FCEBs in CA-Implementation Strategy
Jennifer Hamilton

(presenter)

Nico Bouwkamp
10/22/2013

1
California and the future

“How can FCEBs become one of the advanced
vehicle technologies that transit agencies will
choos...
“FCEB Road Map” focus
A step change in the FCEB market from the current
pre-commercial phase of deployment and
manufacturi...
FCEB rollout strategy
Goal
» Move FCEB deployment and manufacturing from precommercial (2012-2015) to early commercial (20...
US DOE/US DOT targets

TRL 7
10/22/2013

TRL 8

http://hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/12012_fuel_cell_bus_targets.pdf

TRL 9
5
Centers of Excellence
• Key components
• A single bus configuration per site, manufactured under a
serial production run o...
Effect large purchase orders
• Bus manufacturers

» Tooling for larger scale FCEB manufacturing
» Experience with integrat...
Fueling station assumptions
Category
Station lifetime
Fuel quality
Fuel pressure
Fill time per bus (pending on bus design)...
Financial budget (TRL 7→8)
• For 12-yr deployment capital cost per site is $50.2M
• At $1M/bus the incremental cost is ~$3...
Proposed funding scenario
Funding source

% of
CoE

US DOT FTA Conventional

47%

California Energy Commission AB118

19%
...
- Include 2 CoE concept in 2013 ZEV Action Plan

- Validate & verify incremental cost FCEBs
- Include large scale producti...
CaFCP Members
Air Liquide
Air Products
Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District
Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation
Ballard Powe...
Questions or comments?
Nico Bouwkamp
nbouwkamp@cafcp.org

(916) 375-8050

Available at:

http://cafcp.org/carsandbuses/bus...
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Fuel Cell Electric Buses in California Fuel Cell Seminar 2013

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Nico Bouwkamp's presentation about fuel cell electric buses and CaFCP's FCEB roadmap as given at Fuel Cell Seminar 2013

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  • How to go from where we are now (as described by Lauren) to where we want to be, we asked ourselves this question. This led the efforts resulting in the following strategy for FCEBs in California – Zbus Regulation is on hold, due to limited availability of FCEB and battery electric buoperational data
  • Based on DOE and NASA use for pursuing new technology. A similar concept is used in manufacturing. FCEB technology in California is currently at level seven or “full-scale validation in relevant environments,” and requires two more levels to become a fully commercial product.
  • The final target is the $600,000 FCEB, which our members anticipate will be the next step after the realization of the California rollout strategy.We are approaching the 2016 targets already for many of these categories, except for cost. Many of these targets line up with many transit agencies’ targets. For more information, visit the NREL (National Research Energy Laboratory) website and download their report on H2 buses.
  • Fill time per bus: These could be longer, but this is the low end for large transit agencies with large bus yards. Several transit agencies currently fill FCEBs within 10-15 mins. Fueling window: Transit agencies refuel their buses at the end of the day within a specific time window to be ready for pull out the next morning.
  • Average bus costs in 2011, pulled from APTA (American Public Transit Association): $480,000. The facility cost is a conservative cost estimate.Mid-life overhaul: $80,000/FCEB, includes both fuel cell and battery replacement and/or refurbishmentThe cost of hydrogen depends which supply method is used: pipeline, liquid delivered, on site reformation or on site electrolysis
  • Emphasize: Continued NREL FCEB data collection, ideally including all FCEBs operational in the US and Canada for comparison.
  • Fuel Cell Electric Buses in California Fuel Cell Seminar 2013

    1. 1. FCEBs in CA-Implementation Strategy Jennifer Hamilton (presenter) Nico Bouwkamp 10/22/2013 1
    2. 2. California and the future “How can FCEBs become one of the advanced vehicle technologies that transit agencies will choose to fulfill California’s goal of decreasing transportation air pollution?” 10/22/2013 2
    3. 3. “FCEB Road Map” focus A step change in the FCEB market from the current pre-commercial phase of deployment and manufacturing to the early commercial phase NREL Technology Readiness Levels for FCEB Commercialization Technology Readiness Level Description (abbrev.) TRL 9 Technology in its final form. Fully commercial products. TRL 8 Last step in true system development (50-100 buses/location) TRL 7 Full-scale demonstration and reliability testing (5-10 buses/location) TRL 6 First tests of prototype buses in actual transit service (1-2 buses/location) TRL 1-5 R&D → lab scale testing & early prototype/mule 10/22/2013 3
    4. 4. FCEB rollout strategy Goal » Move FCEB deployment and manufacturing from precommercial (2012-2015) to early commercial (2016-2017) Objectives » Create two Centers of Excellence  One in Northern and one in Southern California » Achieve US DOE/US DOT 2016 FCEB targets » Provide input to support state & federal decision making AC Transit fueling station (Photo courtesy of L. Eudy, NREL) 10/22/2013 4
    5. 5. US DOE/US DOT targets TRL 7 10/22/2013 TRL 8 http://hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/12012_fuel_cell_bus_targets.pdf TRL 9 5
    6. 6. Centers of Excellence • Key components • A single bus configuration per site, manufactured under a serial production run of 40 units over 1-2 years • Vehicles meet transit agency requirements & operate in revenue service on scheduled runs (e.g. no compromise or deviation in service) • A 12-year operating period • A single H2 fueling station with sufficient throughput to achieve fuel cost/mile comparable to conventional buses • Vehicles introduced in 2015-16 timeframe • Regional training and education for transit staff and stakeholders 6
    7. 7. Effect large purchase orders • Bus manufacturers » Tooling for larger scale FCEB manufacturing » Experience with integration of FC system in electric drive train • Knowledge development » » » » Bus component supplier network Cost reduction components Investment in component development and production Transit agencies • Operation and maintenance experience » Regional training and education for transit staff and stakeholders 7
    8. 8. Fueling station assumptions Category Station lifetime Fuel quality Fuel pressure Fill time per bus (pending on bus design) Average fill amount per bus Station capacity (based on 30 kg/day/bus, 40 FCEBs) Number of dispensers capable of fueling simultaneously Bus fleet fueling window Details 15-20 years SAE J2719 35 MPa 5-8 minutes 30 kg/day 1,200 kg/day 2 dispensers 4-5 hours/day 8
    9. 9. Financial budget (TRL 7→8) • For 12-yr deployment capital cost per site is $50.2M • At $1M/bus the incremental cost is ~$30M/location compared to conventional buses (bus cost only) Capital equipment Units per Center of Excellence Capital cost per location Capital cost for two Centers of Excellence FCEBs 40 $40M $80M H2 station 1 $5M $10M Maintenance facility 1 $2M $4M 40 $3.2M $6.4M n/a $50.2M $100.4M Mid-life overhaul of bus power plant (6 yrs) Total • Fuel and station O&M cost paid by vehicle operator » $4-9 kg (depending on mode of supply) and O&M ~$200,000/year • Costs could be reduced by utilizing existing infrastructure 9
    10. 10. Proposed funding scenario Funding source % of CoE US DOT FTA Conventional 47% California Energy Commission AB118 19% Cap and Trade Auction Proceeds 19% California Air Resources Board Hybrid Voucher Program 7% Air Quality Management Districts 5% Regional Matching Funds 2% Total 100% Typical funding (bus only): US DOT FTA 80% - local sources 20% 10
    11. 11. - Include 2 CoE concept in 2013 ZEV Action Plan - Validate & verify incremental cost FCEBs - Include large scale production run in ZBus regulatory planning 2014 - Leverage state funding for federal government funding - CA/federal government identify & implement funding conditions 2015 - Develop & release procurement documentation - Complete procurement contracting 2016 - Station & vehicle commissioning !! Continued NREL FCEB data collection !! 2013 - Centers of Excellence operational 11
    12. 12. CaFCP Members Air Liquide Air Products Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation Ballard Power Systems California Air Resources Board California Department of Food and Agriculture California Energy Commission California State University-Los Angeles Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies Chrysler Daimler Energy Independence Now General Motors Honda Hydrogenics Hyundai Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis Linde North America, Inc. National Fuel Cell Research Center, UC Irvine National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nissan Powertech Labs Proton OnSite Sandia National Laboratories South Coast Air Quality Management District Southern California Gas Company SunLine Transit Agency Toyota U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency US Hybrid Volkswagen 12
    13. 13. Questions or comments? Nico Bouwkamp nbouwkamp@cafcp.org (916) 375-8050 Available at: http://cafcp.org/carsandbuses/busroadmap 13

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