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Chapter 11 - Crimes Against Children

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CJC221 Investigative Principles

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Chapter 11 - Crimes Against Children

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Crimes against Children Hess 11-1
  2. 2. Introduction • Throughout history, children have endured physical violence • During the industrial, urban and machine ages, exploitation of child labor was common • Mistreating children was considered a family matter • Crimes against children include maltreatment, sexual exploitation, trafficking and abduction Hess 11-2
  3. 3. TYPES OF MALTREATMENT • Maltreatment means to treat roughly or abuse • Neglect • Physical abuse • Emotional abuse • Sexual abuse Hess 11-3 Maltreatment of Children: Neglect and Abuse
  4. 4. MALTREATMENT STATISTICS • Birth to 1 year had highest rate of victimization • Victimization was split between the sexes • More than 75 percent of victims suffered neglect • More than 15 percent of victims suffered physical abuse Hess 11-4 Extent of the Problem
  5. 5. CHILD FATALITIES IN 2009 • Estimated 1,770 children died • 2.34 deaths per 100,000 children • Four-fifths were younger than 4 years old • One-third attributed to neglect exclusively • One-third caused by multiple maltreatment types Hess 11-5 Children as Victims of Violent Crime
  6. 6. RESULTING DAMAGE • Serious and permanent damage  Physical, mental and emotional • Future violent and criminal behavior • Intergenerational transmission of violence Hess 11-6 Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect
  7. 7. INCREASED CHANCES • Children younger than 4 years of age • Special needs children • History of child maltreatment in family • Substance abuse • Parental characteristics • Concentrated neighborhood disadvantage Hess 11-7 Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment
  8. 8. OVERVIEW • Typically child abuse and neglect laws have three components:  Criminal definitions and penalties  Mandate to report suspected cases  Civil process for removing the child from the abusive or neglectful environment Hess 11-8 Child Abuse and Neglect Laws
  9. 9. FEDERAL LEGISLATION • Courts often determine punishment as reasonable STATE LAWS • Every state has enacted child abuse and neglect laws • States offer a bit more protection to children • What is “reasonable” varies from state to state Hess 11-9 Child Abuse and Neglect Laws
  10. 10. CHILD WELFARE • Child protective services (CPS) agencies • Acts on behalf of a child • Parents are unable or unwilling to do so • Provides protective custody • Formal investigation is required frequently Hess 11-10 Case Processing
  11. 11. PROTECTING THE CHILD • Possibility of present or continued danger exists • Child must be removed into protective custody NEED TO INVOLVE OTHER AGENCIES • Traditionally conducted separately • Multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach Hess 11-11 Challenges in Investigating Child Maltreatment Cases
  12. 12. DIFFICULTY IN INTERVIEWING CHILDREN • Consider child’s age • Ability to describe event • Potential retaliation for “telling” CREDIBILITY CONCERNS • Must protect the innocent and falsely accused Hess 11-12 Challenges in Investigating Child Maltreatment Cases
  13. 13. REPORT SUBMISSIONS • Most reports of child neglect or abuse are made by third parties  Teachers  Physicians  Neighbors  Siblings or parents Hess 11-13 The Initial Report
  14. 14. INTERVIEWING ABUSED CHILDREN • Requires special skills • Obtain background information • Direct • Honest • Understanding • Professional Hess 11-14 The Police Response
  15. 15. OBSERVATIONS • Surroundings • Home conditions • Clothing • Bruises or other body injuries • Medical examination report Hess 11-15 Evidence
  16. 16. INDICATORS • Physical or behavioral or both • Neglect • Emotional abuse • Physical abuse • Sexual abuse Hess 11-16 Evidence
  17. 17. PARENT AS SUSPECT • Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen by proxy syndrome • Osteogenesis imperfecta • Sudden infant death syndrome • Investigating child fatalities Hess 11-17 The Suspect
  18. 18. SEX CRIMES BY OTHER CHILDREN • Do not dismiss • Investigate thoroughly THE NONPARENT SUSPECT • Misoped • Hebephile • Pedophile or chicken hawk Hess 9-18 The Suspect
  19. 19. OVERVIEW • No specific demographic for a child predator • An expert in selecting and enticing young people • Most rarely use force • Involved in activities with easy access to children • Situational and preferential • Pedophilia is a sex offense in all states Hess 11-19 The Pedophile
  20. 20. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE RINGS • Solo sex rings • Transition sex rings • Syndicated sex rings RITUALISTIC ABUSE BY SATANIC CULTS • Certain cults involve sexual abuse of children Hess 11-20 The Pedophile
  21. 21. VICTIMOLOGY • Positive offender-victim bond OFFENDER REACTIONS • Complete denial • Minimizing the acts • Justifying the acts and blaming the victims • Claiming to be sick Hess 11-21 The Pedophile
  22. 22. COMMERCE • Pornography • Child Protection Act (1984) • Internet sex crimes against children • Models to combat exploitation  Special task forces  Strike forces and law enforcement networks Continued Hess 11-22 Commercial Sexual Exploitation
  23. 23. COMMERCE • Federal agencies working against child pornography • International initiatives • Prostitution of juveniles • Trafficking of children • Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) Hess 11-23 Commercial Sexual Exploitation (Continued)
  24. 24. OVERVIEW • Determining runaway or abduction is a challenge • Parental abduction is most frequent • Runaway children  Insecure and depressed  Unhappy and impulsive • Abducted children  Often kidnapped Hess 11-24 Missing Children: Runaway or Abducted?
  25. 25. AMBER ALERT PLAN • Voluntary partnership between law enforcement and broadcasters • Nationwide alert system for abducted children BEYOND AMBER ALERT AND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES • Child Abduction Response Team (CART) • Team HOPE Hess 11-25 Missing Children: Runaway or Abducted?
  26. 26. PROVIDING TESTIMONY • Give preference on the docket • Some courts permit videotaping • Limiting privileges for repeat examinations • Some courts remove the accused from courtroom • Courtroom preparation techniques Hess 11-26 Children as Witnesses in Court
  27. 27. CHILD ABUSERS • Any race, age or occupation • Someone close or a complete stranger • Online predators • Children are unaware • Children need adequate information Hess 11-27 Preventing Crimes against Children
  28. 28. Summary • Crimes against children include:  Maltreatment (neglect and abuse)  Sexual exploitation (pornography and prostitution)  Trafficking and abduction • May be prevented by educating children about potential danger • Keeping the channels of communication open Hess 11-28

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