E-Learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Communication<br />Researching “Online Intercultural Foreign Langu...
Outline<br />Introduction<br />Aims of presentation<br />Thesis - some background information<br />The thesis, so far & up...
Aims of today’s presentation<br />Overview of thesis progress<br />Insight into some of the case studies included<br />Foc...
The Thesis – Some Background information <br />4<br />
Thesis: “E-Learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” – in a nutshell<br />Where it’s coming from:<br...
Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” – in a nutshell<br />Where it’s going to:<br />...
Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” - Outline<br />Research questions and research ...
Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” - Outline<br />Research questions and research ...
Research design plan & current stages<br />9<br />“HSP” & “Yale”<br />“icEurope”<br />
Ch.1 - Research questions and research methodology <br /><ul><li> general research questions: </li></ul>Potential of e-lea...
theories of CALL & intercultural learning
qualitative approach
 action research & change orientation
grounded theory
(ethnomethodology/ CA (talk-in-interaction  cultures-in-interaction))
CMC – CMD /CMID(‘computer-mediated intercultural discourse’)</li></ul>10<br />
The E-Learning Scenarios: The 3 Case Studies Involved<br />11<br />
12<br />Ch. 4, 5, 6: The Case Studies – 3 E-Learning Scenarios<br />
13<br />Ch. 5 Transatlantic language and culture learning - a bilateral high school collaboration [Yale study]<br />Underl...
 Concept of (bilateral) web collaboration / online exchange
Byram/ INCA for intercultural communicative competence</li></ul>CASE STUDY FACTS<br />US-German web collaboration<br />Oct...
“Intercultural Meeting Place” – Course & activity design<br />Activity Design:<br />Phases & progression within course:<br...
The main course: “Intercultural Meeting Place” (ICM)<br />15<br />
Yale study – activities & tasks<br />16<br />
Yale study – activities & tasks cont’d<br />17<br />
Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study 	I) Data collection<br />18<br />a) Performance data<br />mainly asynchronous data from fo...
Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study 	II) Data sighting & analysis<br />19<br />“Can a course like the ‘Yale’ course foster cro...
Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study 	II) Data sighting & analysis cont’d<br />Initial data analysis plan (before case study): ...
generalizability for CMID?</li></ul>CMD-perspective, i.e. the particular shapes and forms discourse and conversation take ...
CMIDA as main approach[Computer-Mediated Intercultural communication Discourse Analysis]<br />21<br />CMD [computer-mediat...
CMID approach to Yale case study<br />22<br />(CMD based on Susan Herring & expanded)<br />
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Computer-mediated intercultural discourse - methodological approaches

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Presentation given at the "Applied English Linguistics" Colloquium, University of Tübingen on my approach to CMID - "Computer-mediated intercultural discourse" within my larger PhD thesis frame

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Computer-mediated intercultural discourse - methodological approaches

  1. 1. E-Learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Communication<br />Researching “Online Intercultural Foreign Language Communication” or CMID<br />University of Tübingen<br />Applied English Linguistics Colloquium<br />Claudia Warth<br />claudia.warth@uni-tuebingen.de<br />www.ael.uni-tuebingen.de<br />16.07.2009<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Introduction<br />Aims of presentation<br />Thesis - some background information<br />The thesis, so far & upcoming<br />Its questions & aims<br />Approaches & contents<br />The 3 case studies included<br />An overview<br />“High School Project” case study: self-study exchange preparation<br />“Yale” case study: bilateral intercultural exchange<br />“icEurope” case study: multilateral ELF web collaboration<br />The “Yale” case study – methodology and data analysis<br />The study: aims & approaches<br />Methodology & data analysis: CMIDA-approach<br />Exemplary sets of data<br />Your turn, feedback & input <br />2<br />
  3. 3. Aims of today’s presentation<br />Overview of thesis progress<br />Insight into some of the case studies included<br />Focus on: methodological aspects & how to handle data<br />general methodological approaches to analyzing CMC & CMID<br />part of triangulation process ( investigator triangulation)<br />looking at some data together & your input and feedback<br />3<br />
  4. 4. The Thesis – Some Background information <br />4<br />
  5. 5. Thesis: “E-Learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” – in a nutshell<br />Where it’s coming from:<br />High (empirically evident) potential of e-learning for foreign language learning<br />Assumption: e-learning to facilitate intercultural communication & learning<br />But: little research into this potential or actual outcomes of intercultural online exchanges / web collaboration (mainly tertiary level) <br />Methodological approaches unclear<br />Little insight so far into course & activity set-up<br />Little insight into teacher’s role<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” – in a nutshell<br />Where it’s going to:<br />General research questions: <br />What is the learning and teaching potential of e-learning for acquiring intercultural foreign language competences (2ndary level)? [ Learning / Potential]<br />How can this potential be ‘extracted’, i.e. become accessible, analyzed, and evaluated? [ Methodology]<br />How do courses & activities (i.e. e-learning scenarios) have to be designed to facilitate this type of learning? [ Discussion & Design action plan]<br />What is the role of the teacher within a given scenario / approach? [ Teaching action plan]<br /> To be illustrated and discussed on the basis of 3 different e-learning approaches (scenarios) to intercultural FLL<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” - Outline<br />Research questions and research methodology <br />Intercultural competence, communication and foreign language learning<br />Web-based communication and learning across cultures<br />Catching two birds with one stone - Preparing for a high school year abroad [HSP]<br />Transatlantic language and culture learning - a bilateral high school collaboration [Yale]<br />European integration - Multilateral web collaboration via ELF [icEurope]<br />Conclusion and suggestions for future research<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” - Outline<br />Research questions and research methodology <br />Intercultural competence, communication and foreign language learning<br />Web-based communication and learning across cultures<br />Catching two birds with one stone - Preparing for a high school year abroad [HSP]<br />Transatlantic language and culture learning - a bilateral high school collaboration [Yale]<br />European integration - Multilateral web collaboration via ELF [icEurope]<br />Conclusion and suggestions for future research<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Research design plan & current stages<br />9<br />“HSP” & “Yale”<br />“icEurope”<br />
  10. 10. Ch.1 - Research questions and research methodology <br /><ul><li> general research questions: </li></ul>Potential of e-learning for acquiring intercultural foreign language competences [Learning / Potential]<br />Access to & analysis and evaluation of FL intercultural online learning & CMID [Methodology]<br />E-learning scenario design [Discussion & Design action plan]<br />Teacher’s roles [Teaching action plan]<br />On the theory & methodology menu: Research approaches<br /><ul><li> social constructionism & constructivism
  11. 11. theories of CALL & intercultural learning
  12. 12. qualitative approach
  13. 13. action research & change orientation
  14. 14. grounded theory
  15. 15. (ethnomethodology/ CA (talk-in-interaction  cultures-in-interaction))
  16. 16. CMC – CMD /CMID(‘computer-mediated intercultural discourse’)</li></ul>10<br />
  17. 17. The E-Learning Scenarios: The 3 Case Studies Involved<br />11<br />
  18. 18. 12<br />Ch. 4, 5, 6: The Case Studies – 3 E-Learning Scenarios<br />
  19. 19. 13<br />Ch. 5 Transatlantic language and culture learning - a bilateral high school collaboration [Yale study]<br />Underlying theoretical framework & approaches<br /><ul><li> Constructivist learning online
  20. 20. Concept of (bilateral) web collaboration / online exchange
  21. 21. Byram/ INCA for intercultural communicative competence</li></ul>CASE STUDY FACTS<br />US-German web collaboration<br />Oct. ´07 – Feb. ´08<br />~ 40 students<br />US: German class (3rd year) PA, USA <br />DE: English class, 11th grade, Gymnasium<br />German teacher with Moodle experience, US teacher without<br />5 Moodle courses<br />http://www.spracheundkultur.com/elearning<br />
  22. 22. “Intercultural Meeting Place” – Course & activity design<br />Activity Design:<br />Phases & progression within course:<br />General Introduction <br />From own to other cultures & comparison – sensitizing<br />Towards intercultural awareness – understanding & reflection<br />Intercultural thinking & application – relativization & transfer<br />“Debriefing”<br />course progression<br />tool<br />intercultural learning <br />aims<br />language learning <br />aims<br />14<br />
  23. 23. The main course: “Intercultural Meeting Place” (ICM)<br />15<br />
  24. 24. Yale study – activities & tasks<br />16<br />
  25. 25. Yale study – activities & tasks cont’d<br />17<br />
  26. 26. Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study I) Data collection<br />18<br />a) Performance data<br />mainly asynchronous data from forums and wikis; very little chat data; reflective data from journals. <br /> <br />CMC-data, i.e. data gained through participants’ contributions in Moodle (students and teachers): <br />Forums<br />Messages (Moodle messenger / Mail)<br />Wikis<br />Chats <br /> Moodle glossary (students)<br />‘ePorfolio’ (students)<br />Reflective Moodle journals (students and teachers)<br />b) Secondary data<br />Self-assessment (students, before start of project)<br />Questionnaires (pre-, while-, post) (students and teachers)<br />Forum “What we’ve learned so far” (students)<br />Interviews (post) (some US students via Skype, teachers)<br />Personal communication (with teachers in person or via email)<br />Moodle history and statistics data<br />
  27. 27. Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study II) Data sighting & analysis<br />19<br />“Can a course like the ‘Yale’ course foster cross-cultural understanding & language awareness needed for intercultural communication?”<br />Yes – no ?!? How? What needs to be changed or how can it be supported?:<br />How is ‘culture’ / ‘intercultural understanding’ communicated by the students, in relation to the task? [ Learning / Potential]<br />In which ways do students do so? [ Methodology]<br />How does the assumed potential compare to the actual language and culture outcomes for a given task? [ Discussion]<br />Which implications and conclusions can be drawn for setting up and teaching in an intercultural FL e-learning scenario? [ Design & Teaching action plans]<br />
  28. 28. Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study II) Data sighting & analysis cont’d<br />Initial data analysis plan (before case study): analysis of ‘intercultural online discourse’ & esp. underlying moves and strategies<br />Refined data analysis plan (after):<br />assumed aims & learning potential of task<br />actual ‘languaging’<br />actual ‘culturing’<br />implications and conclusions for future activities & teaching?<br />20<br /><ul><li> underlying strategies & moves (CMID)?
  29. 29. generalizability for CMID?</li></ul>CMD-perspective, i.e. the particular shapes and forms discourse and conversation take in an online environment<br />CMID-perspective<br />CMD in intercultural setting<br />Language used for intercultural communication purposes there<br />“Culture communicated” (cultures-in-interaction)<br />
  30. 30. CMIDA as main approach[Computer-Mediated Intercultural communication Discourse Analysis]<br />21<br />CMD [computer-mediated communication]<br />“Computer-mediated discourse is the communication produced when human beings interact with one another by transmitting messages via networked computers. The study of computer-mediated discourse (henceforth CMD) is a specialization within the broader interdisciplinary study of computer-mediated communication (CMC), distinguished by its focus on language and language use in computer networked environments, and by its use of methods of discourse analysis to address that focus.” (Herring 2003: 612; my highlights)<br />CMID [computer-mediated intercultural communication]<br /><ul><li> Communication produced by humans in an intercultural online environment; the focus is on investigating the language used to communicate the ‘cultural’ and ‘intercultural’ [‘culturing’] or to create a ‘third space’ within a CMC-setting with the help of discourse analysis. </li></ul>(own working definition)<br />
  31. 31. CMID approach to Yale case study<br />22<br />(CMD based on Susan Herring & expanded)<br />
  32. 32. Tackling the data – research cycle<br />23<br />1st data sighting:<br /><ul><li> Topics & contents in posts?
  33. 33. How did students talk about them?</li></ul>2nd data sighting:<br /><ul><li>Discourse features (e.g. interaction management, ‘turn taking’, topic initiation)
  34. 34. Strategies and moves
  35. 35. Pragmatic aspects </li></ul>(pragmatics in general, Long and others in particular)<br /><ul><li>Discourse behavior (Herring)
  36. 36. Content analysis & categorizing topics / contents
  37. 37. Aspects of ‘multimodality’
  38. 38. Highlighting ‘problem zones’ & ‘teaching potential’</li></ul>3rd data sighting:<br /><ul><li> Comparison to assumed cultural / intercultural contents of task
  39. 39. Comparison to journal entries & 2ndary data
  40. 40. Conclusions & implications for learning, teaching & activities </li></li></ul><li>Applying CMIDA to the Yale case study – some starters: “Map it!” activity<br />24<br />
  41. 41. “Map it!” – Making sense of the data ?!?  <br />25<br />[Learning/Potential] [Methodology]<br /><ul><li>Meaning
  42. 42. Interaction
  43. 43. Meaning
  44. 44. Interaction
  45. 45. Meaning
  46. 46. Interaction
  47. 47. Meaning
  48. 48. Interaction
  49. 49. Solidarity
  50. 50. Meaning</li></li></ul><li>26<br />[Learning/Potential] [Methodology]<br /><ul><li>Meaning
  51. 51. Interaction
  52. 52. Meaning
  53. 53. (Interaction)
  54. 54. Meaning
  55. 55. Interaction
  56. 56. Structure
  57. 57. Meaning
  58. 58. Interaction
  59. 59. Structure
  60. 60. Social behavior
  61. 61. Meaning
  62. 62. Interaction
  63. 63. Structure
  64. 64. Social behavior
  65. 65. Meaning
  66. 66. Interaction
  67. 67. Social behavior
  68. 68. (Interaction)
  69. 69. Social behavior</li></li></ul><li>27<br />[Learning/Potential] [Methodology]<br /><ul><li>Meaning
  70. 70. Interaction
  71. 71. Meaning
  72. 72. Interaction
  73. 73. Structure
  74. 74. Soc. beh.
  75. 75. Meaning
  76. 76. Interaction
  77. 77. Structure
  78. 78. Soc. beh.</li></li></ul><li>28<br />[Learning/Potential] [Methodology]<br /><ul><li>Meaning
  79. 79. Meaning
  80. 80. Meaning
  81. 81. (Structure)
  82. 82. Social beh.</li></li></ul><li>Your turn  <br />29<br />For your data samples:<br />What would you consider ‘data’ in your samples?<br />How would you categorize the data given?<br />How would you consider ‘linguistic’ and ‘cultural elements’ (content)?<br />How would you relate them to each other?<br />Which other aspects strike you?<br />Which problems do you see in your data sets (regarding contents, communication as well as methodological approaches)?<br />How to deal with them?<br />
  83. 83. Your feedback, your thoughts, your comments!Thank you very much  <br />30<br />
  84. 84. Bibliography (select)<br />31<br />Herring, S. (1999). InteractionalCoherence in CMC. In: JCMC 4 (4) June: jcmc.indiana.edu/vol4/issue4/herring.html (05/30/09)<br />Herring, S. (2003). Computer-Mediated Discourse. In: Schiffrin, D. et al. The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. 612f.<br />Long, M. H. (1983). Native speaker/non-native speaker conversation and the negotiation of comprehensible input. <br />

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