An Introduction to Ecology The Distribution and Adaptations of Organisms
Introduction to Ecology <ul><li>Ecology is  the study of organisms and their interactions with their environment. </li></u...
 
Levels of Organization <ul><li>Ecologists can look at the world in levels of increasing complexity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
The Importance of Abiotic Factors <ul><li>Not every organism can live everywhere on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Abiotic factor...
Homeostasis <ul><li>Organisms must maintain  homeostasis , a steady-state internal environment, despite changes in the ext...
The Principle of Allocation <ul><li>This principle states: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each organism has a limited amount of ene...
Adapting to Changing Conditions <ul><li>Organisms can respond to their changing environments using 3 different types of re...
<ul><li>3. Behavioral Responses </li></ul><ul><li>- changing behavior to adapt to the change </li></ul><ul><li>- moving to...
Biomes <ul><li>Aquatic </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial </li></ul>
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Introductory Ecology

1,141 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,141
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Introductory Ecology

  1. 1. An Introduction to Ecology The Distribution and Adaptations of Organisms
  2. 2. Introduction to Ecology <ul><li>Ecology is the study of organisms and their interactions with their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The environment includes 2 types of factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic factors – the living parts of the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants, animals, bacteria, fungi, protists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic factors – the nonliving parts of the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water, oxygen, light, temperature, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Ecologists can look at the world in levels of increasing complexity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population – a group of organisms of the same species that live together in a certain area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community – a group of organisms of different species that live together in a certain area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem – all the living and nonliving things in a certain area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biome – a group of ecosystems that have similar climates and communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosphere – the entire portion of the planet that supports life </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. The Importance of Abiotic Factors <ul><li>Not every organism can live everywhere on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Abiotic factors determine which organisms can survive where: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature – effect on body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water – too much/not enough water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light – availability for photosynthetic organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind – amplifies effects of temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rocks/Soil – which organisms can live with/on them, based on pH and mineral composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic Disturbances – catastrophes, such as tornadoes, fires, tsunamis, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Homeostasis <ul><li>Organisms must maintain homeostasis , a steady-state internal environment, despite changes in the external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms respond to abiotic factors in one of two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Regulators maintain a nearly constant internal environment, despite external conditions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Conformers allow their internal environment to vary </li></ul><ul><li>- occurs in organisms whose environments </li></ul><ul><li>remain relatively stable </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Principle of Allocation <ul><li>This principle states: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each organism has a limited amount of energy that can be spent on obtaining food, escaping from predators, coping with environmental fluctuations (maintaining homeostasis), growth, and reproduction </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Adapting to Changing Conditions <ul><li>Organisms can respond to their changing environments using 3 different types of responses: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Physiological Responses </li></ul><ul><li>- changing the functioning of the body </li></ul><ul><li>- acclimation </li></ul><ul><li> - athletes in Torino, moving to Denver... </li></ul><ul><li>2. Morphological Responses </li></ul><ul><li>- changing the anatomy of the body </li></ul><ul><li>- example: dogs growing thicker fur </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>3. Behavioral Responses </li></ul><ul><li>- changing behavior to adapt to the change </li></ul><ul><li>- moving to a more favorable location </li></ul><ul><li>- cooperative behavior (huddling, etc.) </li></ul>Adapting to Changing Conditions
  9. 10. Biomes <ul><li>Aquatic </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial </li></ul>

×