Patterns of participation:
California’s community colleges
California Competes: Higher Education for a Strong Economy
Nove...
California Needs 2.3 Million More College
Grads than We Are On Track to Educate

An effective and
equitable system
require...
Where the students are, and aren’t
Interactive online
map allows users to
analyze community
college participation
by zip c...
The darker the zip code area, the more
people (per capita) enrolled
Lowest

Average

Highest

4
Click an area to see its details

5
The map uses a “Participation Index”
600 and above
500-600
400-500
300-400

Full-time equivalent (FTE)
enrollments for eve...
Click a dot to show information about the
college

Note: Some
college locations
do not have data.

7
Special feature 1: Show other colleges
Click the “Contents” icon (upper left)

8
Click on the word “CollegeParticipation2”

9
Click on the words “College Locations” to choose to
show locations of additional types of colleges
(enrollment not include...
Special Feature 2: Show by Need
Click on “Participation by College Attainment”

11
Why? Because low enrollment in places already
saturated with college degrees isn’t worrisome. . .

12
. . . Users can choose to show only the zip codes where few
adults already have college degrees (Equity Areas)

13
Del Norte
Siskiyou

Modoc

Northern California

Shasta

Trinity

Analysis by
Region

Lassen

Humboldt
Tehama

Upper Sacram...
Region

Adult (18+)
population

Adults with
degrees already

CCC Participation
Index

Orange

2,251,743

40%

579

Central...
Orange County






The second most educated region in the state
behind the Bay Area, Orange County has the highest
co...
San Diego/Imperial




This well-educated and growing region has aboveaverage community college participation.
All of I...
Los Angeles








Community college participation in Los Angeles is
5% below the state average, and 26% below Orange...
Inland Empire







Riverside and San Bernardino Counties are among
the neediest in the state, but overall have the l...
San Joaquin Valley







The region from Stockton to Bakersfield is the
neediest in the state but has low community c...
Sacramento/Tahoe





The Sacramento region’s overall participation is 6%
below average, and 27% below Orange County.
D...
Bay Area





In this highly educated region, participation overall is
just above the state average.
The Bay Area has s...
Central Coast




This area from Monterey and Hollister south to
Ventura has the second-highest community college
partic...
Is funding the explanation?




Taxpayer funding determines the number of classes
and enrollment slots a college offers...
Participation also depends on what each
college offers and how it is promoted.
Participation also depends on what each
college offers and how it is promoted.
Many factors beyond funding and location
influence who enrolls, including:








The programs and
courses offered
...
Also available: Where each community
college’s enrollment comes from

28
Recommendations


California Competes Council:













29

Mayor Bob Foster, Long Beach (Chair)
Aida Al...
The state should:






Create financial incentives for community colleges to
enroll and successfully serve Californian...
Data Sources


2010-11 community college enrollment (credit and non-credit),* by
campus and zip code: California Communit...
Thanks






For data matching and analysis: Charles Hatcher,
Ph.D., and Informing Change.
For GIS mapping expertise: ...
This work was made possible by support
from:







College Access Foundation of California
The Rosalinde and Arthur...
Map: http://californiacompetes.org/news_and_events/cccmap/

Questions and suggestions:
CCCparticipation@californiacompetes...
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California Community College Participation

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  • Photo: Santa Ana College? ranchovisions.wordpress.com - 3008 × 1960 - by Jason Kehler
  • Acquire community college enrollment data by zip code for 2010-11. (Cerritos problem, adjust). Headcount and FTE.(Yes, Burbank is a “census place” near San Jose in addition to being a city in southern California)Match to census data on population, ethnicity, unemployment, poverty, and postsecondary degree attainment– by ZCTA.
  • Acquire community college enrollment data by zip code for 2010-11. (Cerritos problem, adjust). Headcount and FTE.(Yes, Burbank is a “census place” near San Jose in addition to being a city in southern California)Match to census data on population, ethnicity, unemployment, poverty, and postsecondary degree attainment– by ZCTA.Added college locations. Centers??Below 300  = very low (about the bottom 10% of the 18+ population)300-400 = low (about the next 25%400-500 = average (about the middle 33%; the average is 450 and median is 438)500-600 = high (68th to 89th percentile) -- 600 and above = very high (top 11%)
  • 60% in 90210 already have degrees
  • This shows the bottom two groups: under 20% with at least an associate’s degree and 20-29%NOT shown are other three layers:30-39% (average is 35%)40-49%50% and upWeighted by population they aren't too terribly far from quintiles:23.00%24.49%18.85%14.88%18.79%I didn't try weighting by 18+ population
  • Who enrolls is affected by a colleges’ decisions about:ExampleCredentials to offerLiberal arts transfer, nursing, radiology, truck driving, culinary arts, and hundreds more.Courses to offerLogistics, literature, remedial math, statistics, ceramics, history, robotics, swimming, graphics arts, and thousands more.Seats availableDepends on the number of sections offered (which depends on faculty hiring and workloads) and class sizes.Class locationsMost classes are held at one of XXX  campuses and centers. Course credits can also be earned online and through flexible independent study.Course schedulingMorning, afternoon, evening, weekend; the number of sessions per week; the clustering of related courses.OutreachHigh school presentations, advertising, social media, and other efforts to provide information about programs, support and financial aid to targeted populations.AdvisingHelp in figuring out which of the hundreds of possible pathways to start out on, and how to be successful.BureaucracyMethods of identifying options, enrolling in programs and courses, and getting financial aid, bus vouchers, parking, etc.RevenueIn addition to state appropriations (and local revenue bonds that finance facilities), colleges expand enrollment and services by enrolling full-pay out-of-state students, full-pay community services, and donationsResponsivenessA college’s reputation for finding ways to serve demonstrated community or student needs contributes to student interest in enrolling. From CCLC brainstorm:Schedule: start dates, time of courses (morning, afternoon, evening), and whether can take more than one course conveniently without having to go back and forth to the collegeParkingCost, financial aid, and knowledge about itRetraining – whether they see it as offeredProcess of signing up on the web siteDiversity – are people like me already enrolledLanguageAvailability of seat in the program they’re interested in, and being able to get through Existence of a waiting list can drive them awayTransfer rate, completion rateRelationship with a neighboring universityFriends, neighbors, relativesKnow they can get a jobAthleticsInternships
  • California Community College Participation

    1. 1. Patterns of participation: California’s community colleges California Competes: Higher Education for a Strong Economy November 2013
    2. 2. California Needs 2.3 Million More College Grads than We Are On Track to Educate An effective and equitable system requires reaching the California communities most in need
    3. 3. Where the students are, and aren’t Interactive online map allows users to analyze community college participation by zip code area. http://californiacompetes.org/news_and_events/cccmap/ 3
    4. 4. The darker the zip code area, the more people (per capita) enrolled Lowest Average Highest 4
    5. 5. Click an area to see its details 5
    6. 6. The map uses a “Participation Index” 600 and above 500-600 400-500 300-400 Full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollments for every 10,000 adults (age 18+) living in each zip code area Below 300 (Statewide average = 450) 6
    7. 7. Click a dot to show information about the college Note: Some college locations do not have data. 7
    8. 8. Special feature 1: Show other colleges Click the “Contents” icon (upper left) 8
    9. 9. Click on the word “CollegeParticipation2” 9
    10. 10. Click on the words “College Locations” to choose to show locations of additional types of colleges (enrollment not included) 10
    11. 11. Special Feature 2: Show by Need Click on “Participation by College Attainment” 11
    12. 12. Why? Because low enrollment in places already saturated with college degrees isn’t worrisome. . . 12
    13. 13. . . . Users can choose to show only the zip codes where few adults already have college degrees (Equity Areas) 13
    14. 14. Del Norte Siskiyou Modoc Northern California Shasta Trinity Analysis by Region Lassen Humboldt Tehama Upper SacramentoPlumas Mendocino Valley Butte Glenn Colusa Lake Sonoma Napa Bay Yuba Sutter Sierra Nevada Placer Sacramento Tahoe El Dorado Yolo Alpine Sacramento Amador Solano Calaveras Marin Tuolumne Contra Costa Joaquin San San Francisco Alameda Stanislaus Mariposa Area San Mateo Merced Santa Clara Mono Central Sierra Madera Fresno Santa Cruz San Benito Monterey Inyo San Joaquin Valley Tulare Kings Central Coast San Luis Obispo Inland Empire Kern San Bernardino Santa Barbara Los Angeles Ventura Los Angeles Orange Riverside Orange San Diego Imperial San Diego Imperial
    15. 15. Region Adult (18+) population Adults with degrees already CCC Participation Index Orange 2,251,743 40% 579 Central Coast 1,482,985 33% 484 San Diego/Imperial 2,459,074 37% 474 Bay Area 5,704,138 46% 451 Los Angeles 7,360,646 33% 429 San Joaquin 2,748,768 21% 427 Sacramento/Tahoe 1,717,118 35% 423 Inland Empire 2,960,671 25% 361 California 27,657,571 34% 450 15
    16. 16. Orange County     The second most educated region in the state behind the Bay Area, Orange County has the highest community college participation in the state. Per-capita participation is 29% higher than the state average. Most of the region’s equity areas (where few people already have degrees) have high participation. Many areas where most adults already have degrees also have high participation. 16
    17. 17. San Diego/Imperial    This well-educated and growing region has aboveaverage community college participation. All of Imperial County, just five percent of the region’s population, is an equity area. Most equity areas across the region tend to have high participation. 17
    18. 18. Los Angeles     Community college participation in Los Angeles is 5% below the state average, and 26% below Orange County. If L.A. had the same rate of participation as Orange County, it would have 110,000 more students (FTE), the equivalent of four more Santa Monica Colleges. Among the many equity areas in L.A., higher participation tends to exist in the southern parts of the county (e.g. Long Beach and Norwalk). People who live in Glendale have very high rates of community college enrollment (a participation index of more than 800 overall). 18
    19. 19. Inland Empire     Riverside and San Bernardino Counties are among the neediest in the state, but overall have the lowest community college enrollment. Participation is 14% below the state average, and 33% below Orange County. The Inland Empire has virtually no zip code with the highest category of participation, and has many equity areas with very low participation. If the region had the same participation as the San Diego region, it would have 33,000 more students. If it matched Orange County, it would gain 65,000. 19
    20. 20. San Joaquin Valley     The region from Stockton to Bakersfield is the neediest in the state but has low community college enrollment, especially in the southern part of the region (Bakersfield). Like Los Angeles, its participation is 5% below the state average and 26% below Orange County. If the region had the same participation as the San Diego region, it would have 13,000 more students (FTE). If it matched Orange County it would gain 42,000. Almost the whole region is made up of equity areas where few adults have degrees. Merced has the highest enrollment. 20
    21. 21. Sacramento/Tahoe    The Sacramento region’s overall participation is 6% below average, and 27% below Orange County. Despite below-average participation overall, many of the Sacramento region’s equity areas have relatively high community college enrollment. If the region had the same participation as Orange County, it would have 27,000 more students (FTE). 21
    22. 22. Bay Area    In this highly educated region, participation overall is just above the state average. The Bay Area has several wealthy communities with high participation: Santa Rosa, Cupertino, Pleasant Hill, Aptos. There are equity areas with low participation in San Leandro, Hayward, Richmond, San Jose and elsewhere (including immediately adjacent to the high-participation area of Pleasant Hill). 22
    23. 23. Central Coast   This area from Monterey and Hollister south to Ventura has the second-highest community college participation of the state’s major regions. Unlike most other regions, the zip codes where more people already have degrees overall enroll more students than do the equity areas. This phenomenon is most pronounced in Santa Barbara County. 23
    24. 24. Is funding the explanation?    Taxpayer funding determines the number of classes and enrollment slots a college offers. Funding is determined largely by historical enrollments. But colleges can enroll any Californian, so who enrolls depends only in part on the location and funding of the colleges. 24
    25. 25. Participation also depends on what each college offers and how it is promoted.
    26. 26. Participation also depends on what each college offers and how it is promoted.
    27. 27. Many factors beyond funding and location influence who enrolls, including:       The programs and courses offered Class schedules Preparation and advising at area high schools Counseling by the college Admissions and registration processes Deadlines, waiting lists 27       Reputation of the college, the program, the instructors Parking, traffic, and public transportation Financial aid staffing and approach Athletics Diversity, language Friends’ & relatives’ experiences
    28. 28. Also available: Where each community college’s enrollment comes from 28
    29. 29. Recommendations  California Competes Council:              29 Mayor Bob Foster, Long Beach (Chair) Aida Alvarez, former administrator, U.S. Small Business Administration Mayor Bill Bogaard, Pasadena Kim Belshé, Executive Director, First 5 LA Mark Cafferty, President and CEO, San Diego Regional Economic Development Corporation Mayor Cheryl Cox, Chula Vista Elizabeth Hill, former California Legislative Analyst Fritz Grupe, Founder, Grupe Company Paul Hudson, former CEO, Broadway Bank Steven Koblik, President, Huntington Library Ken McNeely, President, AT&T California Lenny Mendonca, Senior Partner, McKinsey & Company Mike Roos, Founder and Chief Consultant, Mike Roos & Company
    30. 30. The state should:    Create financial incentives for community colleges to enroll and successfully serve Californians living in areas of need (low levels of college education and other factors such as high poverty and unemployment). Collect and analyze data on enrollment by other open-enrollment institutions including adult education, for-profit and nonprofit colleges, and UC/CSU extensions. Support college-access efforts at high schools and outreach programs in areas with apparent need but low community college participation. 30
    31. 31. Data Sources  2010-11 community college enrollment (credit and non-credit),* by campus and zip code: California Community College Chancellor’s Office  2010 population variables by zip code area (ZCTA): American Community Survey, U.S. Census  Other college location, enrollment, and demographic information: Integrated Postsecondary Education System, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. *Cerritos College enrollment was imputed from prior-year enrollment data. 31
    32. 32. Thanks     For data matching and analysis: Charles Hatcher, Ph.D., and Informing Change. For GIS mapping expertise: Remmert Dekker and John Roach. A number of people gave us comments on early drafts that proved immensely helpful, including: PolicyLink, Jeremy Lahoud, Pamela Burdman, Tessa DeRoy, Hans Johnson, Tatiana Melguizo, Patrick Murphy, Patrick Perry and Nancy Shulock. California Competes takes full responsibility for the final product. 32
    33. 33. This work was made possible by support from:       College Access Foundation of California The Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation The James Irvine Foundation The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Lumina Foundation Evelyn & Walter Haas, Jr. Fund California Competes is a fiscally-sponsored project of Community Initiatives. 33
    34. 34. Map: http://californiacompetes.org/news_and_events/cccmap/ Questions and suggestions: CCCparticipation@californiacompetes.org @CalCompetes 34

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