The Growing Interdependence of the Internet and Climate Change

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09.08.17
Invited Talk
Negotiating the Downturn: Emerging Stronger
Australian Industry Group National Forum
Parliament House
Title: The Growing Interdependence of the Internet and Climate Change
Canberra, Australia

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The Growing Interdependence of the Internet and Climate Change

  1. 1. Invited Talk Negotiating the Downturn: Emerging Stronger Australian Industry Group National Forum Parliament House Canberra, Australia August 17, 2009 The Growing Interdependence of the Internet and Climate Change Dr. Larry Smarr Director, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology Harry E. Gruber Professor, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Jacobs School of Engineering, UCSD
  2. 2. Australia’s National Broadband Network (NBN) Can Be Leveraged to Speed Climate Goals • NBN Goals – Connect 90% of Households with Fiber in Eight Years – Remaining 10% by Satellite or Wireless – 100 Mbit/s Broadband Per House – Driven by Consumer Internet, Telephone, Video – “Triple Play”, eHealth, eCommerce… • “Smart” Electric Grid – Reduce Household and Building Energy Usage – Avoid Peak Loading • Video Conferencing to Avoid Transportation • Plug-In Hybrid with Renewable Electricity Generation • Cloud Computing and Storage at Renewable Sites
  3. 3. ICT is a Critical Element in Achieving Countries Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets GeSI member companies: • Bell Canada, • British Telecomm., • Plc, • Cisco Systems, • Deutsche Telekom AG, • Ericsson, • France Telecom, • Hewlett-Packard, • Intel, • Microsoft, • Nokia, • Nokia Siemens Networks, • Sun Microsystems, • T-Mobile, • Telefónica S.A., • Telenor, www.smart2020.org • Verizon, • Vodafone Plc. Additional support: • Dell, LG.
  4. 4. The Earth is Warming Over 100 Times Faster Today Than During the Last Ice Age Warming! Monnin, et al., Science v. 291 pp. 112-114, Jan. 5, 2001. http://scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/program_history/keeling_curve_lessons.html CO2 Rose From CO2 Has Risen From 185 to 265ppm (80ppm) 335 to 385ppm (50ppm) in 6000 years or in 30 years or 1.33 ppm per Century 1.6 ppm per Year
  5. 5. Global Climate Disruption Early Signs: Arctic Summer Ice is Rapidly Decreasing “The Arctic Ocean will be effectively ice free sometime between 2020 and 2040, although it is possible it could happen as early as 2013.” --Walt Meier, Research Scientist at the National Snow and Ice Data Centre at the University of Colorado http://news.cnet.com/8301-11128_3-10213891-54.html
  6. 6. CO2 Emissions From Energy-Shell ”Blueprint” Scenario: An Aggressive CO2 Emission Reduction Scenario www-static.shell.com/static/public/downloads/brochures/corporate_pkg/scenarios/shell_energy_scenarios_2050.pdf China and India resisted signing up for a global goal of halving greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.—Reuters July 8, 2009 China India
  7. 7. In Shell’s “Blueprints” Scenario, 60% of Electricity is Generated by Renewables by 2050 90% of All OECD Coal and Gas Power Plants Use Carbon Capture and Sequestration
  8. 8. Ice Core Record Has Been Extended Using Plankton: Today’s CO2 is Higher Than in Last 2 Million Years! With No Policy Change, MIT Estimates ~900ppm by 2100 550 Possible Level by 2100, Shell “Blueprints” Scenario 500 450 400 Today’s CO2 Level 350 Hönisch, et al. Science 19 June 2009 Vol. 324. pp. 1551 - 1554
  9. 9. We are Unlikely to Limit CO2-Equivalent Emissions Below 450ppm Limiting GHG concentrations to 450 ppm CO2-equivalent is expected to limit temperature rises to no more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels. This would be extremely challenging to achieve, requiring an explosive pace of industrial transformation going beyond even the aggressive developments outlined in the Blueprints scenario. It would require global GHG emissions to peak before 2015, a zero- emission power sector by 2050 and a near zero-emission transport sector in the same time period…
  10. 10. We Are Transitioning to a New Climate State -- Unlike the Rapid Recovery with Acid Rain or Ozone Hole Susan Solomon, et al., PNAS 2/10/2009 v. 106 pp1704-9 Assumes CO2 Increases to a Maximum and Then Emissions Abruptly Stop Warming Persists for Over 1000 Years Warming During the Industrial Age -- Last 200 Years
  11. 11. “It Will Be the Biggest Single Peacetime Project Humankind Will Have Ever Undertaken”
  12. 12. The Global ICT Carbon Footprint is Roughly the Same as the Aviation Industry Today But ICT Emissions are Growing at 6% Annually! Most of Growth is in Developing Countries the assumptions behind the growth in emissions expected in 2020: • takes into account likely efficient technology developments that affect the power consumption of products and services • and their expected penetration in the market in 2020 www.smart2020.org
  13. 13. Reduction of ICT Emissions is a Global Challenge – U.S. and Canada are Small Sources U.S. and Canada Together Fall From 25% to 14% of Global ICT Emissions by 2020 www.smart2020.org
  14. 14. ICT Industry is Already Acting to Reduce Carbon Footprint
  15. 15. New Techniques for Dynamic Power and Thermal Management to Reduce Energy Requirements NSF Project Greenlight • Green Cyberinfrastructure in Energy-Efficient Modular Facilities • Closed-Loop Power &Thermal Management Dynamic Power Management (DPM) Dynamic Thermal Management (DTM) • Optimal DPM for a Class of Workloads • Workload Scheduling: • Machine Learning to Adapt • Machine learning for Dynamic • Select Among Specialized Policies Adaptation to get Best Temporal and • Use Sensors and Spatial Profiles with Closed-Loop Performance Counters to Monitor Sensing • Multitasking/Within Task Adaptation • Proactive Thermal Management of Voltage and Frequency • Reduces Thermal Hot Spots by Average • Measured Energy Savings of 60% with No Performance Overhead Up to 70% per Device System Energy Efficiency Lab (seelab.ucsd.edu) Prof. Tajana Šimunić Rosing, CSE, UCSD
  16. 16. UCSD is Installing Zero Carbon Emission Solar and Fuel Cell DC Electricity Generators San Diego’s Point Loma Wastewater UCSD 2.8 Megawatt Available Late 2009 Treatment Plant Produces Waste Methane Fuel Cell Power Plant Uses Methane Use to Power 2 Megawatts of Local Data Solar Power Cells Centers Being Installed
  17. 17. Australia—the Zero Carbon Energy Future Placing a data centre at the zero carbon energy source -- the cost of fibre optic cable is ~5-10% the cost of electricity transmission. A Fiber/HVDC Smart Grid Flows Both Bits and Electrons! Temperatures at 5 km. After Budd et al. Australian Geothermal Energy Conference 2008 Source: Geodynamics, Limited
  18. 18. Coupling AARNet - CENIC/PW - CANARIE Optical Nets: An Australian-U.S.-Canada Green Cloud Testbed Toward Zero Carbon ICT
  19. 19. Application of ICT Can Lead to a 5-Fold Greater Decrease in GHGs Than its Own Carbon Footprint While the sector plans to significantly step up the energy efficiency of its products and services, ICT’s largest influence will be by enabling energy efficiencies in other sectors, an opportunity that could deliver carbon savings five times larger than the total emissions from the entire ICT sector in 2020. --Smart 2020 Report Major Opportunities for the United States* – Smart Electrical Grids – Smart Transportation Systems – Smart Buildings – Virtual Meetings * Smart 2020 United States Report Addendum www.smart2020.org
  20. 20. Applying ICT – The Smart 2020 Opportunity for Reducing GHG Emissions by 7.8 GtCO2e www.smart2020.org Smart Buildings Smart Electrical Grid Recall Total ICT 2020 Emissions are 1.43 GtCO2e
  21. 21. Next Stage: Developing Greener Smart Campuses Calit2 (UCSD & UCI) Prototypes • Coupling the Internet and the Electrical Grid – Choosing non-GHG Emitting Electricity Sources – Measuring Demand at Sub-Building Levels – Reducing Local Energy Usage via User Access Thru Web • Transportation System – Campus Wireless GPS Low Carbon Fleet – Green Software Automobile Innovations – Driver Level Cell Phone Traffic Awareness • Travel Substitution – Commercial Teleconferencing – Next Generation Global Telepresence
  22. 22. I Link Into Commercial H.323 Videoconfernces From My Laptop at Home UCSD Calit2 Director & Chief of Staff UCI Calit2 Director The Weekly Calit2 Director’s Meeting
  23. 23. Work at Home is the Same As at the Office Virtual Kristen Kristen Prints Here For Amy Real Amy Kristen Reads My Email, Sets My Calendar. Works With Amy on My Trips We Run Video Sykpe Continuously During Office Hours
  24. 24. It Doesn’t Matter Where in the Broadband World The Other Person Lives David Abramson, Monash University, and Me Discussing My Upcoming Trip to Melbourne
  25. 25. HD Talk to Australia’s Monash University from Calit2: Reducing International Travel July 31, 2008 Qvidium Compressed HD ~140 mbps Source: David Abramson, Monash Univ
  26. 26. Launch of the 100 Megapixel OzIPortal Kicked Off a Rapid Build Out of Australian OptIPortals January 15, 2008 Smarr OptIPortal Road Show January 15, 2008 No Calit2 Person Physically Flew to Australia to Bring This Up! Covise, Phil Weber, Jurgen Schulze, Calit2 CGLX, Kai-Uwe Doerr , Calit2 http://www.calit2.net/newsroom/release.php?id=1421
  27. 27. Victoria Premier and Australian Deputy Prime Minister Asking Questions www.calit2.net/newsroom/release.php?id=1219
  28. 28. University of Melbourne Vice Chancellor Glyn Davis in Calit2 Replies to Question from Australia
  29. 29. Real-Time Monitoring of Building Energy Usage: UCSD Has 34 Buildings On-Line http://mscada01.ucsd.edu/ion/
  30. 30. Power Management in Mixed Use Buildings: The UCSD CSE Building is Energy Instrumented • 500 Occupants, 750 Computers • Detailed Instrumentation to Measure Macro and Micro-Scale Power Use – 39 Sensor Pods, 156 Radios, 70 Circuits – Subsystems: Air Conditioning & Lighting Source: Rajesh Gupta, CSE, Calit2
  31. 31. Launch of ZEVnet Fleet of Wireless Cars-- First Calit2 Testbed for Intelligent Transportation April 18, 2002 Irvine, CA www.zevnet.org
  32. 32. International Symposia on Green ICT: Greening ICT and Applying ICT to Green Infrastructures Webcasts Available at: www.calit2.net/newsroom/article.php?id=1456 Calit2@UCSD

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