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Coupling Australia’s Researchers to the Global Innovation Economy


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Ninth Lecture in the
Australian American Leadership Dialogue Scholar Tour
University of Sydney
Title: Coupling Australia’s Researchers to the Global Innovation Economy
Sydney, Australia

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Coupling Australia’s Researchers to the Global Innovation Economy

  1. 1. “Coupling Australia’s Researchers to the Global Innovation Economy” Ninth Lecture in the Australian American Leadership Dialogue Scholar Tour University of Sydney Sydney, Australia October 17, 2008 Dr. Larry Smarr Director, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology Harry E. Gruber Professor, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Jacobs School of Engineering, UCSD
  2. 2. Abstract An innovation economy begins with the “pull toward the future” provided by a robust public research sector. While the shared Internet has been rapidly diminishing Australia’s “tyranny of distance,” the 21st Century global competition, driven by public research innovation, requires Australia to have high performance connectivity second to none for its researchers. A major step toward this goal has been achieved during the last year through the Australian American Leadership Dialogue (AALD) Project Link, establishing a 1 Gigabit/sec dedicated end-to- end connection between a 100 megapixel OptIPortal at the University of Melbourne and Calit2@UC San Diego over AARNet, Australia's National Research and Education Network. From October 2-17 Larry Smarr, as the 2008 Leadership Dialogue Scholar, is visiting Australian universities from Perth to Brisbane in order to oversee the launching of the next phase of the Leadership Dialogue’s Project Link—the linking of Australia’s major research intensive universities and the CSIRO to each other and to innovation centres around the world with AARNet’s new 10 Gbps access product. At each university Dr. Smarr will facilitate discussions on what is needed in the local campus infrastructure to make this ultra-broadband available to data intensive researchers. With this unprecedented bandwidth, Australia will be able to join emerging global collaborative research— across disciplines as diverse as climate change, coral reefs, bush fires, biotechnology, and health care—bringing the best minds on the planet to bear on issues critical to Australia’s future.
  3. 3. “To ensure a competitive economy for the 21st century, the Australian Government should set a goal of making Australia the pre-eminent location to attract the best researchers and be a preferred partner for international research institutions, businesses and national governments.”
  4. 4. The OptIPuter Creates an OptIPlanet Collaboratory: Enabling Data-Intensive e-Research GIST, Korea Michigan KISTI, Korea SARA, Netherlands “OptIPlanet: The OptIPuter Chicago Global Collaboratory” – SAGE software, developed by UIC/EVL for OptIPuter, Special Section of Supports Global Collaboration. Five Sites Streaming Future Generations Computer Systems, Compressed HD Video (~600mb Per Stream) Volume 25, Issue 2, Using “SAGE Visualcasting” to Replicate Streams February 2009 Calit2 (UCSD, UCI), SDSC, and UIC Leads—Larry Smarr PI Univ. Partners: NCSA, USC, SDSU, NW, TA&M, UvA, SARA, KISTI, AIST Industry: IBM, Sun, Telcordia, Chiaro, Calient, Glimmerglass, Lucent
  5. 5. OptIPuter Step I: From Shared Internet to Dedicated Lightpaths
  6. 6. Shared Internet Bandwidth: Unpredictable, Widely Varying, Jitter, Asymmetric 10000 12 Minutes 100-1000x Stanford Server Limit Computers In: 1000 Normal Time to Move UCSD Internet! Australia a Terabyte 100 Outbound (Mbps) Canada Czech Rep. India Data Intensive 10 10 Days Sciences Japan Korea Require Mexico Australia Fast 1 Moorea Predictable Netherlands Bandwidth Poland 0.1 Taiwan United States 0.01 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Source: Larry Smarr and Friends Inbound (Mbps) Measured Bandwidth from User Computer to Stanford Gigabit Server in Megabits/sec
  7. 7. Two New Calit2 Buildings Provide New Laboratories for “Living in the Future” • “Convergence” Laboratory Facilities – Nanotech, BioMEMS, Chips, Radio, Photonics – Virtual Reality, Digital Cinema, HDTV, Gaming • Over 1000 Researchers in Two Buildings – Linked via Dedicated Optical Networks UC San Diego Preparing for a World in Which Distance is Eliminated…
  8. 8. Discovering New Applications and Services Enabled by 1-10 Gbps Lambdas Maxine Brown, Tom DeFanti, Co-Chairs i Grid 2005 THE GLOBAL LAMBDA INTEGRATED FACILITY September 26-30, 2005 Calit2 @ University of California, San Diego California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology 21 Countries Driving 50 Demonstrations Using 1 or 10Gbps Lightpaths Sept 2005
  9. 9. The Large Hadron Collider Uses a Global Fiber Infrastructure To Connect Its Users • The grid relies on optical fiber networks to distribute data from CERN to 11 major computer centers in Europe, North America, and Asia • The grid is capable of routinely processing 250,000 jobs a day • The data flow will be ~6 Gigabits/sec or 15 million gigabytes a year for 10 to 15 years
  10. 10. EXPReS-Oz eVLBI Using 1 Gbps Lightpaths October 2007 Image Credit: Paul Boven, Data Streamed at 512 Mbps Image created by Paul Boven, JIVE Satellite image: Blue Marble Next Generation, courtesy of NASA Visible Earth
  11. 11. Next Great Planetary Instrument: The Square Kilometer Array Requires Dedicated Fiber Transfers Of 1 TByte Images World-wide Will Be Needed Every Minute!
  12. 12. Dedicated 10Gbps Lightpaths Tie Together State and Regional Fiber Infrastructure Interconnects Two Dozen State and Regional Internet2 Dynamic Optical Networks Circuit Network Under Development NLR 40 x 10Gb Wavelengths Expanding with Darkstrand to 80
  13. 13. Global Lambda Integrated Facility 1 to 10G Dedicated Lambda Infrastructure Interconnects Global Public Research Innovation Centers Source: Maxine Brown, UIC and Robert Patterson, NCSA
  14. 14. AARNet Provides the National and Global Bandwidth Required Between Campuses 25 Gbps to US 60 Gbps Brisbrane - Sydney - Melbourne 30 Gbps Melbourne - Adelaide 10 Gbps Adelaide - Perth
  15. 15. OptIPuter Step II: From User Analysis on PCs to OptIPortals
  16. 16. My OptIPortalTM – Affordable Termination Device for the OptIPuter Global Backplane • 20 Dual CPU Nodes, 20 24” Monitors, ~$50,000 • 1/4 Teraflop, 5 Terabyte Storage, 45 Mega Pixels--Nice PC! • Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment ( SAGE) Jason Leigh, EVL-UIC Source: Phil Papadopoulos SDSC, Calit2
  17. 17. OptIPuter Scalable Displays Are Used for Multi-Scale Biomedical Imaging 200 Megapixels! Source: Mark Ellisman, David Green: Purkinje Cells Lee, Red: Glial Cells Jason Light Blue: Nuclear DNA Leigh Two-Photon Laser Confocal Microscope Montage of 40x36=1440 Images in 3 Channels of a Mid-Sagittal Section of Rat Cerebellum Acquired Over an 8-hour Period
  18. 18. Scalable Displays Allow Both Global Content and Fine Detail
  19. 19. Allows for Interactive Zooming from Cerebellum to Individual Neurons
  20. 20. Prototyping the PC of 2015: Two Hundred Million Pixels Connected at 10Gbps Data from the Transdisciplinary Imaging Genetics Center 50 Apple 30” Cinema Displays Driven by 25 Dual- Processor G5s Source: Falko Kuester, Calit2@UCI NSF Infrastructure Grant
  21. 21. World’s Largest OptIPortal – 1/3 Billion Pixels NASA Earth Satellite Images Bushfires October 2007 San Diego
  22. 22. Very Large Images Can be Viewed Using CGLX’s TiffViewer Spitzer Space Telescope (Infrared) Hubble Space Telescope (Optical) Source: Falko Kuester, Calit2@UCSD
  23. 23. Challenge—How to Bring This Visualization Capability to the Supercomputer End User? 2004 35Mpixel EVEREST Display ORNL
  24. 24. The Livermore Lightcone: 8 Large AMR Simulations Covering 10 Billion Years “Look Back Time” • 1.5 M SU on LLNL Thunder • Generated 200 TB Data • 0.4 M SU Allocated on SDSC DataStar for Data Analysis Alone 5123 Base Grid, 7 Levels of Adaptive Refinement65,000 Spatial Dynamic Range Livermore Lightcone Tile 8 Source: Michael Norman, SDSC, UCSD
  25. 25. Using OptIPortals to Analyze Supercomputer Simulations Mike Norman, SDSC October 10, 2008 Two 64K Images From a Cosmological log of gas temperature log of gas density Simulation of Galaxy Cluster Formation Each Side: 2 Billion Light Years
  26. 26. Students Learn Case Studies in the Context of Diverse Medical Evidence UIC Anatomy Class electronic visualization laboratory, university of illinois at chicago
  27. 27. Using HIPerWall OptIPortals for Humanities and Social Sciences Software Studies Initiative, Calti2@UCSD Interface Designs for Cultural Analytics Research Environment Jeremy Douglass (top) & Lev Manovich Calit2@UCI (bottom) 200 Mpixel HIPerWall Second Annual Meeting of the Humanities, Arts, Science, and Technology Advanced Collaboratory (HASTAC II) UC Irvine May 23, 2008
  28. 28. On-Line Resources Help You Build Your Own OptIPuter
  29. 29. OptIPuter Step III: From YouTube to Digital Cinema Streaming Video
  30. 30. AARNet Pioneered Uncompressed HD VTC with UWashington Research Channel--Supercomputing 2004 Canberra Pittsburgh
  31. 31. e-Science Collaboratory Without Walls Enabled by iHDTV Uncompressed HD Telepresence 1500 Mbits/sec Calit2 to UW Research Channel Over NLR May 23, 2007 John Delaney, PI LOOKING, Neptune Photo: Harry Ammons, SDSC
  32. 32. OptIPlanet Collaboratory Persistent Infrastructure Between Calit2 and U Washington Photo Credit: Alan Decker Feb. 29, 2008 Ginger Armbrust’s Diatoms: Micrographs, Chromosomes, Genetic Assembly iHDTV: 1500 Mbits/sec Calit2 to UW Research Channel Over NLR UW’s Research Channel Michael Wellings
  33. 33. Telepresence Meeting Using Digital Cinema 4k Streams 4k = 4000x2000 Pixels = 4xHD Streaming 4k 100 Times with JPEG the Resolution 2000 of YouTube! Compression ½ Gbit/sec Lays Technical Basis for Global Keio University Digital President Anzai Cinema Sony UCSD NTT Chancellor Fox SGI Calit2@UCSD Auditorium
  34. 34. OptIPuter Step IV: Integration of Lightpaths, OptIPortals, and Streaming Media
  35. 35. New Year’s Challenge: Streaming Underwater Video From Taiwan’s Kenting Reef to Calit2’s OptIPortal My next plan is to stream stable Remote Videos Local Images and quality underwater images to Calit2, hopefully by PRAGMA 14. -- Fang-Pang to LS Jan. 1, 2008 March 6, 2008 Plan Accomplished! March 26, 2008 UCSD: Rajvikram Singh, Sameer Tilak, Jurgen Schulze, Tony Fountain, Peter Arzberger NCHC : Ebbe Strandell, Sun-In Lin, Yao-Tsung Wang, Fang-Pang Lin
  36. 36. The Calit2 OptIPortals at UCSD and UCI Are Now a Gbit/s HD Collaboratory NASA Ames Visit Feb. 29, 2008 HiPerVerse: First ½ Gigapixel Distributed OptIPortal- 124 Tiles Sept. 15, 2008 Calit2@ UCI wall Calit2@ UCSD wall UCSD cluster: 15 x Quad core Dell XPS with Dual nVIDIA 5600s UCI cluster: 25 x Dual Core Apple G5
  37. 37. Command and Control: Live Session with JPL and Mars Rover from Calit2 Source: Falko Kuester, Calit2; Michael Sims, NASA
  38. 38. U Michigan Virtual Space Interaction Testbed (VISIT) Instrumenting OptIPortals for Social Science Research • Using Cameras Embedded in the Seams of Tiled Displays and Computer Vision Techniques, we can Understand how People Interact with OptIPortals – Classify Attention, Expression, Gaze – Initial Implementation Based on Attention Interaction Design Toolkit (J. Lee, MIT) • Close to Producing Usable Eye/Nose Tracking Data using OpenCV Leading U.S. Researchers on the Social Aspects of Collaboration Source: Erik Hofer, UMich, School of Information
  39. 39. Calit2 Microbial Metagenomics Cluster- Next Generation Optically Linked Science Data Server Source: Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC, Calit2 512 Processors ~200TB ~5 Teraflops Sun 1GbE X4500 ~ 200 Terabytes Storage and Storage 10GbE Switched 10GbE / Routed Core
  40. 40. CAMERA’s Global Microbial Metagenomics CyberCommunity 2200 Registered Users From Over 50 Countries
  41. 41. OptIPuter Step V: The Campus Last Mile
  42. 42. CENIC’s New “Hybrid Network” - Traditional Routed IP and the New Switched Ethernet and Optical Services ~ $14M Invested in Upgrade Now Campuses Need to Upgrade Source: Jim Dolgonas, CENIC
  43. 43. AARNet 10Gbps Access Product is Here!!! • HD and Other High Bandwidth Applications Combined with “Big Research” Pushing Large Data Sets Means 1 Gbps is No Longer Adequate for All Users • AARNet Helps Connect Campus Users or Remote Instruments • Will Permit Researchers to Exchange Large Amounts of Data within Australia, and Internationally via SXTransPORT © 2008, AARNet Pty Ltd 43 Slide From Chris Hancock, CEO AARNet
  44. 44. The “Golden Spike” UCSD Experimental Optical Core: Ready to Couple Users to CENIC L1, L2, L3 Services Quartzite Communications To 10GigE cluster Goals by 2008: Core Year 3 node interfaces >= 60 endpoints at 10 GigE CENIC L1, L2 >= 30 Packet switched Wavelength Quartzite Selective Services Corewavelengths ..... Switch >= 30 Switched >= 400 Connected endpoints Lucent To 10GigE cluster node interfaces and other switches To cluster nodes ..... Glimmerglass Approximately 0.5 Tbps ..... To cluster nodes GigE Switch with Dual 10GigE Upliks Arrive at the “Optical” Production OOO Switch To cluster nodes Center of Hybrid Campus 32 10GigE ..... Switch GigE Switch with Dual 10GigE Upliks Force10 ... To Packet Switch CalREN-HPR GigE Switch with Dual 10GigE Upliks other Research nodes Cloud GigE Funded by 10GigE NSF MRI Campus Research 4 GigE 4 pair fiber Grant Cloud Cisco 6509 Juniper T320 OptIPuter Border Router Source: Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC/Calit2 (Quartzite PI, OptIPuter co-PI)
  45. 45. Use Campus Investment in Fiber and Networks to Physically Connect Campus Resources HPC System Cluster Condo PetaScale Data Analysis UCSD Storage Facility UC Grid Pilot Digital Collections Research Manager Cluster OptIPortal Research 10Gbps Instrument Source:Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC/Calit2
  46. 46. Green Initiative: Can Optical Fiber Replace Airline Travel for Continuing Collaborations ? Source: Maxine Brown, OptIPuter Project Manager
  47. 47. OptIPortals Are Being Adopted Globally U Melbourne Today-- And New Zealand’s First OptlPortal! AIST-Japan Osaka U-Japan KISTI-Korea CNIC-China NCHC-Taiwan Russian Academy Sciences Moscow SARA- Netherlands Brno-Czech Republic Last Week Monash University Two Days Ago ANU EVL@UIC Calit2@UCSD Calit2@UCI CICESE, Mexico Canberra U Queensland CSIRO Discovery Center
  48. 48. “Using the Link to Build the Link” Calit2 and Univ. Melbourne Technology Teams January 15, 2007 No Calit2 Person Physically Flew to Australia to Bring This Up!
  49. 49. UM Professor Graeme Jackson Planning Brain Surgery for Severe Epilepsy
  50. 50. HD MURPA Talk to Monash University from Calit2 July 30, 2008 July 31, 2008
  51. 51. Smarr American Australian Leadership Dialogue OptIPlanet Collaboratory Lecture Tour October 2008 AARNet National Network • Oct 2—University of Adelaide • Oct 6—Univ of Western Australia • Oct 8—Monash Univ.; Swinburne Univ. • Oct 9—Univ. of Melbourne • Oct 10—Univ. of Queensland • Oct 13—Univ. of Technology Sydney • Oct 14—Univ. of New South Wales • Oct 15—ANU; AARNet; Leadership Dialogue Scholar Oration, Canberra • Oct 16—CSIRO, Canberra • Oct 17—Sydney Univ.
  52. 52. AARNet’s “EN4R” – Experimental Network For Researchers • For Researchers • Free Access for up to 12 months • 2 Circuits Reserved for EN4R on Each Optical Backbone Segment • Access to North America via. SXTransPORT 52 Source: Chris Hancock, AARNet
  53. 53. EVL’s SAGE OptIPortal VisualCasting Multi-Site OptIPuter Collaboratory CENIC CalREN-XD Workshop Sept. 15, 2008 EVL-UI Chicago At Supercomputing 2008 Austin, Texas November, 2008 Streaming 4k SC08 Bandwidth Challenge Entry On site: Remote: SARA (Amsterdam) U Michigan U of Michigan GIST / KISTI (Korea) UIC/EVL Osaka Univ. (Japan) U of Queensland Masaryk Univ. (CZ), Russian Academy of Science Calit2 Requires 10 Gbps Lightpath to Each Site Uncompressed High Definition Video From Each Site Source: Jason Leigh, Luc Renambot, EVL, UI Chicago
  54. 54. AARNet’s Roadmap Towards 2012 Source: Chris Hancock, AARNet
  55. 55. 21st Century Australian Information Infrastructure: Joining the Global Data-Intensive Collaboratory • All Data-Intensive Australian: – Researchers – Scientific Instruments – Data Repositories • Should Have Best-of-Breed End-End Connectivity • Today, that Means 10Gbps Lightpaths • This Requires a Spirited Partnership: – Federal – State – Universities and CSIRO – AARnet The Mutuality Principle at Work!