Persecution of the Loyalists


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Persecution of the Loyalists

  1. 1. Persecution of the Loyalists
  2. 2. Persecution of the Loyalists <ul><li>Immigration </li></ul>Push Pull
  3. 3. Persecution of the Loyalists <ul><li>Left because they couldn’t see themselves living in a lawless state </li></ul><ul><li>Allegiance to Britain stronger than their desire to remain in their homes </li></ul><ul><li>No choice: they were either working directly for the British or they were perceived as counter-revolutionaries </li></ul>
  4. 4. Persecution of the Loyalists <ul><li>Destination: </li></ul><ul><li>Nova Scotia – prior to 1784 Nova Scotia included PEI (Isle St. Jean) , Cape Breton and New Brunswick. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Persecution of the Loyalists <ul><li>35,000 Loyalists arrived in 1784 </li></ul><ul><li>They spent the first winter in tents </li></ul><ul><li>Very demanding </li></ul><ul><li>Very bitter </li></ul><ul><li>2,000 remained in Nova Scotia proper and the rest moved to what is now New Brunswick which was created for them </li></ul>
  6. 6. Persecution of the Loyalists <ul><li>Thousands of Loyalists were former slaves who won their freedom fighting for the British </li></ul><ul><li>Most settled around Halifax but many migrated to Sierra Leone in Africa which was created as a colony for freed slaves. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Persecution of the Loyalists <ul><li>Other Loyalists moved to Quebec. Try to identify on the map following where they settled in the province. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Loyalists in Quebec <ul><li>Mainly south of the St. Lawrence east of Montreal. </li></ul><ul><li>Others migrated through the interior and settled in the Niagara Peninsula and the north shore of Lake Ontario </li></ul>John Graves Simcoe first LG of UC
  9. 10. Loyalists <ul><li>Carleton said of Quebec: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Europeans who migrate never will prefer the long inhospitable winters of Canada to the more cheerful climates, and more fruitful soil of His Majesty’s Southern Provinces… this country must, to the end of time, be peopled by the Canadian Race .” </li></ul><ul><li>How has this changed by the arrival of the Loyalists? </li></ul>
  10. 11. Loyalists <ul><li>Two ‘nations’ English and the Canadiens </li></ul><ul><li>English demand English law </li></ul><ul><li>English demand assembly </li></ul><ul><li>English hostile to Catholics </li></ul>
  11. 12. Loyalists <ul><li>Britain responds with the Constitution Act 1791 </li></ul><ul><li>Splits the colony into Upper and Lower Canada (relative to the flow of the St. Lawrence) </li></ul><ul><li>Lieutenant Governor in York and Governor General in Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>Elected assemblies with limited power </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics can participate (not until 1829 is this possible in Britain </li></ul>
  12. 14. Summary <ul><li>Loyalists of all classes and colour forced out </li></ul><ul><li>Nova Scotia split into PEI, Cape Breton, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia </li></ul><ul><li>Quebec split into Upper and Lower Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Elected Assembly – Catholics can participate in this in Lower Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited power because of fear of what happened in the 13 colonies </li></ul>