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NRTEE: Pierre Lundahl

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NRTEE: Pierre Lundahl

  1. 1. The Water-Energy Nexusin CanadaCanadian Water SummitNRTEE Session<br />Pierre Lundahl<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Water and Energy<br /><ul><li>Water and energy are two founding blocs of life on the earth
  3. 3. Water and energy are both essential inputs into productive and healthy human societies
  4. 4. Essential ecosystems services depend on water availability and quality and should be protected
  5. 5. Water supply and energy in usable forms like electricity and gasoline are all derived from natural resources</li></ul>2<br />
  6. 6. Using Water Requires Energy-Producing Energy Requires Water<br />Most uses of water in our societies require energy : water has to be pumped, treated, pressurized transported, cleaned, etc. <br />Nearly all energy production requires water<br />3<br />
  7. 7. Producing Energy Requires Water :Examples<br /><ul><li>Water used in fossil fuel extraction and treatment facilities
  8. 8. Water used as a cooling medium in fossil fuel or nuclear electricity generation
  9. 9. Water used in air treatment systems in some fossil-fuel electricity generation
  10. 10. Water used in the production of biofuels (irrigation)
  11. 11. Hydroelectricity
  12. 12. In Canada, electricity generation is a large water user, but it is mostly non-consumptive use of water. Hydropower, for example, returns 100% of the water used to the rivers</li></ul>4<br />
  13. 13. Water as a Renewable “Fuel”<br />Hydropower represents 60 % of the electricity generated in Canada and there is still a large potential that can be developed<br />Hydroelectric reservoirs allow the storage of energy. Since electricity demand is subject to hourly, daily and seasonal changes, the storage capacity allows production to be adjusted to demand<br />The storage capacity of reservoirs also can also facilitate the development of intermittent renewable sources of electricity like wind <br />Hydropower has no air pollutants emissions and practically no GHG emissions<br />5<br />
  14. 14. An Evolving Context (1)<br /><ul><li>Canada has lots of freshwater and long coastlines, as well as large energy resources for which there is strong internal and external demand, but :
  15. 15. Our population and our economy are growing driving a growth in energy demand
  16. 16. Our population and the majority of our industries are in the southern part of the country
  17. 17. Many of our water resources are in the North
  18. 18. Water scarcity is already felt in some regions
  19. 19. Climate change will modify precipitation patterns but accurate forecast at are still not possible at the regional level; in some of the regions that produce hydropower, precipitation is foreseen to increase, increasing potential electricity production
  20. 20. Increased competition for water resources is likely even with improved water use practices in homes and industries </li></ul>6<br />
  21. 21. An Evolving Context (2)<br /><ul><li>Even in the most optimistic scenarios, improvements in energy efficiency will only slow the growth of the demand for electricity in Canada, not reverse it
  22. 22. Part of the electricity generation fleet is nearing the end of its lifespan and must be replaced
  23. 23. Reducing GHG emissions will require modifying the energy mix and increasing the share of non-emitting energy, particularly non-emitting electricity
  24. 24. Potentially, a switch to electrical cars (or rechargeable hybrids) driven by the need to reduce GHG, can result in increased demand for electricity
  25. 25. North American demand for oil and natural gas will remain strong, due in part to the US need to reduce its dependence on sources that are subject to geopolitical risk</li></ul>7<br />
  26. 26. Water and Energy : the Sustainable Development Challenge<br />To move successfully towards a more sustainable economy, while continuing to be competitive, Canada needs to :<br /><ul><li>Ensure that electricity and other forms of energy remains available at a competitive price while reducing GHG emissions; This will require large investments in new clean generation
  27. 27. Ensure that water scarcity does not slow down economic growth in certain parts of the country;
  28. 28. Protect its ecosystems </li></ul>8<br />
  29. 29. The Water-Energy Nexus : How to Respond to the Challenge (1) <br /><ul><li>Improve integration between water management planning/policies, energy planning/policies and climate change policies at the regional level and Canadian level
  30. 30. Put in place policies that favour the development of renewable and non-emitting sources of electricity and energy
  31. 31. Improve the regulatory framework for the review and authorization of energy projects while maintaining environmental protection safeguards</li></ul>9<br />
  32. 32. The Water-Energy Nexus : How to Respond to the Challenge (2)<br />Improving the federal regulatory framework is essential to create a climate favourable to the development of large scale renewable power projects, particularly hydropower projects. This can be done with no negative impact on the environmental performance of projects.<br />These projects can bring a large contribution to the reduction of GHG and air pollutants and contribute to reducing the diffuse impacts of these emissions on our water resources.<br />10<br />