The Digital Transformation of Healthcare


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Guest Lecture
Professor Kevin Zhu’s MBA Class
“Disruptive Technologies in Healthcare”
Title: The Digital Transformation of Healthcare
UCSD’s Rady School

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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The Digital Transformation of Healthcare

  1. 1. The Digital Transformation of Healthcare Guest Lecture Professor Kevin Zhu’s MBA Class “Disruptive Technologies in Healthcare” UCSD’s Rady School May 18, 2012 Dr. Larry Smarr Director, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology Harry E. Gruber Professor, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Jacobs School of Engineering, UCSD Follow me at
  2. 2. Calit2 Has Been Had a Vision of “the Digital Transformation of Health” for a Decade• Next Step—Putting You On-Line! – Wireless Internet Transmission – Key Metabolic and Physical Variables – Model -- Dozens of Processors and 60 Sensors / Actuators Inside of our Cars• Post-Genomic Individualized Medicine – Combine – Genetic Code – Body Data Flow – Use Powerful AI Data Mining Techniques The Content of This Slide from 2001 Larry Smarr Calit2 Talk on Digitally Enabled Genomic Medicine
  3. 3. The Calit2 Vision of Digitally Enabled Genomic Medicine is an Emerging Reality 3 July/August 2011 February 2012
  4. 4. Lifechips--Merging Two Major Industries: Microelectronic Chips & Life Sciences LifeChips: the merging of two major industries, the microelectronic chip industry with the life science industry65 UCI Faculty LifeChips medical devices
  5. 5. San Diego Has Becomethe National Center for Wireless Health
  6. 6. CitiSense –New NSF Grant for Fine-GrainedEnvironmental Sensing Using Cell Phones Seacoast Sci. 4oz 30 compounds Intel MSP contribute e W rett re ns se riie re CitiSense ve ve L C/A S EPA r ve “d “d iisp co sp di s F lla ayy” CitiSense Team ” distribute PI: Bill Griswold Ingolf Krueger Tajana Simunic Rosing Sanjoy Dasgupta Hovav Shacham Kevin Patrick
  7. 7. From One to a Billion Data Points Defining Me:The Exponential Rise in Body Data in Just One Decade! Billion: MyFull Genome Full DNA, MRI/CT Images SNPs Million: My DNA SNPs, Zeo, FitBit Blood Variables One: Hundred: My Blood Variables Weight Weight My
  8. 8. I am the Digitally-Enabled “Patient of the Future”: Measuring the State of Your Body and “Tuning” It 1999 2010 2000Age Age51 61 I Arrived in La Jolla in 2000 After 20 Years in the Midwest and Discovered I was Pre-Diabetic. I Reversed My Body’s Decline By Altering Nutrition and Exercise
  9. 9. “LifeChip” Wireless Monitoring Helps Drive Exercise Elliptical Gardening Up and Down House Steps 25 Week Average: 2473 Calories Burned/Day 1:19 hr Physical Activity/Day (>3 METs) 6887 Steps/Day (~3.4 Miles) Measure Quantity and Quality of Sleep 25 Week Ave: 6:51 hrs with 81% Efficiency
  10. 10. Quantifying My Sleep Pattern Using a Zeo “LifeChip” - Surprisingly About Half My Sleep is REM! REM is Normally 20% of Sleep An Infant Typically Mine is Between 45-65% of Sleep Has 50% REM
  11. 11. From Measuring Macro-Variablesto Measuring Your Internal Variables
  12. 12. Tracking and Reducing Inflammation is Critical to Your Health 2004
  13. 13. I Have Greatly Lowered My Body’s Inflammation From Food By Increasing Omega-3s Ratio of AA/EPA “Silent Inflammation” Chronically Ill I take 6 Fish Oil American Pills Per Day Average “Healthy” American Ideal Range My Range Range Source: Barry Sears My Tests by
  14. 14. My Quarterly Blood Tests In Addition to Lipids: Only One Was Far Beyond Normal Limits• Electrolytes • Liver – Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, – GGTP, SGOT, SGPT, LDH, Total Magnesium, Phosphorus, Boron, Direct Bilirubin, Chlorine, CO2 Alkaline Phosphatase• Micronutrients • Thyroid – Arsenic, Chromium, Cobalt, – T3 Uptake, T4, Free Thyroxine Copper, Iron, Manganese, Index, FT4, 2nd Gen TSH Molybdenum, Selenium, Zinc • Blood Cells• Blood Sugar Cycle – Complete Blood Cell Count – Glucose, Insulin, A1C Hemoglobin – Red Blood Cell Subtypes• Cardio Risk – White Blood Cell Subtypes – Complex Reactive Protein • Cancer Screen – Homocysteine – CEA, Total PSA, % Free PSA• Kidneys – CA-19-9 – Bun, Creatinine, Uric Acid • Vitamins & Antioxidant Screen• Protein – Vit D, E; Selenium, ALA, coQ10, – Total Protein, Albumin, Globulin Glutathione, Total Antioxidant Fn. I Track Over 100 Blood Variables Over Time
  15. 15. Natural Anti-Inflammation Can Be Much Larger Effect Than Antibiotic-Induced Inflammation Remission 27x Much of the Inflammation Drop Is Spontaneous 15x Antibiotics Antibiotics Normal Range CRP < 1 Demonstrates Value of Fine-Grained Time Series
  16. 16. Frequent Stool Analysis Reveals Lactoferrin Spike to Active Crohn’s Disease (CD) Level Colonoscopy Typical May 2011 Normal Lactoferrin Level < 7 Lactoferrin Value for Active Crohn’s Colonoscopy May 2006 Colonoscopy Jan 2012 Colonoscopy December 2010 Colonoscopy and Biopsies Support CD Diagnosis
  17. 17. Confirming the Crohn’s Hypothesis: Finding the “Smoking Gun” with MRI ImagingLiver I Obtained the MRI Slices Transverse Colon From UCSD Medical Services and Converted to Interactive 3D Working With Small Intestine Calit2 Staff & DeskVOX Software Descending Colon Diseased Sigmoid Colon Major Kink Sigmoid Colon Threading Iliac Arteries
  18. 18. LS Sigmoid Colon Cross Sections Showing Inflamed Wall Jan 2012 MRI Enterography report: “long segment wall thickening in the proximal and mid portions of the sigmoid colon, extending over a segment of approximately 16 cm, with suggestion of intramural sinus tracts. Ulcerative Colitis isRestricted tothe Mucosa, while Crohns Disease Note Affects the Thickness Whole of Wall -Bowel Wall Normal is 3mm (like a Balloon) Source: L Smarr Using Calit2’s Jurgen Schultz Software
  19. 19. Exploring My Internal Organs in the Calit2Virtual Reality CAVE Using DeskVOX Software Photo & DeskVOX Software Courtesy of Jurgen Schulze, Calit2
  20. 20. Autoimmune Diseases Effect 5-8% of Americans• Crohn’s Disease Despite decades of research, the etiology of Crohns disease• Ulcerative Colitis remains unknown.• Rheumatoid Arthritis Its pathogenesis may involve a complex interplay between• Multiple Sclerosis host genetics,• Psoriasis immune dysfunction,• Type 1 Diabetes, and microbial or environmental factors.• Ankylosing Spondylitis --The Role of Microbes in Crohns Disease Paul B. Eckburg & David A. Relman• Lupus Erythematosus Clin Infect Dis. 44:256-262 (2007)• Plus Over 70 Others The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
  21. 21. The Cost of Sequencing a Human GenomeHas Fallen Over 10,000x in the Last Ten Years! This Has Enabled Sequencing of Both Human and Microbial Genomes
  22. 22. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Make Up About 90% of All Human Genetic VariationPerson A SNPs Occur Every 100 to 300 Bases Along Human DNAPerson B Tracks One Million SNPs
  23. 23. I Wondered if Crohn’s is an Autoimmune Disease, Did I Have a Personal Genomic Polymorphism? From Polymorphism in Interleukin-23 Receptor Gene — 80% Higher Risk ATG16L1 of Pro-inflammatory Immune Response IRGM NOD2 SNPs Associated with CD
  24. 24. I Have Been Accepted by PGP and Spoke at GET 2012: My Full Genome Will Be Sequenced This Year
  25. 25. From 10,000 Human Genomes Sequenced in 2011to 1 Million by 2015 Out of Less Than 5,000 sq. ft.! 4 Million Newborns / Year in U.S.
  26. 26. You are a Superorganism:Your Body Has Ten Microbes for Every Human Cell! Firmicutes Are the Dominant Phyla in the Human Microbiome Science v.330, p. 1619 (2010)
  27. 27. The Gut Microbiome Has Been Mapped in the Last Five Years Using Genome Sequencing“A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to uncultivated species and novel microorganisms.” 395 Phylotypes Firmicutes Bacteroidetes “Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora” Paul B. Eckburg, et al Science 308, 1635-8 (2005)
  28. 28. Crohn’s Disease Patients Have Number of Firmicute Gut Microbe Species Reduced by Over 2/3! Healthy Gut MicrobesActinobacteria 7 Bacteroidetes Proteobacteria Firmicutes 33 5 43 IBD Gut MicrobesActinobacteria 7 Bacteroidetes Proteobacteria Firmicutes 33 5 13 The Missing Firmicutes Inhibit Pro-Inflammation Manichanh, et al, Gut 2006;55:205–211
  29. 29. Next Step: Use Microarray to Measure Time Series of Microbial Diversity “Second Genome has developed a sensitive, flexible and robust platform for the identification of microbiome-based signatures for the rapid identification of microbial gut health biomarkers.” DNA microarray that can identify, within hours, over 50,000 different microbesLBL’s Gary Andersenand his PhyloChip
  30. 30. Microbial MetagenomicsCan Diagnose Disease StatesFrom Mutation in Interleukin-23 Receptor Gene—80% Higher Risk of Pro-inflammatory Immune Response IBD Patients Harbored, on Average, 25% Fewer SNPs Associated with CD Microbial Genes than the Individuals Not Suffering from IBD. 2009
  31. 31. First Stage of Metagenomic Sequencing ofMy Gut Microbiome at J. Craig Venter Institute I Received a Disk Drive Last Week With 35 GB FASTQ Files Weizhong Li, UCSD NGS Pipeline: 230M Reads Only 0.2% Human Next: 10-100,000 cpu-hrs Gel Image of Extract from Smarr Sample-Next is Library Construction Manny Torralba, Project Lead - Human Genomic Medicine J Craig Venter Institute January 25, 2012
  32. 32. Where I Believe We are Headed: Predictive, Personalized, Preventive, & Participatory Medicine I am Leroy Hood’s Lab Rat! Using a “LifeChip” Quantify ~2500 Blood Proteins,50 Each from 50 Organs or Cell Types from a Single Drop of Blood To Create a Time Series
  33. 33. Integrating Systems Biology Data: Cytoscape • OPEN SOURCE Java Platform for Integration of Systems Biology Data • Layout and Query of Interaction Networks (Physical And Genetic) • Visual and Programmatic Integration of Molecular State Data (Attributes) 33
  34. 34. Integrative Personal Omics Profiling:What I am Doing, But 1000 Times the Data! Cell 148, 1293–1307, March 16, 2012 • Michael Snyder, Chair of Genomics Stanford Univ. • Genome 140x Coverage • Blood Tests 20 Times in 14 Months – tracked nearly 20,000 distinct transcripts coding for 12,000 genes – measured the relative levels of more than 6,000 proteins and 1,000 metabolites in Snyders blood