Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Community ecology

7,342 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
  • its really helpful for my class report
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Community ecology

  1. 1. Community Ecology
  2. 2. Communities <ul><li>A community is a group of organisms of different species that live in a particular area </li></ul>
  3. 3. Individualistic Hypothesis vs. Interactive Hypothesis <ul><li>Individualistic Hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A community is a chance group of species found in the same area because they have similar abiotic requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive Hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A community is a group of closely linked species locked together in mandatory biotic interactions that cause the community to function as an integrated unit </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Interspecific Interactions <ul><li>Inter specific interactions are interactions that occur between populations of different species living together in a community </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4 major interspecific interactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation (and parasitism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Predation (and Parasitism) <ul><li>(+ -) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The interaction is beneficial to one species and detrimental to the other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a predator eats its prey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example in picture: </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Predation (and Parasitism) <ul><li>Parasitism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predators that live on or in their hosts, usually feeding off their body tissues or fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually do not kill their hosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Plant Defenses Against Herbivores <ul><li>“ Plants Fight Back!” </li></ul><ul><li>Plants have 2 major mechanisms by which they defend themselves against being eaten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical Defenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thorns, hooks, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Plant Defenses Against Herbivores <ul><li>Chemical Defenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce chemicals that are distasteful or harmful to an herbivore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphine (opium poppy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicotine (tobacco) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Animal Defenses Against Predators <ul><li>Animals defend themselves against predators passively (hiding) or actively (fleeing) </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptic coloration (camouflage) makes prey difficult to spot </li></ul>
  10. 10. Animal Defenses Against Predation <ul><li>Mimicry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When one species “imitates” or “mimics” another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batesian mimicry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When one edible or harmless species mimics an bad-tasting (unpalatable) or harmful species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: hawkmoth mimics a snake </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Animal Defenses Against Predation <ul><li>Mimicry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mullerian mimicry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two species, both of which are unpalatable (taste bad) or harmful, resemble each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: monarch butterfly (unpalatable) and queen butterfly (unpalatable) resemble each other </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Parasitism <ul><li>One organism (the parasite) gets its nourishment from another organism (the host), which is harmed in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Endoparasites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live within host tissues (tapeworms) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ectoparasites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed on external surfaces (mosquitoes) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Interspecific Competition <ul><li>Competition between organisms of different species </li></ul><ul><li>The Competitive Exclusion Principle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two species with similar needs for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Ecological Niches <ul><li>An organism’s niche is the specific role it plays in its environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of its uses of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: oak tree in a deciduous forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides oxygen to plants, animals, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home for squirrels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nesting ground for blue jays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes water out of the soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc., etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Commensalism <ul><li>(+0) relationship </li></ul><ul><li>One partner benefits, the other is not affected </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle and cattle egret (birds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea anemone and clownfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clownfish gets a place to live, sea anemone is not affected </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Mutualism <ul><li>(++) relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Both partners benefit from the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>“ You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycorrhizae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant gets increased water/nutrition, fungi gets food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hummingbirds & flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hummingbirds get food, flowers can reproduce </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Dominant & Keystone Species <ul><li>Dominant Species: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species in a community that have the highest abundance or highest biomass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar maple in eastern North America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keystone Species: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to a community because of their ecological roles (niches), not by numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea otters control sea urchin population, which controls kelp population </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Ecological Succession <ul><li>Ecological succession is a change in the species that live in a given area over a period of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One community replaces another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary succession = occurs in places where soil is not yet formed </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary succession = occurs in places where there is soil, but where some disturbance has eliminated the previous community </li></ul>
  19. 20. Ecological Succession
  20. 21. Ecological Succession <ul><li>The first organisms to inhabit an area undergoing succession are known as pioneer organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are usually small organisms (bacteria, lichens, algae, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ecosystem goes through a number of stages, with each new stage usually consisting of larger organisms than the last one </li></ul><ul><li>Once a community has become stable and is not changing much, it is known as a climax community </li></ul>
  21. 22. Causes of Ecological Succession <ul><li>There are 3 major causes of ecological succession: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- logging, mining, development, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Disasters/Disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- fires, volcanic eruptions, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 . Natural Competition Among Species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Fictitious example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- turtles and frogs both eat crickets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- frogs are faster, turtles are slower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- frogs eat more crickets, turtles starve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- turtle population dies out, frog population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> gets bigger </li></ul></ul>

×