Pp chapter 04

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Pp chapter 04

  1. 1. CRIMINOLOGY TODAY AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION sixth edition By FRANK SCHMALLEGERPearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. CRIMINOLOGY TODAY AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION sixth edition By FRANK SCHMALLEGER Chapter 4 Biological Roots of Criminal BehaviorPearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Introduction • Biological theories have been advanced to explain criminality • Criminology has been slow to consider biological theories of deviance – It is grounded in the social sciences – The link between biology and crime is rarelyCriminology clearToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 3 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  4. 4. Major Principles of Biological Theories • The brain is the organ of the mind and the locus of the personality • Basic determinants of human behavior are constitutionally or genetically based • Observed gender/racial differences in rates/types of criminality may be at least partially the result of biological differencesCriminologyToday: AnIntegrative • Basic determinants of behavior may be inheritedIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 4 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  5. 5. Major Principles of Biological Theories • Much human conduct is rooted in instinct • Biological roots of human conduct have become increasingly disguised • Some behavior is the result of biological propensities inherited from more primitive developmental stagesCriminologyToday: An • TheIntegrative interplay among heredity, biology, and theIntroduction, environment must be considered social 6/eFrankSchmalleger 5 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  6. 6. Biological Roots of Human Aggression • Charles Darwin Interspecies aggression favors the strongest and best animals in the reproductive process • Konrad Lorenz – On Aggression (1966) – Human aggression serves other purposes but takes on covert forms (drive to acquire wealthCriminologyToday: An power) andIntegrative – Human behavior is adapted instinctive behaviorIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 6 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  7. 7. Early Biological Theories • Criminal anthropology: The scientific study of the relationship between human physical characteristics and criminality • Franz Joseph Gall – Phrenology: The shape of the skull indicates the personality and can be used to predict criminality – Located the roots of personality in the brain – Theory of phrenology accepted because it was a move away from theology toward scientific understandingCriminologyToday: An • Johann Gaspar Spurzheim brought phrenology toIntegrative AmericaIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 7 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  8. 8. Positivist School • Positivism was built on two principles – Acceptance of social determinism – Application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminology • Rooted in the work of Auguste Comte • Social phenomena are observable, explainable, and measurable in quantitative termsCriminology • Reality consists of a world of objectively defined facts thatToday: An can be scientifically measured and, ultimately, controlledIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 8 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  9. 9. Cesare Lombroso (1836-1909) • Developed concept of atavism: – Criminality is the result of primitive urges that survived the evolutionary process – Atavistic individuals are throwbacks to a more primitive biological state • Criminaloids – “occasional criminals,” people enticed into crime by environmental influences • Also believed criminal behavior among women derived fromCriminology foundations atavisticToday: An • Masculinity hypothesis: Criminal women exhibitedIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/efeatures and mannerisms masculineFrankSchmalleger 9 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  10. 10. Evaluations of Atavism • Charles Buckman Goring (1901) – Measured correlation between physiological features and criminal history – concluded atavism unsound • Earnest A. Hooton (1927-1939) – Found physical differences between offenders and non-offenders, said criminals are physiologically inferior • Stephen Schafer – Criticized Hooton’s methodologyCriminology • Canadian atavism study in 2000 found subtle physicalToday: An abnormalities were associated with an increased risk ofIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/e and psychiatric problems among boys behavioralFrankSchmalleger 10 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  11. 11. Body Types • Constitutional theories/somatotyping Body types indicative of criminal tendencies • Ernst Kretschmer – relationship between body build and personality type – Cycloid: heavyset, soft body; commit nonviolent property crimes – Schizoid: athletic, muscular body; commit violent crimesCriminology – Displastics – emotional, out of control; commit sexualToday: Anoffenses, crimes of passionIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 11 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  12. 12. Body Types • William H. Sheldon outlined four body types and associated temperaments – Endomorph: soft, round, overweight, sociable – Mesomorph: athletic, muscular; most likely to be associated with delinquency – Ectomorph: thin, fragile, shy, inhibited – Balanced type: average buildCriminology research by Shelden and Eleanor Glueck • LaterToday: An also supported mesomorph/delinquency linkIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 12 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  13. 13. Hypoglycemia • Early research linked murder to hypoglycemia – Low blood sugar reduced the mind’s ability to reason effectively • Recent research has linked excess sugar consumption to hyperactivity, aggressiveness, etc. • Current evidence on sugar/behavior link unclearCriminology • PETToday: An scans found lower glucose levels in prefrontalIntegrative of murderers cortexIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 13 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  14. 14. Food Allergies and Additives • Allergic reactions may cause brain swelling – Impede higher faculties, reduce sense of morality – May reduce learning during childhood, contribute to delinquency, adult crime • Some food additives (MSG, dyes, artificial flavorings) may be linked to violence • Caffeine and sugar may trigger antisocial behaviorCriminologyToday: An • Vitamins, other nutrients may have behavioralIntegrative impactIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 14 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  15. 15. Environmental Pollution • Several studies have found a link between industrial and environmental pollution and violent behavior • Correlation between juvenile crime and high environmental levels of lead and manganese • ToxicCriminology pollutant may cause learning disabilities, an increase in aggressive behavior, loss of controlToday: AnIntegrative impulsive behavior overIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 15 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  16. 16. Other Environmental Factors • Exposure to the color pink may have a calming effect on people experiencing anger and agitation • Prenatal exposure to marijuana, tobacco, alcohol may lead to higher rates of conduct disorders, delinquency, psychiatric problemsCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 16 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  17. 17. Hormones and Criminality • Testosterone – male sex hormone – Relationship between high blood levels of testosterone and increased male aggressiveness – Effect may be moderated by social environment – Small changes in female testosterone levels also linked to personality changes • Androgens – male hormones – High blood levels linked to aggression in boys but not girls • FemaleCriminology hormone fluctuations may also be linked to crime – DropToday: An in brain serotonin levels before menstruation may be linked to PMSIntegrative – Evidence linking PMS to violent or criminal behavior far from clearIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 17 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  18. 18. Hormones and Criminality • Serotonin – behavior-regulating chemical – Elevated blood levels/lower brain levels linked to violence in men – Imbalance between levels of serotonin and dopamine highly associated with psychopathic traits • OtherCriminology hormones implicated in delinquencyToday: An poor impulse control include cortisol and andIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/e hormone) T3 (thyroidFrankSchmalleger 18 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  19. 19. Weather and Crime • Temperature is the only weather variable consistently related to crime • Relationship moderated by temporal factors • Consistent with routine activities theoryCriminology • Possible link betweenToday: An barometric pressure andIntegrative crime violentIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 19 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  20. 20. Genetics and Crime • Criminal families – The Juke family – Richard L. Dugdale – The Kallikak family – Henry H. Goddard • Eugenic criminology – Root causes of criminality were passed down in the form of “bad genes.” – Eugenics movement: 1920s – 1930sCriminology – Buck v. Bell (1927)Today: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 20 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  21. 21. The XYY “Supermale” • Research in 1965 led to concept of “supermale” with XYY chromosome – considered potentially violent • Common characteristics – Taller than average – Acne – Less than average intelligence – Overrepresented in prisons, mental hospitals – Above-average family history of crime, mental illnessCriminologyToday: AnIntegrative research demonstrates conclusively that XYY • RecentIntroduction, are not predictably aggressive males 6/eFrankSchmalleger 21 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  22. 22. Chromosomes and Modern-Day Criminal Families • Dutch research found male descendants of a “criminal family” had high proportion of violent crime arrests • Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA): – Enzyme that breaks down serotonin and noradrenaline, chemicals linked to aggressiveCriminologyToday: AnbehaviorIntegrative – Excess amounts of MAOA linked to aggressionIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 22 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  23. 23. Behavioral Genetics • Behavioral genetics – Study of genetic and environmental contributions to individual variations on human behavior – Sir Francis Galton • Twin studies compare MZ and DZ twins – Research supports relationship between heredity and risk of criminality – Minnesota Twin Family StudyCriminology – So-called “criminal genes” may be geneticToday: Anpredispositions to respond in certain ways to aIntegrative criminogenic environmentIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 23 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  24. 24. The Human Genome Project (HGP) • International research project mapping the human genome – HGP may support concept of behavioral genetic determinism – Belief that genes are major determining factor in human behavior • Dominant view today holds that the interaction of genes and the behavioral possibilities they represent, with environmental features, produce meaningful human activity • Recent research suggests the explanatory power of heritability limited by the fact that it may only apply toCriminology environments existing at the time of given study specificToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 24 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  25. 25. Male-Female Differences in Criminality • Males are much more criminalistic – Number of crimes committed by men much greater than those committed by women – When women commit crimes, are more likely to be followers – Extent of male/female criminality consistent over time • ExplanationsCriminology – Culture and social environmentToday: AnIntegrative – Biology and geneticsIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 25 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  26. 26. Sociobiology • Theoretical synthesis of biology, behavior, and evolutionary ecology • Introduced by Edward O. Wilson in 1975 • A new paradigm in criminological theoriesCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 26 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  27. 27. Sociobiology • The main determinant of behavior is the need to ensure the survival and continuity of genetic material throughout generations • Territoriality as an explanation of human conflict • AltruismCriminology facilitates the continuity of the geneToday: An poolIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 27 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  28. 28. Criticisms of Sociobiology • Fails to consider the significance of culture, social learning, individual experiences • Fundamentally wrong in its depiction of basic human nature • Rationalizes the labeling and stigmatization of minoritiesCriminologyToday: An • Humans are too different from other animal species toIntegrative apply findings from animal studies to human behaviorIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 28 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  29. 29. Biosocial and Psychosocial Criminology • Crime and Human Nature – 1985, James Q. Wilson and Richard Herrnstein – Comprehensive theory of crime that included constitutional factors – Constitutional factors predispose one to specific types of behavior; societal reactions to these predispositions determine the form of continued behavior • Biosocial criminology – Anthony WalshCriminology – Biological factors do not operate in an environmentalToday: An vacuum, environmental factors do not operate in aIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/e vacuum biologicalFrankSchmalleger 29 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  30. 30. Biosocial and Psychosocial Criminology • Neuroplasticity – The brain can alter its structure and function in response to experience – Explains why some people experience personality changes when undergoing new experiences – Brain also changes in response to internal stimuli • Biosocial theorists suggest interplay among heredity, biology, the social and physicalCriminology environments may be much more complex thanToday: AnIntegrativebelieved – may be key in understanding crime first causationIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 30 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  31. 31. Moffitt’s Biosocial Theory • Moffitt’s two-path (dual taxonomic) theory – Life course persisters (LCP): display constant patterns of misbehavior throughout life – Adolescence-limited offenders (AL): led into offending by structural disadvantages • Moffitt and Caspi suggest the development of antisocial behavior is mediated by interaction between a gene responsible for MAOA production and maltreatment (environmental variable)Criminology • In some cases, genetic predispositions and theirToday: An interactions with the environment combine to produceIntegrative delinquencyIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 31 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  32. 32. Psychosocial Criminology • Hans Eysenck – Crime and Personality (1964) – Crime as the result of fundamental personality characteristics • Described three personality dimensions – Psychotics – most likely to be criminalCriminology – ExtrovertsToday: An – NeuroticsIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 32 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  33. 33. Policy Implications of Biological Theories • Steven Pinker claims social scientists unjustly ignore the biological basis of human behavior • Identifies three myths that make up the modern social science model – MythCriminology of the blank slateToday: An – Myth of the Noble SavageIntegrative – GhostIntroduction, 6/ein the machine mythFrankSchmalleger 33 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  34. 34. Policy Implications of Biological Theories • C. Ray Jeffrey’s proposed biologically based crime prevention program – Pre- and post-natal care – Monitoring children through development – Neurological examinations – Biological research in prisons and treatment facilities • One concern is possible re-emergence of theCriminology eugenics movementToday: AnIntegrative • PotentialIntroduction, 6/e links between race and crime especiallyFranklead to criticisms of biological criminologySchmalleger 34 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  35. 35. Critiques of Biological Theories • Rafter argues against possible development of a contemporary eugenics movement • Walters and White listed shortcomings of genetic research – Conceptualization of criminality is inadequate – Twin studies misclassify twins as MZ/DZ – Hard to estimate degree of criminality among sample populationsCriminology – Many methodological problemsToday: An – Research conducted outside the US may not beIntegrative applicable within this countryIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 35 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved

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