Ecosystems
Ecosystems <ul><li>An ecosystem is all of the organisms in an area, along with their nonliving environment </li></ul><ul><...
Trophic Levels <ul><li>Organisms in a community are related to each other through feeding relationships </li></ul><ul><li>...
Primary Productivity <ul><li>Primary Productivity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of light energy converted to sugars by...
 
Limiting Nutrients <ul><li>What limits primary production? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquatic Ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Trophic Levels <ul><li>Producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert solar (or chemical) energy into organic compounds  </li></u...
Trophic Levels <ul><li>Decomposers/  Detritivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat detritus (organic waste/remains of dead organi...
Trophic Levels <ul><li>Ten-Percent Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy is lost through each transfer of energy </li></ul></ul...
Pyramid of Numbers
Human Impact on Ecosystems <ul><li>Increased Eutrophication of Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eutrophication – when lakes shi...
Human Impact on Ecosystems <ul><li>Combustion of Fossil Fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to acid precipitation </li></ul>...
Human Impact on Ecosystems <ul><li>Biological Magnification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxins become more concentrated as they ...
Human Impact on Ecosystems <ul><li>Increasing Carbon Dioxide Concentration in the Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning...
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Ecosystems

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Ecosystems

  1. 1. Ecosystems
  2. 2. Ecosystems <ul><li>An ecosystem is all of the organisms in an area, along with their nonliving environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: aquarium </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Trophic Levels <ul><li>Organisms in a community are related to each other through feeding relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Each step up in the transfer of energy is known as a trophic level </li></ul><ul><li>All energy ultimately comes from the SUN </li></ul>
  4. 4. Primary Productivity <ul><li>Primary Productivity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of light energy converted to sugars by autotrophs in an ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross vs. Net Primary Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GPP: the amount of light energy that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis per unit time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NPP: GPP minus the energy used by the primary producers for cellular respiration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Limiting Nutrients <ul><li>What limits primary production? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquatic Ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light (depth penetration) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial Ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Trophic Levels <ul><li>Producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert solar (or chemical) energy into organic compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat producers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat primary consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tertiary consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat secondary consumers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Trophic Levels <ul><li>Decomposers/ Detritivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat detritus (organic waste/remains of dead organisms) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Trophic Levels <ul><li>Ten-Percent Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy is lost through each transfer of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only about 10% of the energy at one trophic level is transferred to the next trophic level </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Pyramid of Numbers
  10. 11. Human Impact on Ecosystems <ul><li>Increased Eutrophication of Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eutrophication – when lakes shift from having phytoplankton communities dominated by diatoms or green algae to having phytoplankton communities dominated by cyanobacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to the eventual loss of fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerated by sewage/factory wastes, leaching of fertilizers into freshwater </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Human Impact on Ecosystems <ul><li>Combustion of Fossil Fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to acid precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes the pH of aquatic ecosystems and affects the soil chemistry of terrestrial ecosystems </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Human Impact on Ecosystems <ul><li>Biological Magnification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxins become more concentrated as they move up the food chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The biomass at any given trophic level is produced from a much larger biomass ingested from the level below </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Human Impact on Ecosystems <ul><li>Increasing Carbon Dioxide Concentration in the Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning fossil fuels (wood, coal, oil) releases CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water in the atmosphere retain solar heat, causing the greenhouse effect </li></ul></ul>

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