Profilograph
Inertial Profiler
International Roughness Index (IRI/MRI)
Certification
Specifications
Submittals
Acceptance ...
Comfortable ride
Smoother roads:
last longer,
stay smoother longer,
safer,
saves money
Until recently, pavement smoothness was
measured using a California profilograph
and straightedge
The first profilograph w...
Profile Index
0.2 inch blanking band
0.0 inch (Zero) blanking band
Must Grinds
0.3 inches in 25 feet
Because its front and rear wheels are in contact with the pavement surface, the
profilograph cannot accurately measure the...
Actual Profile
Profilograph Trace
Phantom
Bumps
Dip
Dip
Front Mount Rear Mount
Side Mount
Human Response to Vibration
Vehicle Response to the Road
Road Roughness
Accelerometer
Reference elevation
Laser Height Sensor
Height relative to reference
Distance Measuring Instrument
Longitudi...
Accelerometers are used in a wide variety of
equipment and personal electronics including
seismology equipment, car alarm ...
The laser height sensors measure the distance from
the reference plane to the pavement surface. They
operate around 16KHz....
The site is located in the median of Interstate
80 at the Sacramento Regional Transit Light
Rail station (Watt/I-80) parki...
19
20
Block Test
AASHTO R57-10, Section 5.3.2.3.1
This test will be conducted on a relatively flat and level area
It’s purpose i...
Equipment Precision (Repeatability)
AASHTO R56-10, Section 8.3.1.2
Compare ten Inertial Profiler runs over same test
secti...
Failed tests (Equipment or Operator)
May re-test the following day (if site available)
Only one re-test per operator/equip...
International Roughness Index (IRI)
Computer Algorithm
Areas of Localized Roughness (aka “must grinds”)
Isolated areas of ...
The International Roughness Index (IRI) is a
scale for roughness based on the simulated
response of a generic motor vehicl...
Where B = 250 mm (9.8 in) for IRI
(represents tire contact with ground)
0.1 mile 0.1 mile
ETW
RWP = Right Wheel Path
LWP = Left Wheel Path
ETW
Direction of Travel
RWP
LWP
IRI = 58 in/mi
IRI = 64...
HMAAcceptance Values
MRI for each 0.1 mile section of a lane
AreasofLocalized Roughness
“Must Grinds” are now defined as “Areas of
Localized Roughness”
Areas of localized roughness us...
AreasofLocalized Roughness
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
Distance (feet)
IRI(in/mi)
25-f...
AreasofLocalized Roughness
“Must Grinds” will now be called “Areas of
Localized Roughness”
Areas of localized roughness us...
Certification
Inertial Profiler must be certified within the last
12 months
Profiler Operator must be certified within the...
Submittals
Within 5 business days before start of profiling or
changing profile or operator
Inertial Profiler certificatio...
Submittals
Provide data within 2 business days after each day
of profiling
Profile data must include:
Raw profile data for...
Submittals
Provide data within 2 business days after each day
of profiling
Profile data must include:
Raw profile data for...
Smoothness Measurement
Contractor to notify Engineer of start location by
station and start time at least 2 business days
...
Smoothness Correction
For HMA, if the final surface does not comply with
the smoothness acceptance values the contractor
c...
QualityAssurance
Caltrans will independently collect profile data
For each 0.1 mile section, the contractor’s IRI
values m...
Collects data at a high rate of speed
(approx. 30 mph to 60 mph)
Collects data for both wheel paths
simultaneously
No traf...
ProVALReports
Ride Quality Analysis Report
43
ProVALReports
44
ProVALReports
Smoothness Assurance Analysis Report
45
ProVALReports
46
ProVALReports
Profiler Certification Analysis Report
(Cross correlation test)
47
CrossCorrelation Test
48
49
Smoothpavements.com (FHWA)
Roadprofile.com (ProVAL)
CT Pavement Website
http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/Pavement/Offices...
Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness
Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness
Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness
Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness
Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness
Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness
Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness
Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness
Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness
Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness
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Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness

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Presentation delivered at the CalAPA Spring Asphalt Pavement Conference April 9-10, 2014 in Ontario. Topic: New asphalt pavement smoothness specificaitons and measurement technology is discussed in depth.

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  • No matter how well a pavement is designed and built, no matter how long that pavement lasts, the users of the roadway will call it good or bad primarily based on the smoothness (or comfortability) of the ride.Numerous studies by the Federal Highway Administration, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), and National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) have looked at the affect of smoothness on pavement life. There studies have found a common thread: Pavement built smoother tend to last longer. One reason as to why they last longer could be attributed to the effect of dynamic loading. Rougher pavements result in more dynamic loading, subjecting pavements to much heavier loads than they were designed for. Thus, wearing them out faster. There is evidence from limited studies of smoothness progression over time shows that pavements built smoother will stay smoother longer. There are a lot of design and construction factors that influence smoothness; but when designed and constructed properly, smoother roads tend to stay smoother longer.Rough roads can result in a loss of vehicle control, a reduction in a person’s ability to perform motor tasks, driver fatigue, and an increased frequency of lost load accidents.Smoother roads help save both the user and owner-agency money. Studies suggest that pavements built smoother initially, require less maintenance over the life of the pavement. Additionally studies have shown that smoother pavements decrease both fuel consumption and vehicle maintenance for users.
  • No matter how well a pavement is designed and built, no matter how long that pavement lasts, the users of the roadway will call it good or bad primarily based on the smoothness (or comfortability) of the ride.Numerous studies by the Federal Highway Administration, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), and National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) have looked at the affect of smoothness on pavement life. There studies have found a common thread: Pavement built smoother tend to last longer. One reason as to why they last longer could be attributed to the effect of dynamic loading. Rougher pavements result in more dynamic loading, subjecting pavements to much heavier loads than they were designed for. Thus, wearing them out faster. There is evidence from limited studies of smoothness progression over time shows that pavements built smoother will stay smoother longer. There are a lot of design and construction factors that influence smoothness; but when designed and constructed properly, smoother roads tend to stay smoother longer.Rough roads can result in a loss of vehicle control, a reduction in a person’s ability to perform motor tasks, driver fatigue, and an increased frequency of lost load accidents.Smoother roads help save both the user and owner-agency money. Studies suggest that pavements built smoother initially, require less maintenance over the life of the pavement. Additionally studies have shown that smoother pavements decrease both fuel consumption and vehicle maintenance for users.
  • Background and smoke used to illustrate laser
  • Example of 4 inch wide line laser…Roline is a major manufacturer
  • SSP highlights
  • Any Questions?Thank you for coming today. We hope that the information presented was useful.
  • Peter Vacura - Asphalt Pavement Smoothness

    1. 1. Profilograph Inertial Profiler International Roughness Index (IRI/MRI) Certification Specifications Submittals Acceptance Criteria Corrective Measures Analysis Tool - ProVAL
    2. 2. Comfortable ride Smoother roads: last longer, stay smoother longer, safer, saves money
    3. 3. Until recently, pavement smoothness was measured using a California profilograph and straightedge The first profilograph was invented by Francis Hveem and constructed in 1940 by the Materials and Research Division of the California Division of Highways.
    4. 4. Profile Index 0.2 inch blanking band 0.0 inch (Zero) blanking band Must Grinds 0.3 inches in 25 feet
    5. 5. Because its front and rear wheels are in contact with the pavement surface, the profilograph cannot accurately measure the pavement profile.
    6. 6. Actual Profile Profilograph Trace Phantom Bumps Dip Dip
    7. 7. Front Mount Rear Mount Side Mount
    8. 8. Human Response to Vibration Vehicle Response to the Road Road Roughness
    9. 9. Accelerometer Reference elevation Laser Height Sensor Height relative to reference Distance Measuring Instrument Longitudinal distance
    10. 10. Accelerometers are used in a wide variety of equipment and personal electronics including seismology equipment, car alarm systems, and crash detection/air bag deployment sensors. In profilers, they measure the movement of the vehicle body
    11. 11. The laser height sensors measure the distance from the reference plane to the pavement surface. They operate around 16KHz. At 60 mph they can take about 15 readings per inch of vehicle travel.
    12. 12. The site is located in the median of Interstate 80 at the Sacramento Regional Transit Light Rail station (Watt/I-80) parking lot. Two test sections (asphalt and concrete) University of California Pavement Research Center with the assistance of the Pavement Program and METS will administer calibration program Calibration tests will be conducted 2 to 4 times per year (March, May and July for 2014) 18
    13. 13. 19
    14. 14. 20
    15. 15. Block Test AASHTO R57-10, Section 5.3.2.3.1 This test will be conducted on a relatively flat and level area It’s purpose is to check the height measurements from the height sensor(s) of the test vehicle using blocks of known heights (i.e. 0.5 inch, 1.0 inch, 2.0 inch). Bounce Test AASHTO R57-10, Section 5.3.2.3.2 It’s purpose is to ensures that the data from the height sensor and accelerometer are legitimate and being properly combined to compute the longitudinal elevation profile Distance Measurement Index Test AASHTO R56-10, Section 8.4 Tests accuracy of profilers distance measurement instrument (DMI) 21
    16. 16. Equipment Precision (Repeatability) AASHTO R56-10, Section 8.3.1.2 Compare ten Inertial Profiler runs over same test section against each other Calculate repeatability agreement score Score of 0.92 or greater is required Equipment Accuracy (Reproducibility) AASHTO R56-10, Section 8.3.1.4 Compare several inertial profiler runs over same test section against a reference profiler Calculate accuracy agreement score Score of 0.90 or greater is required 22
    17. 17. Failed tests (Equipment or Operator) May re-test the following day (if site available) Only one re-test per operator/equipment allowed 23
    18. 18. International Roughness Index (IRI) Computer Algorithm Areas of Localized Roughness (aka “must grinds”) Isolated areas of roughness
    19. 19. The International Roughness Index (IRI) is a scale for roughness based on the simulated response of a generic motor vehicle to the roughness in a single wheel path of the road surface. IRI is used to define a characteristic of the longitudinal profile of a traveled wheel track.
    20. 20. Where B = 250 mm (9.8 in) for IRI (represents tire contact with ground)
    21. 21. 0.1 mile 0.1 mile ETW RWP = Right Wheel Path LWP = Left Wheel Path ETW Direction of Travel RWP LWP IRI = 58 in/mi IRI = 64 in/mi IRI = 60 in/mi IRI = 62 in/mi Direction of Travel MRI = 60 in/mi MRI = 62 in/mi
    22. 22. HMAAcceptance Values MRI for each 0.1 mile section of a lane
    23. 23. AreasofLocalized Roughness “Must Grinds” are now defined as “Areas of Localized Roughness” Areas of localized roughness uses a continuous IRI for each wheel path with a 25 ft interval Areas of localized roughness that exceed 120(160) in/mile must be corrected regardless of the IRI values of a 0.1 mile section 32
    24. 24. AreasofLocalized Roughness 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 Distance (feet) IRI(in/mi) 25-foot sliding window 33
    25. 25. AreasofLocalized Roughness “Must Grinds” will now be called “Areas of Localized Roughness” Areas of localized roughness use a continuous IRI for each wheel path with a 25 ft interval Areas of localized roughness that exceed 120 in/mile must be corrected regardless of the IRI values of a 0.1 mile section
    26. 26. Certification Inertial Profiler must be certified within the last 12 months Profiler Operator must be certified within the last 12 months Contractors must obtain certification from the California Certification Site (no longer Texas Transportation Institute)
    27. 27. Submittals Within 5 business days before start of profiling or changing profile or operator Inertial Profiler certification Operator certification Manufacturer’s recommended calibration and verification tests Within 2 business days after profiling engineer approved test section Cross correlation test results 36
    28. 28. Submittals Provide data within 2 business days after each day of profiling Profile data must include: Raw profile data for each lane (ppf extension) ProVAL ride quality analysis report in IRI for both wheel paths ProVAL ride quality analysis report in MRI for each lane ProVAL smoothness assurance analysis report in IRI for both wheel paths GPS data Manufacturer’s recommended calibration and verification results AASHTO calibration and verification test results 37
    29. 29. Submittals Provide data within 2 business days after each day of profiling Profile data must include: Raw profile data for each lane (ppf extension) ProVAL ride quality analysis report in IRI for both wheel paths ProVAL ride quality analysis report in MRI for each lane ProVAL smoothness assurance analysis report in IRI for both wheel paths GPS data Manufacturer’s recommended calibration and verification results AASHTO calibration and verification test results 38
    30. 30. Smoothness Measurement Contractor to notify Engineer of start location by station and start time at least 2 business days before profiling Begin and end station will be marked on pavement shoulder before profiling Following “leave out” areas will be recorded Begin and end of all bridge approach slabs Begin and end of all bridges Begin and end of all culverts visible on the roadway surface 39
    31. 31. Smoothness Correction For HMA, if the final surface does not comply with the smoothness acceptance values the contractor can do the following: Grind the pavement to within specified tolerances Remove and replace it Place an overlay of HMA For PCC, if the final surface does not comply with the smoothness acceptance values the contractor can do the following: Grind the pavement to within specified tolerances Remove and replace it 40
    32. 32. QualityAssurance Caltrans will independently collect profile data For each 0.1 mile section, the contractor’s IRI values must be within 10 percent of Caltrans’ IRI values 41
    33. 33. Collects data at a high rate of speed (approx. 30 mph to 60 mph) Collects data for both wheel paths simultaneously No traffic control Safer $$$$ Savings
    34. 34. ProVALReports Ride Quality Analysis Report 43
    35. 35. ProVALReports 44
    36. 36. ProVALReports Smoothness Assurance Analysis Report 45
    37. 37. ProVALReports 46
    38. 38. ProVALReports Profiler Certification Analysis Report (Cross correlation test) 47
    39. 39. CrossCorrelation Test 48
    40. 40. 49 Smoothpavements.com (FHWA) Roadprofile.com (ProVAL) CT Pavement Website http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/Pavement/Offices/Pave ment_Engineering/Smoother_Pavements.html Equipment Suppliers Ames Engineering (amesengineering.com) Dynatest (dynatest.com) Surface Systems and Instruments (Smoothroad.com)

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