Can a Greener Internet Help Us Moderate Climate Change?


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Calit2 / Institute for the Future
Strategic Planning Retreat on Green IT
Title: Can a Greener Internet Help Us Moderate Climate Change?
La Jolla, CA

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Can a Greener Internet Help Us Moderate Climate Change?

  1. 1. Can a Greener Internet Help Us Moderate Climate Change? Calit2 / Institute for the Future Strategic Planning Retreat on Green IT April 25, 2009 Dr. Larry Smarr Director, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology Harry E. Gruber Professor, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Jacobs School of Engineering, UCSD
  2. 2. Calit2 Continues to Pursue Its Initial Mission: Envisioning How the Extension of Innovative Telecommunications and Information Technologies Throughout the Physical World will Transform Critical Applications Important to the California Economy and its Citizens’ Quality Of Life. In the Coming Decade, We Believe that Sustainability and Climate Disruption Will Dominate California’s Future
  3. 3. The Planet is Already Committed to a Dangerous Level of Warming Temperature Threshold Range Earth Has Only Realized that Initiates the Climate-Tipping 1/3 of the Committed Warming - Future Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Move Peak to the Right Additional Warming over 1750 Level V. Ramanathan and Y. Feng, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD September 23, 2008 www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0803838105
  4. 4. Arctic Summer Ice is Rapidly Decreasing “The Arctic Ocean will be effectively ice free sometime between 2020 and 2040, although it is possible it could happen as early as 2013.” --Walt Meier, Research Scientist at the National Snow and Ice Data Centre at the University of Colorado
  5. 5. The Hindu Kush/Himalayan Plateau Has the Most Snow and Ice Outside of the Polar Regions “Water Towers of Asia” Impact 40% of the World’s Population “California Faces Water Rationing, Governor Proclaims Drought Emergency” --February 27, 2009
  6. 6. “It Will Be the Biggest Single Peacetime Project Humankind Will Have Ever Undertaken”
  7. 7. The IPCC Recommends a 25-40% Reduction Below 1990 Levels by 2020 • On September 27, 2006, Governor Schwarzenegger signed California the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 – Assembly Bill 32 (AB32) – Requires Reduction of GHG by 2020 Only to 1990 Levels – 10% Reduction from 2008 Levels; 30% from BAU 2020 Levels – 4 Tons of CO2-equiv. Reduction for Every Person in California! • The European Union Requires Reduction of GHG by 2020 to 20% Below 1990 Levels (12/12/2008) • Australia has Pledged to Cut by 2020 its GHG Emissions 5% from 2000 Levels via the World's Broadest Cap &Trade Scheme (12/15/08) [~5% Below 1990 Levels] • Neither the U.S. or Canada has an Official Target Yet – President Obama Has Endorsed the AB32 2020 Goal
  8. 8. ICT is a Critical Element in Achieving Countries Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets GeSI member companies: • Bell Canada, • British Telecomm., • Plc, • Cisco Systems, • Deutsche Telekom AG, • Ericsson, • France Telecom, • Hewlett-Packard, • Intel, • Microsoft, • Nokia, • Nokia Siemens Networks, • Sun Microsystems, • T-Mobile, • Telefónica S.A., • Telenor, • Verizon, • Vodafone Plc. Additional support: • Dell, LG.
  9. 9. The Global ICT Carbon Footprint is Roughly the Same as the Aviation Industry Today But ICT Emissions are Growing at 6% Annually! Most of Growth is in Developing Countries the assumptions behind the growth in emissions expected in 2020: • takes into account likely efficient technology developments that affect the power consumption of products and services • and their expected penetration in the market in 2020
  10. 10. Reduction of ICT Emissions is a Global Challenge – U.S. and Canada are Small Sources U.S. and Canada Together Fall From 25% to 14% of Global ICT Emissions by 2020
  11. 11. The Global ICT Carbon Footprint by Subsector The Number of PCs (Desktops and Laptops) Globally is Expected to Increase from 592 Million in 2002 to More Than Four Billion in 2020
  12. 12. Calit2--A Systems Approach to the Future of the Internet and its Transformation of Our Society Calit2 Has Assembled a Complex Social Network of Over 350 UC San Diego & UC Irvine Faculty From Two Dozen Departments Working in Multidisciplinary Teams With Staff, Students, Industry, and the Community Reduce GHG Emissions by Designing More Efficient IT/Telecom
  13. 13. The NSF-Funded GreenLight Project Giving Users Greener Compute and Storage Options UCSD Structural Engineering Dept. Conducted Sun MD Tests May 2007 • Measure, Publish, and Control Energy Usage: – Sun Has Shown up to 40% Reduction in Energy – Active Management of Disks, CPUs, etc. – Measures Temperature at 5 Levels in 8 Racks – Power Utilization in Each of the 8 Racks – Chilled Water Cooling Systems UCSD (Calit2 & SOM) Source: Tom DeFanti, Calit2; Bought Two Sun MDs GreenLight PI May 2008
  14. 14. Research Needed on How to Deploy a Green CI MRI • Computer Architecture – Rajesh Gupta/CSE • Software Architecture – Amin Vahdat, Ingolf Kruger/CSE • CineGrid Exchange – Tom DeFanti/Calit2 • Visualization – Falko Kuster/Structural Engineering • Power and Thermal Management – Tajana Rosing/CSE • Analyzing Power Consumption Data – Jim Hollan/Cog Sci • Direct DC Datacenters – Tom Defanti, Greg Hidley
  15. 15. GreenLight Project: Putting Machines To Sleep Transparently Rajesh Gupta, UCSD CSE; Calit2 Network interface Secondary Network processor interface Management software Low power domain Main processor, Peripheral RAM, etc IBM X60 Power Consumption Laptop Power Consumption (Watts) 20 16W 18 (4.1 Hrs) Somniloquy 16 11.05W Enables Servers 14 (5.9 Hrs) to Enter and Exit Sleep 12 10 While Maintaining 8 Their Network and 6 Application Level 0.74W 1.04W 4 (88 Hrs) (63 Hrs) Presence 2 0 Sleep (S3) Somniloquy Baseline (Low 15 Normal Power)
  16. 16. Consolidating Dispersed Faculty Clusters Over the Fiber Connected UCSD Campus Research CI SDSC Triton Components HPC System Cluster Condo PetaScale Data Analysis UCSD Storage Facility UC Grid Pilot Digital Collections DNA Arrays, Lifecycle Research Mass Spec., Microscopes, Management Cluster OptIPortal Research Genome Instrument Sequencers N x 10Gbe Source: Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC/Calit2
  17. 17. Power Management in the Cellular Infrastructure: Calit2 Team Achieves 58% Power Amplifier Efficiency Standard Commercial Base Station Power Amp is 10% Efficient Calit2 Power Transistor Tradeoffs: High-Power Amplifier Lab Si-LDMOS, GaN, & GaAs Price & Performance Power Amplifier Tradeoffs: WiMAX & 3.9GPP LTE Efficiency & Linearity STMicroelectronics Digital Signal Processing Tradeoffs: Pre-Distortion, Memory Effects & Power Control MIPS & Memory Source: Don Kimball, Calit2; Peter Asbeck and Larry Larson, ECE
  18. 18. Application of ICT Can Lead to a 5-Fold Greater Decrease in GHGs Than its Own Carbon Footprint While the sector plans to significantly step up the energy efficiency of its products and services, ICT’s largest influence will be by enabling energy efficiencies in other sectors, an opportunity that could deliver carbon savings five times larger than the total emissions from the entire ICT sector in 2020. --Smart 2020 Report Major Opportunities for the United States* – Smart Electrical Grids – Smart Transportation Systems – Smart Buildings – Virtual Meetings * Smart 2020 United States Report Addendum
  19. 19. Applying ICT – The Smart 2020 Opportunity for Reducing GHG Emissions by 7.8 GtCO2e Intelligent Smart Transportation Buildings Smart Electrical Grid Telepresence Recall Total ICT 2020 Emissions are 1.43 GtCO2e
  20. 20. Calit2--A Systems Approach to the Future of the Internet and its Transformation of Our Society Calit2 Has Assembled a Complex Social Network of Over 350 UC San Diego & UC Irvine Faculty From Two Dozen Departments Working in Multidisciplinary Teams With Staff, Students, Industry, and the Community Reduce GHG Emissions by Extensive Use of IT/Telecom in Applications
  21. 21. Next Stage: Developing Greener Smart Campuses Calit2 (UCSD & UCI) Prototypes • Coupling the Internet and the Electrical Grid – Choosing non-GHG Emitting Electricity Sources – Measuring Demand at Sub-Building Levels – Reducing Local Energy Usage via User Access Thru Web • Transportation System – Campus Wireless GPS Low Carbon Fleet – Green Software Automobile Innovations – Driver Level Cell Phone Traffic Awareness • Travel Substitution – Commercial Teleconferencing – Next Generation Global Telepresence Student Video -- UCSD Living Laboratory for Real-World Solutions on UCSD UCI Named ‘Best Overall' in Flex Your Power Awards
  22. 22. Real-Time Monitoring of Building Energy Usage: UCSD Has 34 Buildings On-Line
  23. 23. UCSD is Installing Zero Carbon Emission Solar and Fuel Cell DC Electricity Generators San Diego’s Point Loma Wastewater UCSD 2.8 Megawatt Available Late 2009 Treatment Plant Produces Waste Methane Fuel Cell Power Plant Uses Methane 2 Megawatts of Solar Power Cells Being Installed
  24. 24. Comparision Between UCSD Buildings: kW/sqFt Year Since 1/1/09 Calit2 and CSE are Very Energy Intensive Buildings
  25. 25. Power Management in Mixed Use Buildings: The UCSD CSE Building is Energy Instrumented • 500 Occupants, 750 Computers – More Computers Than Humans! • Detailed Instrumentation to Measure Macro and Micro-Scale Power Use – 39 Sensor Pods, 156 Radios, 70 Circuits – Subsystems: Air Conditioning & Lighting Calit2 is Being Re-Designed as an “Internet of Things” Building Source: Rajesh Gupta, CSE, Calit2
  26. 26. ResponSphere Sensing and Instrumentation in UCI Calit2 • Exploiting IT for effective response to unexpected events • Responsphere: an infrastructure testbed for situation monitoring, awareness, and IT testing/validation in the context of emergency response – Deploys more than 200 sensors of differing types within Calit2 and the UCI campus – Accessible to researchers via SATware (a middleware for sentient spaces) Calit2 Building Source: Chris Davison, Sharad Mehrotra, UCI
  27. 27. Making Cars Greener Requires Software Engineering-- Calit2 Established the Automotive Software Workshop Source: Ingolf Krueger, Calit2 • Over 10 Million Lines of Code in Your Car! 90 % of all Auto • Sponsors: Calit2, NSF, EU, DFG Innovations are Now • 50:50 Participation Industry/Academia Software-Driven • Next Instance Planned For 2009 • Industry Participants Include:
  28. 28. Launch of ZEVnet Fleet of Wireless Cars-- First Calit2 Testbed for Intelligent Transportation April 18, 2002 Irvine, CA
  29. 29. Reducing Traffic Congestion: Calit2 California Peer-to -Peer Wireless Traffic Report • Citizen to Citizen Accident Reports 20,000+ Users • Real-Time Freeway Speeds > 1000 Calls Per Day • “Leave Now” Paging Services San Diego LA & OC Bay Area (866) 500 0977 (888) 9 CALIT2 (888) 4 CALIT2 Source: Ganz Chockalingam, Calit2
  30. 30. EcoRaft- Using IT to Slow Down the Destruction of Biodiversity Bill Tomlinson, Interactive Animation Lab, Calit2@UCI
  31. 31. Using High Definition to Link the Calit2 Buildings: Living Greener LifeSize System June 2, 2008
  32. 32. The Calit2 OptIPortals at UCSD and UCI Are Now a Gbit/s HD Collaboratory NASA Ames Visit Feb. 29, 2008 Calit2@ UCI wall Calit2@ UCSD wall UCSD cluster: 15 x Quad core Dell XPS with Dual nVIDIA 5600s UCI cluster: 25 x Dual Core Apple G5
  33. 33. Just in Time OptIPlanet Collaboratory: Live Session Between NASA Ames and Calit2@UCSD Feb 19, 2009 From Start to This Image in Less Than 2 Weeks! View from NASA Ames Lunar Science Institute Mountain View, CA Virtual Handshake HD compressed 6:1 NASA Interest in Supporting Virtual Institutes Source: Falko Kuester, Calit2; Michael Sims, NASA
  34. 34. Academic Research “OptIPlatform” Cyberinfrastructure: A 10Gbps Lightpath Cloud HD/4k Video Cams HD/4k Telepresence Instruments End User HPC OptIPortal 10G Lightpaths National LambdaRail Campus Optical Switch Data Repositories & Clusters HD/4k Video Images
  35. 35. International Symposia on Green ICT: Greening ICT and Applying ICT to Green Infrastructures Webcasts Available at: Calit2@UCSD
  36. 36. Calit2 Extending the Internet Throughout the Physical World