Knowledge based society 50% of all new jobs are created in knowledge based sectors Need for more skilled work force importance of education importance of diplomas/certifications/titles I have looked for demographic trends using the scenarios prepared by Eurostat for the year 2060. By that time, the median age of the EU-27 population will rise from 40.4 years to 47.9 and the share of people aged 65 or more will increase from 17.1% to 30.0%. This means that whereas in 2008 there were 4 persons of working age (15-64 years old) for every person aged 65 years or over; in 2060 the ratio will be 2 to 1. How to facilitate mutual recognitions of diplomas?
Qualifications frameworks create a continuum of learning expectations along which qualifications might be compared to each other, facilitating credit transfer, credential recognition, and lifelong learning. The assumption underpinning this framework is that, as one moves up the credential ladder, the level of challenge associated with each dimension intensifies. Establishing a multi-jurisdictional framework upon which national qualifications frameworks can be mapped requires a coherent and commonly understood method for describing credentials and expected learning outcomes. Our today’s Europe Importance of mobility and flexibility Studies have shown the positive impact of a training period done abroad, notably on the employability of a person How to get the best of training periods abroad?
ECVET is a technical framework for the transfer, recognition and, where appropriate, accumulation of individuals’ learning outcomes with a view to achieving a qualification. ECVET tools and methodology comprise the description of qualifications in terms of units of learning outcomes with associated points, a transfer and accumulation process and complementary documents such as learning agreements, transcripts of records and ECVET users’ guides. [see ECVET recommendation of 18 June 2009 in Official Journal of the European Union of 8 July 2009, C 155, p.11] Transparent quality assurance principles, exchange of information and development of partnerships between institutions competent for qualifications, VET providers and other relevant stakeholders should help to build mutual trust and should facilitate the implementation of this Recommendation. Need for mutual trust in some quality assurance EQAVET
Support the transformation of VET systems towards policy objectives in line with the current emphasis on three key concepts: certification, transparency and flexibility EQF recommendation and ECVET recommendation refer both to quality assurance principles Historic perspective: Quality in Education and Training recent concept (middle of 20th century) The usage of the term ‘quality’ in the discourse of education became significant from the 1950s, and more visibly from the 1960s onwards. The same period also saw the rise of the human capital theory in economics (T.W. Schulz, 1960) Quality of Human Capital is important Thus investment in education is important Education also an important ingredient of well being as it can reduce poverty and enhance social mobility Theory of scientific management informed the discussion of quality in education from the 1970s onwards Study from OECD Quality of human capital today is crucial for Europe’s success Facilitate recovery from the crisis Help to meet Skills needs .
Rather than fruitlessly wrestling with a definition, we would be better off simply identifying what we want the world of VET to look like
See Cedefop study « indicators for quality in VET – To enhance European cooperation » Panorama series 134, 2007, ISBN 978-92-896-0473-4
The European Quality Assurance Reference Framework is a reference instrument, in order to help Member States to promote and monitor continuous improvement of their Vocational Education and Training (VET) systems based on common European references.
The framework proposes a quality assurance and improvement cycle (planning, implementation, evaluation/assessment, review or revision). It includes ways of monitoring the performance of a particular system and uses measurement to support review and improvement of both entire systems and individual training institutions (common quality criteria, indicative descriptors and indicators). Reference: Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 on the establishment of a European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for Vocational Education and Training [OJ, C155, 8 July 2009, p.1]
Indicative Non exhaustive Not targeted at final users even though quite concrete at first view To be adapted depending on the country, the systems, the providers
The Quality Framework should be regarded rather as a &quot;toolbox&quot;, from which the various users may choose those descriptors and indicators they consider most relevant to the requirements of their particular quality assurance system. The proposed descriptors (Annex 1) and indicators (Annex 2) are provided for guidance only and may be selected and applied by users of the Quality Assurance Reference Framework in accordance with all or part of their requirements and existing settings. They are to be used on a purely voluntary basis,[…]. They should be considered neither as benchmarks, nor as a means of reporting on, or drawing comparisons between, the quality and efficiency of different national systems. The responsibility for monitoring the quality of these systems remains entirely with the Member States.
The process will take time but it is worth it. Thank you
European Quality Assurance Reference Framework For VET (EQAVET) - DG EAC - Sophie Weisswange
EHFA – final conference Sophie Weisswange Brussels, 10/09/2010 The challenge of having efficient Vocational education and training systems in Europe
ECVET European Credit system for VET <ul><li>Allows training periods abroad to be recognised in their own country </li></ul>
European VET Policy context Quality assurance Quality assurance Quality assurance Quality assurance Quality assurance Quality assurance Validation of informal and non formal learning Learning outcomes approach Copenhaguen process Europass European Credit system for VET EQF
Definition of Quality <ul><li>Several definitions, even in the Cedefop glossary for quality in VET </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 8402 norm definition : </li></ul><ul><li>'The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs.' </li></ul><ul><li> No goals – no vision included </li></ul><ul><li>Quality vs Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Quality vs Performance </li></ul>
European priorities for quality <ul><li>Indicators/descriptors have been chosen according to certain objectives defined at European level </li></ul><ul><li>Employability </li></ul><ul><li>Matching supply and demand for competences and qualifications on the labour market </li></ul><ul><li>Better access to VET, especially for vulnerable groups </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of indicators needs an objective </li></ul><ul><li>Need for a coherence internal and external </li></ul>
EQAVET European Quality Assurance in VET <ul><li>Quality assurance process to ensure quality </li></ul>
Content of text <ul><li>Legislative part </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations to Member States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentions of the Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical annexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of quality cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>list of quality criteria and indicative descriptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality indicators for VET </li></ul></ul>
The Quality Cycle and Indicators Methodology Indicators Define goals and objectives Coherent with goals Indicators Collection and processing data; discuss results Indicators Review Indicators Purpose And plan Implementation Assessment and evaluation Feedback and procedures for Change
Annex 1 – Example <ul><li>Planning phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality descriptors at System level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goals/objectives of VET are described for the medium and long terms, and linked to European goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The relevant stakeholders participate in setting VET goals and objectives at the different levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality descriptors at providers’ level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit goals/objectives and targets are set and monitored </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is an early involvement of staff in planning, including with regard to quality development </li></ul></ul></ul>
Annex 2 - List of indicators <ul><li>No 1 Relevance of quality assurance systems for VET providers </li></ul><ul><li>No 2 Investment in training of teachers and trainers </li></ul><ul><li>No 3 Participation rate in VET programmes </li></ul><ul><li>No 4 Completion rate in VET programmes </li></ul><ul><li>No 5 Placement rate in VET programmes </li></ul><ul><li>No 6 Utilisation of acquired skills at the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>No 7 Unemployment rate </li></ul><ul><li>No 8 Prevalence of vulnerable groups </li></ul><ul><li>No 9 Mechanisms to identify training needs in the labour market </li></ul><ul><li>No 10 Schemes used to promote better access to VET </li></ul>
The main stakeholders Member States European Commission European Network Nat.ref.points Social partners Regional and local authorities European Parliament Council
<ul><li>More info </li></ul><ul><li>www.eqavet.eu </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul>