectors suchas and, but, so, because, although, however, moreover? Pronunciation Yes No Comments / Examples Could you understand your classmates? Were thereany problems with pronunciation that made communication difficult? Was intonation appropriatee.g. in questions, showing interest? InteractiveCommunication Yes No Comments / Examples Did your classmatesstarttheconversationsometimes and respond to each other’s ideas? Did your classmateshelpeachother reach a decision? Did your classmatesneedsomehelp when talking? GlobalAchievement Yes No Comments / Examples Did your classmateshandlecommunication on familiar topics despitesomepauses? Did your classmatesorganisetheir ideas in general? Were thereany examples of incoherent ideas, inaccuracies and inappropriateuse of grammar and vocabulary?
  • 6. 6 C1 Advanced Speaking Success Criteria* C1 Advanced Speaking Success Criteria Yes No Comments / Examples Grammatical resource Yes No Comments / Examples Did your classmatesshowa good degreeof control of simplegrammar e.g. present simple, past simple, can? Did your classmatesusesomecomplex grammar e.g. modalverbs, future tenses, conditionals, perfect tenses, phrasalverbs? Lexical resource Yes No Comments / Examples Did your classmatesusea varietyof appropriatevocabulary to talk about familiar topics? Did your classmatesusea varietyof appropriatevocabulary to talk about unfamiliar topics? DiscourseManagement Yes No Comments / Examples Did your classmatesuselonger sentences? Were therelong pauses when your classmates werespeaking? Werethey frequent? Did your classmatesspeakabout the task? Did your classmatesorganisetheir ideas clearly? Did your classmatesusedifferent cohesive devices and discoursemarkers (connectors, referencepronouns, substitution, etc.)? Pronunciation Yes No Comments / Examples Could you understand your classmates without difficulty? Were thereany problems with pronunciation that made communication difficult? Was intonation appropriatee.g. in questions, showing interest? Was sentenceand word stress accuratelyplaced? Were individual sounds clear? InteractiveCommunication Yes No Comments / Examples Did your classmatesstarttheconversationand respond to eachother’s ideas in a suitableway? Did your classmatesfollowup on each other’s ideas? Did your classmatesneedsomehelp when talking? Did your classmatesdevelopthe ideas discussed? Did your classmateshelpeachother reach a decision? Globalachievement Yes No Comments / Examples Did your classmateshandlecommunication on a variety of familiar topics without many pauses? Did your classmateshandlecommunication on a variety of unfamiliar topics without many pauses? Did your classmatesusesuitablegrammar andvocabulary with good control to express ideas? Did your classmatestalkin a coherent and organisedway? * Please note that your classmates’ performance should be analysed independently,considering what each of them does in the different parts of the test.
  • 7. 7 KEY Questions 1 to 3 1. What effect does the fight or flight response have on our body? Our heart rate goes up, we might start sweating a bit and, in general, we don’t feel very well. 2. What happens to people who have gone through an upsetting situation and don’t have anyone to talk to at the end of the day? They don’t have anyone acting as their stress regulators. As a result, their bodies remain in the fight or flight mode and experience chronic stress, chronic levels of inflammation and circulating stress hormones that wear away the people’s happiness and break down several body systems. 3. What did people taking part in this study remember the most when they grew older? They remembered mainly the strength and warmth of their relationships to others: whether they were good mentors, they were good friends or had healthy children. Adapted from Waldinger (n.d.) Questions 4 to 5 4. What social changes happen during teenage years? Teenagers start to spend more time with their friends than with their parents. 5. During teenage years, some brain areas increase their connectivity. How does this affect relationships? Teenagers can better understand their friend’s perspectives, allowing for deeper connections to flourish. Adapted from Odell (n.d.)
  • 8. 8 2. Best friends Level: B1 Preliminary Skills: listening and speaking Interaction: in pairs, individual and whole class activity Time: 35 minutes Warm up (10’) – whole class activity • When you have a problem or you want to share some good news, who do you go to? Why? • Have you always had the same connection with that person? Why (not)? • What makes this relationship special? • What is this person like? Why? • In your opinion, is it possible to have more than ten good friends? Why (not)? • Do you think it is difficult to find and maintain strong, healthy relationships in today’s world? Why (not)? • How do you think technology affects our relationships? Why? Listening (10’) – individually You will watch a video about friendship. For questions 1 to 3, write an answer. 1. What is special about Priya? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. What did Priya do when her friend went through a difficult situation? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. What does the girl say about her connection to Priya? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________
  • 9. 9 Speaking (15’) – in pairs Now, I’d like each of you to talk on your own about something. I’m going to give each of you a photograph and I’d like you to talk about it. Student A, here is your photograph. It shows someone at school. Student B, listen and take some notes about your partner’s performance using the success criteria below. Student A, please tell us what you can see in the photograph. You’ve got about a minute. Student B, share your feedback with your partner.
  • 10. 10 Student B, here is your photograph. It shows someone spending time outdoors. Student A, listen and take some notes about your partner’s performance using the success criteria below. Student B, please tell us what you can see in the photograph. You’ve got about a minute. Student A, share your feedback with your partner.
  • 11. 11 B1 Preliminary Speaking Success Criteria B1 Preliminary Speaking Success Criteria Grammar and Vocabulary Yes No Comments / Examples Did your partner usesimple grammar e.g. present simple, past simple, can? Did your partner usesome complex grammar e.g. modal verbs, future tenses, conditionals? Did your partner usesynonyms? Did your partner repeat the samewords severaltimes? DiscourseManagement Yes No Comments / Examples Did your partner uselonger sentences? Were therelong pauses when your partner spoke? Did your partner talkabout the task? Did your partner repeat their ideas? Did your partner useconnectors suchas and, but, so, because? Pronunciation Yes No Comments / Examples Could you understand your partner? Were thereany problems with pronunciation that made communication difficult? KEY 1. What is special about Priya? She is so much fun, she can turn any situation into fun time. 2. What did Priya do when her friend went through a difficult situation? She stayed with her and listened. 3. What does the girl say about her connection to Priya? They are always on the same page, it is as if they could read each other’s mind, they can talk about anything for hours.
  • 12. 12 3. Fantastic friends! Level: Pre A1 Starters / A1 Movers Skills: speaking, listening and writing Interaction: whole class and individual activity Time: 30 minutes Warm up (10’) – whole class activity  Who is your best friend?  Why is he / she your best friend?  Tell us about him / her.  When do you see him / her?  What do you like doing with him / her?  When is your birthday?  Do you like birthdays? Why (not)?  How do you celebrate your birthday? (Where do you go? What do you do? Who do you celebrate it with?) Speaking (10’) – whole class activity Look at the people below. They are celebrating a birthday. Look at the picture, point and answer the questions. Where is the cake? Do you like cakes? Where is the green balloon? What is your favourite colour? Where is the baby? Do you have brothers or sisters? Where is the lorry? What toys do you have? How is the birthday boy feeling? Why? Where is the radio? Put the radio on the table. Where is the orange juice? Put the orange juice next to the mirror. Where is the painting? Put the painting under the alien. Where is the pencil? Put the pencil behind the monster.
  • 13. 13 Writing (10’) – individually Tell us about your best friend. Write a card describing your friend. Circle the correct option. My friend’s name is ___________________________ He / She is _________________ years old. He / She likes _______________________. He / She has got ____________________ hair and ______________ eyes. We play ____________________ together. He / she has got ____________________. His / her favourite colour is _____________________.
  • 14. 14 4. References Cottonbro studio. (2017). Photo of girls dancing. [image / jpeg]. Available at: https://www.pexels.com/photo/photo-of-girls-dancing-3662824/ [27th March 2023]. Kelley, L. (2017). Group of people enjoying music concert. [image / jpeg]. Available at: https://www.pexels.com/photo/group-of-people-enjoying-music-concert-325521/ [27th March 2023]. Leppänen, M. (2017). Men’s black denim pants. [image / jpeg]. Available at: https://www.pexels.com/photo/men-s-black-denim-pants-1019771/ [27th March 2023]. Lopes, H. (2017). Group of people having fun togetherunder the sun. [image / jpeg]. Available at: https://www.pexels.com/photo/group-of-people-having-fun-together-under-the- sun-708392/ [27th March 2023]. Odell, S. (n.d.). How friendship affects your brain. [online]. TED. Available at: https://www.ted.com/talks/shannon_odell_how_friendship_affects_your_brain/transcri pt?language=en [24th March 2023]. UCLES (2017). Pre A1 Starters Flash cards. Available at: https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/it/Images/425841-starters-flash-cards.pdf [27th March 2023]. UCLES (2018). Pre A1 World list picture book. Available at: https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/starters-word-list-picture-book.pdf [27th March 2023]. Waldinger, R. (n.d.). The secret to a happy life -- lessons from 8 decades of research. [online]. TED. Available at: https://www.ted.com/talks/robert_waldinger_the_secret_to_a_happy_life_lessons_fro m_8_decades_of_research/comments/transcript [24th March 2023].