If all of the world´s cultural heritage (sports, music, fashion, architecture, literature, painting, etc..) was contained in a time capsule, what would you include to demonstrate the legacy of your country?
Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland involvedthe seizure of Irish owned land by the English crown, and the colonization of these lands by English Settlers. The Plantations caused many deaths as Irish families tried to rebel against the confiscation of their lands by the British. One of the largest rebellions was by the O’Neill family in 1641, which was eventually quashed by Oliver Cromwell and his New Model Army who were called upon to re-conquer the country on behalf of the English Parliament. The Plantations had a major cultural impact on Ireland. For example, English replaced Irish as the main political and trade language. The Plantations also had a big part to play in how Northern Ireland is shaped today (as can be seen by map above). Penal Laws were also introduced in an attempt to make the Anglican Church the dominant religious faith in Ireland, but failed in its attempt to fully Anglicize the Irish population.
The Great Famine of Ireland was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration that existed in Ireland between 1845 and 1852. Although it is not known exactly how many died, the majority of estimates show that around 1 million people (1/8th of pop.) died and upwards of 2 million people emigrated in the decade from 1845-1855. A potato disease known as “potato blight” caused the famine, as the Irish people were overly dependent on the potato for sustenance. The famine was largely responsible for the creation of a huge Irish Diaspora today. One of Ireland’s most loved songs “The Fields of Athenry,” depicts a story of an Irish man who was transported to Australia for stealing some of Trevelyan’s corn. Sir Charles Trevelyan administered the relief for the Irish Famine. He is one of the most detested figures in Ireland’s history, quoted in his book as saying that the famine was “the sharp but effectual remedy by which the cure is likely to be effected.” The Great Famine had lasting effects on the Irish people and these effects may still be deeply rooted in the nation’s psyche. The population of both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland today is just under 6 million, although growing, the population is still below pre-famine levels of 8 million. Picture (top right) of a starving Irish family. Source: National Library of Ireland. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/sadlier/irish/starvati.htmlPicture (bottom right)- Sir Charles Trevelyan- British colonial administer- Administered relief for Irish during famine.
Backround- Anglo-Irish Treaty, Dec 6th 1921.
K. legacy of ireland
Legacy of IrelandK. The Cultural Heritage of Irelandexpressed through a Time Capsule
Plantations of Ireland and our Relationship with Land • Mid 16th-17th Century. • Confiscation of Irish land by the English Crown and the deaths of many Irish families who rebelled. • The Plantations had a major cultural impact: e.g. Replacement of Irish language by the English and the shaping of a controversial Northern Ireland. • Ireland’s relationship with land has always been strong due to our rich agricultural and farming history. The seizure of Irish owned land by the British and the subsequent retaking of this land by the Irish during the fight for Independence has increased the Irish people’s “love of the land.” • Ireland’s property boom in the years leading up to the financial crisis in 2008, relates to Irish people’s desire to have their own house on their own piece of land.
Great Famine1845-1852•Cause: Potato disease called“Potato Blight.”•Estimated 1 million people diedand 2 million peopleemigrated, mainly to theAmericas.• The famine instigated a hugerise in nationalism that eventuallyled to Ireland’s fight forIndependence in the 20th Century.•The Great Famine had lastingeffects on the Irish people andthese effects may still be deeplyrooted in the nation’s psyche.• The Great Famine is one ofIreland’s most historicallysignificant events.
General Post Office (GPO) •The General Post Office (GPO) building on O’Connell Street in Dublin is a symbol of the 1916 Rising, and therefore a symbol of Irish Nationalism. •The 1916 Rising was a rebellion by Irish Republicans against British Rule. Although the rebellion was quashed the rebellions leaders such as PadraigPearse and James Connolly succeeded in instigating Irish Republicans to fight for Independence. •Members of the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army seized the building, flew the Irish tricolor flag instead of the Union flag, and read out the Proclamation of the Irish Republic (bottom left pic.) to the people. •The GPO is a popular tourist destination today, housing the original copy of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic.
Skellig Michael •Skellig Michael is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, 11.6km off the Iveragh Peninsula in Co. Kerry, Ireland. •The remains of a sixth century monastic settlement are to be found on the island today. •Skellig Michael is on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list and is described by it’s committee as a site “of outstanding universal value being an exceptional, and in many respects a unique example of an early religious settlement deliberately sited on a pyramidal rock in the ocean, preserved because of a remarkable environment.” •Skellig Michael is so awe inspiring as it shows the lengths that Catholics were willing to go to express their beliefs and rights during the times of the Penal Laws.
Catholicism•The Catholic Church is a major part of Ireland’s cultural heritage.• Over 80% of the Irish population are said to be Roman Catholic’s, although this number isdeclining.•Catholicism played an important part in the founding of the Irish Free State in 1922, asCatholicism brought the Irish people together during the Anglicization of Ireland and helped themfight for freedom from British rule.•The Church also controlled most of Ireland’s education, health, and political systems fromaround the middle of the 19th century until the mid to late 20th century.•The Catholic Church played an integral role in uniting the Irish people against British rule butrecent sex scandals in the church have diminished the church’s reputation as one of Ireland’s mosticonic institutions.
Newgrange•Newgrange is a prehistoric monument/ancienttemple built around 5000 years ago during theNeolithic Period.•It is most well known for the illumination of itspassage and chamber by the winter solstice sun.•Newgrange is part of the UNESCO World HeritageSite BrunaBoinne, a site of Neolithictombs, mounds, and henges which predatesStonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids.• A UNESCO World Heritage Site selection criteriastates that a site must “represent a masterpiece ofhuman creative genius,” and that is exactly whatNewgrange does.•The accuracy of the lighting of the chamber duringthe winter solstice, and the extraordinary feat ofengineering for a site constructed 5000 years ago arewhat make Newgrange one of Ireland’s greatestnational monuments.•http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/places/culture-places/historical/ireland_newgrange/
•The GAA is the organization focused primarily on promoting Ireland’s two main amateur sportsGaelic football and hurling.•It has been in operation for 128 years.•The GAA is one of Ireland’s most important institutions.•Croke Park is the headquarters of the GAA and also Ireland’s largest stadium with a capacity of82,300.•Croke Park is historically significant for the Irish people as it embodies a truly Irish institutionthat remained despite the Anglicization of many other institutions.•Past events such as Bloody Sunday explain the significance of Croke Park and the GAA. BloodySunday was a day of violence on November 21st 1920, during the War of Independence thatresulted in the death of 31 nationalists attending a match in Croke Park. The deaths were theresult of the British run Irish police force opening fire on a predominantly nationalist crowd.•The GAA has always been associated closely with the Catholic Church, as a result Gaelic Gamesin Northern Ireland is played mainly by Catholics, while Protestants and Unionists tend to notplay GAA sports. This is sometimes out of fear of being seen to partake in catholic games.
Guinness Brewery (St. James’ Gate) •Arthur Guinness founded Guinness stout in 1759. St. James’ Gate, located in the heart of Dublin city, has been home to Guinness ever since Arthur Guinness signed a 9000 year lease for 45 Irish punts per year. •The Guinness Storehouse is one of Ireland’s most popular tourist destinations, as alcohol has been a major part of Irish culture for generations. Having the “craic” is a famous Irish phrase for drinking and having fun. •Alcohol has always been associated with the Irish people, especially in America. Popular Irish mobster movies set in America have always depicted the Irish as heavy drinkers. Martin Scorsese’ depiction of Irish gangs in his movie “Gangs of New York” shows how closely associated alcohol has become with Irish society in America. •One explanation for Ireland’s love affair with alcohol could be that it was used by the Irish people as an escape from years of repression and poverty at the hands of the British.
St. Patrick •St. Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland and was born near the end of the fourth century. •At the age of 16, Patrick was taken to Ireland by Irish raiders and placed in captivity. After his time in captivity he lived a lonely life as a shepherd and it was here that he turned to religion for solace, becoming a devout Christian. St. Patrick is credited with spreading Christianity throughout Ireland. •In folklore, St. Patrick was said to have banished all the snakes from Ireland, but this is widely discredited. •St. Patrick’s Day is observed on March 17, the date of his death, and is celebrated in many countries throughout the world. St. Patrick’s Day is so widely celebrated because of the vast Irish diaspora and because of the links to Ireland’s drinking tradition. St. Patrick’s Day’s parades happen throughout the world, with Chicago even dyeing its river green for
Irish Language•Also called Gaelic Irish•Gaelic was the main language spoken by the Irish people before the arrival of the British on theisland. By the end of Britain’s rule, Gaelic Irish was spoken by only a small minority.•Gaelic Irish under the Irish constitution is the official language of Ireland but is only spoken as afirst language in a few areas around Ireland. These Irish-speaking areas are called “TheGaeltacht,” and are generally located up and down the west coast of Ireland.•Gaelic Irish is often remembered through legendary tales from Irish literature such as “Tain BoCuailgne,” and many old Irish sayings are still used by the Irish today. Road signs and governmentlegislation are also provided in Gaelic along with English.• The Irish people’s identity suffered a great loss at the hands of the British, with the decline of theIrish language being one of the most devastating.
Irish Literature •Ireland has made a very large contribution to world literature throughout history. •The Irish Literary Revival was a particularly successful time of literary talent in the late 19th and early 20th century. The movement was associated with a revival in Gaelic culture. •Nobel Laureate, and one of Ireland’s most celebrated poets William Butler Yeats (pic. Below left) was one of the main figures in the Irish Literary Revival. The movement also led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre, which is one of Ireland’s most famous literary landmarks. •20th Century Irish writers such as James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, and Seamus Heaney were instrumental to the success of Irish literature. James Joyce is often referred to as the father of the literary genre “Stream of consciousness” through his book Ulysses, which is considered to be one of the greatest books of the 20th century.
Traditional Irish Music & Dancing•The indigenous music of Ireland is called TraditionalIrish music. Traditional Irish music includes a lot ofdrinking songs and ballads, sung with or withoutmusical instruments.• Traditional Irish music is very closely linked toIreland’s pub culture. Irish band “The Dubliners” isone of Ireland’s most famous traditional music bands.•Irish dancing is another important tradition inIreland. Irish dancing is often performed at “Ceilis,”which are traditional Gaelic social gatherings.•Ireland has also produced worldwide music groupssuch as U2, Boyzone, Van Morrison, and TheCranberries.•Traditional Irish music and Irish dancing are veryclose to the Irish people, and are often performed byIrish people abroad to show their Irish roots.
Emigration•Emigration has had a huge impact on thecultural heritage of Ireland. Ever since theemigration of around 2 million peopleduring the Great Famine of 1845-1852,Irish people have been travelling in searchof a better life.•The “Irish Diaspora” refers to the Irishemigrants living abroad. The number ofpeople who claim Irish descent isestimated to be around 80 million. Themajority of these people are living in theUnited States, while countries such as theUK, Australia, Canada, and Argentina arealso home to many Irish emigrants.•Emigration has been part of the Irishpeople ever since the Great Famine, andwe see its increase again due to the recentIrish Financial Crisis and the resultinglosses in domestic construction jobs.
Ireland’s Legacy• “Ireland’s Legacy has been greatly impacted by British rule throughout its history. Elements of survival are evident throughout Ireland’s Cultural Heritage, from the early plantations in the 16th and 17th centuries to today’s emigration due to the Irish Banking Crisis and property crash in 2008/09. Irish people are extremely proud of their heritage, and it is this rich heritage that makes Irish people loved around the world, and what makes Ireland a popular tourist destination.”