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Minimalism 4th Hour


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Minimalism 4th Hour

  1. 1. MINIMALISMWhat you see is what you see.
  2. 2. Robert Smithson—Mirror Stratum, 1966
  3. 3. Dan Flavin—Untitled (for you, Leo, in long respect and affection) 3, 1978
  4. 4. Alan Sonfist—Earth Monument to Chicago, 1965-1977
  5. 5. Characteristics of Minimalism Primarily sculpture Geometric forms Industrially produced Non-referential Materials appear as materials No distracting colors Gallery and viewer are part of the piece
  6. 6. Social and Political Background Minimalism was a product of its time  Mass-production  Media  Conflicts between capitalism and democracy 1960s—a time of radical upheaval and blurring of boundaries “End” of Minimalism  Artbusiness  Conservative backlash
  7. 7. Artistic Context Minimalism is a reaction to abstract expressionism  Rejected romantic exuberance and self-celebration Pop Art expanded the art world  Shared characteristics  Popularized art
  8. 8. Reactions to Minimalism “Recentness of Sculpture”—Clement Greenberg  Minimalism was confusing innovation with novelty  “Novelty Art” has nothing to do with art “Art and Objecthood”—Michael Fried  Minimalism was challenging modernism
  9. 9. Frank Stella Parallel Order Denied illusion Stripes
  10. 10. Frank Stella—The Marriage of Reason and Squalor, 1959
  11. 11. Frank Stella—Union I, 1966
  12. 12. Frank Stella—Darabjerd I, 1968
  13. 13. Donald Judd "A shape, a volume, a color, a surface is something itself. It shouldnt be concealed as part of a fairly different whole."  -Donald Judd
  14. 14. Donald Judd Continued Space and Dimension Rectangular Plane Order Monochrome
  15. 15. Donald Judd—Untitled (Stack), 1967
  16. 16. Donald Judd—Untitled, 1966
  17. 17. Robert Morris “Simplicity of shape does not necessarily equate with simplicity of experience.” -Robert Morris
  18. 18. Robert Morris Continued Danced before becoming a sculptor  Interested in process of production and perceiving “Notes on Sculpture Parts 1 & 2” (1966)  Sculpture as Gestalt  Focus on relationship between viewer, space, and sculpture, rather than relationships within a piece Avoids projection of human nature onto art
  19. 19. Robert Morris—Green Gallery (Plywood Show), 1964
  20. 20. Robert Morris—Untitled (L-beams), 1965
  21. 21. Carl Andre “My work is atheistic, materialistic, and communistic. It is atheistic because it is without transcendent form, without spiritual or intellectual quality. Materialistic because it is made out of its own materials without pretension to other materials. And communistic because the form is equally accessible to all men.” -Carl Andre
  22. 22. Carl Andre Continued Used pre-fabricated materials Unconnected arrangement of individual elements within each piece Limitation to relatively simple shapes Sculpture as place Elements are indistinguishable from raw materials
  23. 23. Carl Andre—144 Magnesium Square, 1969
  24. 24. Carl Andre—Sphinges, 1985
  25. 25. Sol Lewitt “The most interesting characteristic of the cube is that it is relatively uninteresting.” -Sol Lewitt
  26. 26. Sol Lewitt Continued Geometrical progression through modular structures Based on repetition, permutation, and serial formulas Simplified past industrial material—focus on concepts and systems
  27. 27. Sol Lewitt—Open Modular Cube, 1966
  28. 28. Sol Lewitt—HRZL 1,1990
  29. 29. Dan Flavin “One might not think of light as a matter of fact, but I do. And it is, as I said, as plain and open and direct an art as you will ever find.” -Dan Flavin
  30. 30. Dan Flavin Continued Limited materials to standard fluorescent light Emphasis on physical space and light interaction Has industrial qualities but is impermanent Saw himself as a “maximalist”
  31. 31. Dan Flavin–“monument" 1 for V. Tatlin, 1964
  32. 32. Dan Flavin—Untitled (for Donna), 1971
  33. 33. Influence of Minimalism Minimalism spurred paradigm shifts  Art no longer had to be a unique object created by an artist  Reinvented sculpture  Broadened definition and rules of art Closed gap between high culture and mass culture